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Bone Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529816/sclerostin-activity-plays-a-key-role-in-the-negative-effect-of-glucocorticoid-signaling-on-osteoblast-function-in-mice
#1
Eric E Beier, Tzong-Jen Sheu, Emily A Resseguie, Masahiko Takahata, Hani A Awad, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, J Edward Puzas
Stress during prenatal development is correlated with detrimental cognitive and behavioral outcomes in offspring. However, the long-term impact of prenatal stress (PS) and disrupted glucocorticoid signaling on bone mass and strength is not understood. In contrast, the detrimental effect of lead (Pb) on skeletal health is well documented. As stress and Pb act on common biological targets via glucocorticoid signaling pathways and co-occur in the environment, this study first sought to assess the combined effect of stress and Pb on bone quality in association with alterations in glucocorticoid signaling...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503340/administration-frequency-as-well-as-dosage-of-pth-are-associated-with-development-of-cortical-porosity-in-ovariectomized-rats
#2
Aya Takakura, Ji-Won Lee, Kyoko Hirano, Yukihiro Isogai, Toshinori Ishizuya, Ryoko Takao-Kawabata, Tadahiro Iimura
To investigate whether the administration frequency of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is associated with the development of cortical porosity, this study established 15 dosage regimens of teriparatide [human PTH(1-34), TPTD] with four distinct concentrations and four distinct administration frequencies of TPTD to 16-week-old ovariectomized rats. Our analyses demonstrated that the bone mineral density, mechanical properties, and bone turnover were associated with the total amount of TPTD administered. Our observations further revealed that the cortical porosity was markedly developed as a result of an increased administration frequency with a lower concentration of total TPTD administration in our setting, although the highest concentration also induced cortical porosity...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465862/erratum-role-and-mechanism-of-action-of-leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-1-in-bone
#3
Weirong Xing, Helen Goodluck, Canjun Zeng, Subburaman Mohan
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/boneres.2017.3.].
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392965/mechanosignaling-activation-of-tgf%C3%AE-maintains-intervertebral-disc-homeostasis
#4
Qin Bian, Lei Ma, Amit Jain, Janet L Crane, Khaled Kebaish, Mei Wan, Zhengdong Zhang, X Edward Guo, Paul D Sponseller, Cheryle A Séguin, Lee H Riley, Yongjun Wang, Xu Cao
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is the leading cause of disability with no disease-modifying treatment. IVD degeneration is associated with instable mechanical loading in the spine, but little is known about how mechanical stress regulates nucleus notochordal (NC) cells to maintain IVD homeostasis. Here we report that mechanical stress can result in excessive integrin αvβ6-mediated activation of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), decreased NC cell vacuoles, and increased matrix proteoglycan production, and results in degenerative disc disease (DDD)...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326224/role-and-mechanism-of-action-of-leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-1-in-bone
#5
REVIEW
Weirong R Xing, Helen Goodluck, Canjun Zeng, Subburaman Mohan
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 1 (LRRK1) plays a critical role in regulating cytoskeletal organization, osteoclast activity, and bone resorption with little effect on bone formation parameters. Deficiency of Lrrk1 in mice causes a severe osteopetrosis in the metaphysis of the long bones and vertebrae bones, which makes LRRK1 an attractive alternative drug target for the treatment of osteoporosis and other high-turnover bone diseases. This review summarizes recent advances on the functions of the Lrrk1-related family members, Lrrk1 deficiency-induced skeletal phenotypes, LRRK1 structure-function, potential biological substrates and interacting proteins, and the mechanisms of LRRK1 action in osteoclasts...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326223/clinical-cellular-microscopic-and-ultrastructural-studies-of-a-case-of-fibrogenesis-imperfecta-ossium
#6
Melissa L Barron, Mark S Rybchyn, Sutharshani Ramesh, Rebecca S Mason, S Fiona Bonar, Paul Stalley, Sundeep Khosla, Bernie Hudson, Christopher Arthur, Edward Kim, Roderick J Clifton-Bligh, Phillip B Clifton-Bligh
Fibrogenesis imperfecta ossium is a rare disorder of bone usually characterized by marked osteopenia and associated with variable osteoporosis and osteosclerosis, changing over time. Histological examination shows that newly formed collagen is abnormal, lacking birefringence when examined by polarized light. The case presented demonstrates these features and, in addition, a previously undocumented finding of a persistent marked reduction of the serum C3 and C4. Osteoblasts established in culture from a bone biopsy showed abnormal morphology on electron microscopy and increased proliferation when cultured with benzoylbenzoyl-ATP and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, contrasting with findings in normal osteoblasts in culture...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163952/unintended-targeting-of-dmp1-cre-reveals-a-critical-role-for-bmpr1a-signaling-in-the-gastrointestinal-mesenchyme-of-adult-mice
#7
Joohyun Lim, Joseph Burclaff, Guangxu He, Jason C Mills, Fanxin Long
Cre/loxP technology has been widely used to study cell type-specific functions of genes. Proper interpretation of such data critically depends on a clear understanding of the tissue specificity of Cre expression. The Dmp1-Cre mouse, expressing Cre from a 14-kb DNA fragment of the mouse Dmp1 gene, has become a common tool for studying gene function in osteocytes, but the presumed cell specificity is yet to be fully established. By using the Ai9 reporter line that expresses a red fluorescent protein upon Cre recombination, we find that in 2-month-old mice, Dmp1-Cre targets not only osteocytes within the bone matrix but also osteoblasts on the bone surface and preosteoblasts at the metaphyseal chondro-osseous junction...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149655/osteoarthritis-toward-a-comprehensive-understanding-of-pathological-mechanism
#8
REVIEW
Di Chen, Jie Shen, Weiwei Zhao, Tingyu Wang, Lin Han, John L Hamilton, Hee-Jeong Im
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative joint disease and a major cause of pain and disability in adult individuals. The etiology of OA includes joint injury, obesity, aging, and heredity. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of OA initiation and progression remain poorly understood and, currently, there are no interventions available to restore degraded cartilage or decelerate disease progression. The diathrodial joint is a complicated organ and its function is to bear weight, perform physical activity and exhibit a joint-specific range of motion during movement...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058134/lysine-specific-demethylase-1-inhibitor-rescues-the-osteogenic-ability-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-under-osteoporotic-conditions-by-modulating-h3k4-methylation
#9
Longwei Lv, Wenshu Ge, Yunsong Liu, Guanyou Lai, Hao Liu, Wenyue Li, Yongsheng Zhou
Bone tissue engineering may be hindered by underlying osteoporosis because of a decreased osteogenic ability of autologous seed cells and an unfavorably changed microenvironment in these patients. Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the developmental origins of osteoporosis; however, few studies have investigated the potential of epigenetic therapy to improve or rescue the osteogenic ability of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) under osteoporotic conditions. Here, we investigated pargyline, an inhibitor of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), which mainly catalyzes the demethylation of the di- and mono-methylation of H3K4...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018707/recent-advances-in-nano-scaffolds-for-bone-repair
#10
REVIEW
Huan Yi, Fawad Ur Rehman, Chunqiu Zhao, Bin Liu, Nongyue He
Biomedical applications of nanomaterials are exponentially increasing every year due to analogy to various cell receptors, ligands, structural proteins, and genetic materials (that is, DNA). In bone tissue, nanoscale materials can provide scaffold for excellent tissue repair via mechanical stimulation, releasing of various loaded drugs and mediators, 3D scaffold for cell growth and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells to osteocytes. This review will therefore highlight recent advancements on tissue and nanoscale materials interaction...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018706/application-of-platelet-rich-plasma-with-stem-cells-in-bone-and-periodontal-tissue-engineering
#11
REVIEW
Gabriela Fernandes, Shuying Yang
Presently, there is a high paucity of bone grafts in the United States and worldwide. Regenerating bone is of prime concern due to the current demand of bone grafts and the increasing number of diseases causing bone loss. Autogenous bone is the present gold standard of bone regeneration. However, disadvantages like donor site morbidity and its decreased availability limit its use. Even allografts and synthetic grafting materials have their own limitations. As certain specific stem cells can be directed to differentiate into an osteoblastic lineage in the presence of growth factors (GFs), it makes stem cells the ideal agents for bone regeneration...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990310/enhanced-but-hypofunctional-osteoclastogenesis-in-an-autosomal-dominant-osteopetrosis-type-ii-case-carrying-a-c-1856c-t-mutation-in-clcn7
#12
Xiang Chen, Kun Zhang, Janet Hock, Chunyu Wang, Xijie Yu
Type II autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (ADO2), which is the most common form of osteopetrosis, is caused by heterozygous mutations in the chloride channel 7 (CLCN7) gene. The osteopetrosis of ADO2 has been attributed to hypofunctional osteoclasts. The mechanism underlying the abnormality in osteoclast function remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate gene mutations and osteoclast function in a case that was clinically diagnosed as ADO2. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of this patient, and the 25 exons of CLCN7 were amplified...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867679/identification-of-two-novel-mutations-in-the-galnt3-gene-in-a-chinese-family-with-hyperphosphatemic-familial-tumoral-calcinosis
#13
Lihao Sun, Lin Zhao, Lianjun Du, Peipei Zhang, Minjia Zhang, Min Li, Tingting Liu, Lei Ye, Bei Tao, Hongyan Zhao, Jianmin Liu, Xiaoyi Ding
Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC) is a rare, autosomal recessive genetic disease. This disease is characterized by the progressive calcification of soft tissues leading to symptoms of pressure and hyperphosphatemia but normal concentrations of serum calcium with or without an elevation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels.HFTC is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the GALNT3, FGF23 or KL genes. Here, we identified two novel mutations in the GALNT3 gene in a Chinese family with HFTC. Identification of a novel genotype in HFTC provides clues for understanding the phenotype-genotype relationships in HFTC and may assist not only in the clinical diagnosis of HFTC but also in the interpretation of the genetic information used for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790378/vitamin-d-calcium-homeostasis-and-aging
#14
REVIEW
Vaishali Veldurthy, Ran Wei, Leyla Oz, Puneet Dhawan, Yong Heui Jeon, Sylvia Christakos
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitecture deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and consequent increase in fracture risk. Evidence is accumulating for an important role of calcium deficiency as the process of aging is associated with disturbed calcium balance. Vitamin D is the principal factor that maintains calcium homeostasis. Increasing evidence indicates that the reason for disturbed calcium balance with age is inadequate vitamin D levels in the elderly...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785372/dna-n-6-methyladenine-demethylase-alkbh1-enhances-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-mscs
#15
Chenchen Zhou, Yuting Liu, Xiaobing Li, Jing Zou, Shujuan Zou
ALKBH1 was recently discovered as a demethylase for DNA N(6)-methyladenine (N6-mA), a new epigenetic modification, and interacts with the core transcriptional pluripotency network of embryonic stem cells. However, the role of ALKBH1 and DNA N6-mA in regulating osteogenic differentiation is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of ALKBH1 in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was upregulated during osteogenic induction. Knockdown of ALKBH1 increased the genomic DNA N6-mA levels and significantly reduced the expression of osteogenic-related genes, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785371/vitamin-d-receptor-expression-in-human-bone-tissue-and-dose-dependent-activation-in-resorbing-osteoclasts
#16
Allahdad Zarei, Alireza Morovat, Kassim Javaid, Cameron P Brown
The effects of vitamin D on osteoblast mineralization are well documented. Reports of the effects of vitamin D on osteoclasts, however, are conflicting, showing both inhibition and stimulation. Finding that resorbing osteoclasts in human bone express vitamin D receptor (VDR), we examined their response to different concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] (100 or 500 nmol·L(-1)) and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] (0.1 or 0.5 nmol·L(-1)) metabolites in cell cultures. Specifically, CD14+ monocytes were cultured in charcoal-stripped serum in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722020/a-multiscale-3d-finite-element-analysis-of-fluid-solute-transport-in-mechanically-loaded-bone
#17
Lixia Fan, Shaopeng Pei, X Lucas Lu, Liyun Wang
The transport of fluid, nutrients, and signaling molecules in the bone lacunar-canalicular system (LCS) is critical for osteocyte survival and function. We have applied the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) approach to quantify load-induced fluid and solute transport in the LCS in situ, but the measurements were limited to cortical regions 30-50 μm underneath the periosteum due to the constrains of laser penetration. With this work, we aimed to expand our understanding of load-induced fluid and solute transport in both trabecular and cortical bone using a multiscaled image-based finite element analysis (FEA) approach...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703838/erratum-pit-and-trench-forming-osteoclasts-a-distinction-that-matters
#18
Ditte Mh Merrild, Dinisha C Pirapaharan, Christina M Andreasen, Per Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Anaïs Mj Møller, Ming Ding, Jean-Marie Delaissé, Kent Søe
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/boneres.2015.32.].
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672480/bone-cartilage-crosstalk-a-conversation-for-understanding-osteoarthritis
#19
REVIEW
David M Findlay, Julia S Kuliwaba
Although cartilage degradation is the characteristic feature of osteoarthritis (OA), it is now recognized that the whole joint is involved in the progression of OA. In particular, the interaction (crosstalk) between cartilage and subchondral bone is thought to be a central feature of this process. The interface between articular cartilage and bone of articulating long bones is a unique zone, which comprises articular cartilage, below which is the calcified cartilage sitting on and intercalated into the subchondral bone plate...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672479/cytocompatibility-with-osteogenic-cells-and-enhanced-in-vivo-anti-infection-potential-of-quaternized-chitosan-loaded-titania-nanotubes
#20
Ying Yang, Haiyong Ao, Yugang Wang, Wentao Lin, Shengbing Yang, Shuhong Zhang, Zhifeng Yu, Tingting Tang
Infection is one of the major causes of failure of orthopedic implants. Our previous study demonstrated that nanotube modification of the implant surface, together with nanotubes loaded with quaternized chitosan (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan, HACC), could effectively inhibit bacterial adherence and biofilm formation in vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further investigate the in vitro cytocompatibility with osteogenic cells and the in vivo anti-infection activity of titanium implants with HACC-loaded nanotubes (NT-H)...
2016: Bone Research
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