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Bone Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058134/lysine-specific-demethylase-1-inhibitor-rescues-the-osteogenic-ability-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-under-osteoporotic-conditions-by-modulating-h3k4-methylation
#1
Longwei Lv, Wenshu Ge, Yunsong Liu, Guanyou Lai, Hao Liu, Wenyue Li, Yongsheng Zhou
Bone tissue engineering may be hindered by underlying osteoporosis because of a decreased osteogenic ability of autologous seed cells and an unfavorably changed microenvironment in these patients. Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the developmental origins of osteoporosis; however, few studies have investigated the potential of epigenetic therapy to improve or rescue the osteogenic ability of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) under osteoporotic conditions. Here, we investigated pargyline, an inhibitor of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), which mainly catalyzes the demethylation of the di- and mono-methylation of H3K4...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018707/recent-advances-in-nano-scaffolds-for-bone-repair
#2
REVIEW
Huan Yi, Fawad Ur Rehman, Chunqiu Zhao, Bin Liu, Nongyue He
Biomedical applications of nanomaterials are exponentially increasing every year due to analogy to various cell receptors, ligands, structural proteins, and genetic materials (that is, DNA). In bone tissue, nanoscale materials can provide scaffold for excellent tissue repair via mechanical stimulation, releasing of various loaded drugs and mediators, 3D scaffold for cell growth and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells to osteocytes. This review will therefore highlight recent advancements on tissue and nanoscale materials interaction...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018706/application-of-platelet-rich-plasma-with-stem-cells-in-bone-and-periodontal-tissue-engineering
#3
REVIEW
Gabriela Fernandes, Shuying Yang
Presently, there is a high paucity of bone grafts in the United States and worldwide. Regenerating bone is of prime concern due to the current demand of bone grafts and the increasing number of diseases causing bone loss. Autogenous bone is the present gold standard of bone regeneration. However, disadvantages like donor site morbidity and its decreased availability limit its use. Even allografts and synthetic grafting materials have their own limitations. As certain specific stem cells can be directed to differentiate into an osteoblastic lineage in the presence of growth factors (GFs), it makes stem cells the ideal agents for bone regeneration...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990310/enhanced-but-hypofunctional-osteoclastogenesis-in-an-autosomal-dominant-osteopetrosis-type-ii-case-carrying-a-c-1856c-t-mutation-in-clcn7
#4
Xiang Chen, Kun Zhang, Janet Hock, Chunyu Wang, Xijie Yu
Type II autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (ADO2), which is the most common form of osteopetrosis, is caused by heterozygous mutations in the chloride channel 7 (CLCN7) gene. The osteopetrosis of ADO2 has been attributed to hypofunctional osteoclasts. The mechanism underlying the abnormality in osteoclast function remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate gene mutations and osteoclast function in a case that was clinically diagnosed as ADO2. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of this patient, and the 25 exons of CLCN7 were amplified...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867679/identification-of-two-novel-mutations-in-the-galnt3-gene-in-a-chinese-family-with-hyperphosphatemic-familial-tumoral-calcinosis
#5
Lihao Sun, Lin Zhao, Lianjun Du, Peipei Zhang, Minjia Zhang, Min Li, Tingting Liu, Lei Ye, Bei Tao, Hongyan Zhao, Jianmin Liu, Xiaoyi Ding
Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC) is a rare, autosomal recessive genetic disease. This disease is characterized by the progressive calcification of soft tissues leading to symptoms of pressure and hyperphosphatemia but normal concentrations of serum calcium with or without an elevation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels.HFTC is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the GALNT3, FGF23 or KL genes. Here, we identified two novel mutations in the GALNT3 gene in a Chinese family with HFTC. Identification of a novel genotype in HFTC provides clues for understanding the phenotype-genotype relationships in HFTC and may assist not only in the clinical diagnosis of HFTC but also in the interpretation of the genetic information used for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790378/vitamin-d-calcium-homeostasis-and-aging
#6
REVIEW
Vaishali Veldurthy, Ran Wei, Leyla Oz, Puneet Dhawan, Yong Heui Jeon, Sylvia Christakos
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitecture deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and consequent increase in fracture risk. Evidence is accumulating for an important role of calcium deficiency as the process of aging is associated with disturbed calcium balance. Vitamin D is the principal factor that maintains calcium homeostasis. Increasing evidence indicates that the reason for disturbed calcium balance with age is inadequate vitamin D levels in the elderly...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785372/dna-n-6-methyladenine-demethylase-alkbh1-enhances-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-mscs
#7
Chenchen Zhou, Yuting Liu, Xiaobing Li, Jing Zou, Shujuan Zou
ALKBH1 was recently discovered as a demethylase for DNA N(6)-methyladenine (N6-mA), a new epigenetic modification, and interacts with the core transcriptional pluripotency network of embryonic stem cells. However, the role of ALKBH1 and DNA N6-mA in regulating osteogenic differentiation is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of ALKBH1 in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was upregulated during osteogenic induction. Knockdown of ALKBH1 increased the genomic DNA N6-mA levels and significantly reduced the expression of osteogenic-related genes, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785371/vitamin-d-receptor-expression-in-human-bone-tissue-and-dose-dependent-activation-in-resorbing-osteoclasts
#8
Allahdad Zarei, Alireza Morovat, Kassim Javaid, Cameron P Brown
The effects of vitamin D on osteoblast mineralization are well documented. Reports of the effects of vitamin D on osteoclasts, however, are conflicting, showing both inhibition and stimulation. Finding that resorbing osteoclasts in human bone express vitamin D receptor (VDR), we examined their response to different concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] (100 or 500 nmol·L(-1)) and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] (0.1 or 0.5 nmol·L(-1)) metabolites in cell cultures. Specifically, CD14+ monocytes were cultured in charcoal-stripped serum in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722020/a-multiscale-3d-finite-element-analysis-of-fluid-solute-transport-in-mechanically-loaded-bone
#9
Lixia Fan, Shaopeng Pei, X Lucas Lu, Liyun Wang
The transport of fluid, nutrients, and signaling molecules in the bone lacunar-canalicular system (LCS) is critical for osteocyte survival and function. We have applied the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) approach to quantify load-induced fluid and solute transport in the LCS in situ, but the measurements were limited to cortical regions 30-50 μm underneath the periosteum due to the constrains of laser penetration. With this work, we aimed to expand our understanding of load-induced fluid and solute transport in both trabecular and cortical bone using a multiscaled image-based finite element analysis (FEA) approach...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703838/erratum-pit-and-trench-forming-osteoclasts-a-distinction-that-matters
#10
Ditte Mh Merrild, Dinisha C Pirapaharan, Christina M Andreasen, Per Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Anaïs Mj Møller, Ming Ding, Jean-Marie Delaissé, Kent Søe
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/boneres.2015.32.].
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672480/bone-cartilage-crosstalk-a-conversation-for-understanding-osteoarthritis
#11
REVIEW
David M Findlay, Julia S Kuliwaba
Although cartilage degradation is the characteristic feature of osteoarthritis (OA), it is now recognized that the whole joint is involved in the progression of OA. In particular, the interaction (crosstalk) between cartilage and subchondral bone is thought to be a central feature of this process. The interface between articular cartilage and bone of articulating long bones is a unique zone, which comprises articular cartilage, below which is the calcified cartilage sitting on and intercalated into the subchondral bone plate...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672479/cytocompatibility-with-osteogenic-cells-and-enhanced-in-vivo-anti-infection-potential-of-quaternized-chitosan-loaded-titania-nanotubes
#12
Ying Yang, Haiyong Ao, Yugang Wang, Wentao Lin, Shengbing Yang, Shuhong Zhang, Zhifeng Yu, Tingting Tang
Infection is one of the major causes of failure of orthopedic implants. Our previous study demonstrated that nanotube modification of the implant surface, together with nanotubes loaded with quaternized chitosan (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan, HACC), could effectively inhibit bacterial adherence and biofilm formation in vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further investigate the in vitro cytocompatibility with osteogenic cells and the in vivo anti-infection activity of titanium implants with HACC-loaded nanotubes (NT-H)...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635281/mice-with-a-heterozygous-lrp6-deletion-have-impaired-fracture-healing
#13
Travis A Burgers, Juan F Vivanco, Juraj Zahatnansky, Andrew J Vander Moren, James J Mason, Bart O Williams
Bone fracture non-unions, the failure of a fracture to heal, occur in 10%-20% of fractures and are a costly and debilitating clinical problem. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is critical in bone development and fracture healing. Polymorphisms of linking low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), a Wnt-binding receptor, have been associated with decreased bone mineral density and fragility fractures, although this remains controversial. Mice with a homozygous deletion of Lrp6 have severe skeletal abnormalities and are not viable, whereas mice with a heterozygous deletion have a combinatory effect with Lrp5 to decrease bone mineral density...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606130/mir-23a-b-regulates-the-balance-between-osteoblast-and-adipocyte-differentiation-in-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Qi Guo, Yusi Chen, Lijuan Guo, Tiejian Jiang, Zhangyuan Lin
Age-related osteoporosis is associated with the reduced capacity of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to differentiate into osteoblasts instead of adipocytes. However, the molecular mechanisms that decide the fate of BMSCs remain unclear. In our study, microRNA-23a, and microRNA-23b (miR-23a/b) were found to be markedly downregulated in BMSCs of aged mice and humans. The overexpression of miR-23a/b in BMSCs promoted osteogenic differentiation, whereas the inhibition of miR-23a/b increased adipogenic differentiation...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563484/tgf-%C3%AE-and-bmp-signaling-in-osteoblast-skeletal-development-and-bone-formation-homeostasis-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Mengrui Wu, Guiqian Chen, Yi-Ping Li
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling has fundamental roles in both embryonic skeletal development and postnatal bone homeostasis. TGF-βs and BMPs, acting on a tetrameric receptor complex, transduce signals to both the canonical Smad-dependent signaling pathway (that is, TGF-β/BMP ligands, receptors, and Smads) and the non-canonical-Smad-independent signaling pathway (that is, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/p38 MAPK) to regulate mesenchymal stem cell differentiation during skeletal development, bone formation and bone homeostasis...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547486/a-cost-effective-method-to-enhance-adenoviral-transduction-of-primary-murine-osteoblasts-and-bone-marrow-stromal-cells
#16
Atum M Buo, Mark S Williams, Jaclyn P Kerr, Joseph P Stains
We report here a method for the use of poly-l-lysine (PLL) to markedly improve the adenoviral transduction efficiency of primary murine osteoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in culture and in situ, which are typically difficult to transduce. We show by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry that the addition of PLL to the viral-containing medium significantly increases the number of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-positive osteoblasts and BMSCs transduced with an enhanced GFP-expressing adenovirus...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468360/a-review-of-uhmwpe-wear-induced-osteolysis-the-role-for-early-detection-of-the-immune-response
#17
REVIEW
Adrese M Kandahari, Xinlin Yang, Kevin A Laroche, Abhijit S Dighe, Dongfeng Pan, Quanjun Cui
In a world where increasing joint arthroplasties are being performed on increasingly younger patients, osteolysis as the leading cause of failure after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has gained considerable attention. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear-induced osteolysis is the process by which prosthetic debris mechanically released from the surface of prosthetic joints induces an immune response that favors bone catabolism, resulting in loosening of prostheses with eventual failure or fracture...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468359/the-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-activates-ectopic-production-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-in-tumor-induced-osteomalacia
#18
Qian Zhang, Michele Doucet, Ryan E Tomlinson, Xiaobin Han, L Darryl Quarles, Michael T Collins, Thomas L Clemens
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome in which ectopic production of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) by non-malignant mesenchymal tumors causes phosphate wasting and bone fractures. Recent studies have implicated the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in other phosphate wasting disorders caused by elevated FGF23, including X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and autosomal dominant hypophosphatemia. Here we provide evidence that HIF-1α mediates aberrant FGF23 in TIO by transcriptionally activating its promoter...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408766/clinical-and-genetic-findings-in-a-chinese-family-with-vdr-associated-hereditary-vitamin-d-resistant-rickets
#19
Qianqian Pang, Xuan Qi, Yan Jiang, Ou Wang, Mei Li, Xiaoping Xing, Jin Dong, Weibo Xia
Hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets (HVDRR) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe rickets, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and elevated alkaline phosphatase. This disorder is caused by homogeneous or heterogeneous mutations affecting the function of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which lead to complete or partial target organ resistance to the action of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A non-consanguineous family of Chinese Han origin with one affected individual demonstrating HVDRR was recruited, with the proband evaluated clinically, biochemically and radiographically...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408765/external-fixation-is-more-suitable-for-intra-articular-fractures-of-the-distal-radius-in-elderly-patients
#20
Chuang Ma, Qiang Deng, Hongwei Pu, Xinchun Cheng, Yuhua Kan, Jing Yang, Aihemaitijiang Yusufu, Li Cao
The purpose of this study was to compare the functional outcomes, psychological impact, and complication rates associated with external fixation and volar or dorsal plating in relation to the functional parameters following treatment of intra-articular fractures of the distal radius (IFDR) in patients older than 65 years. We hypothesized that using volar or dorsal plating would improve functional outcomes, but that it would be associated with more complications and equivalent functional outcomes when compared with the external fixation group...
2016: Bone Research
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