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Bone Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423331/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-in-stem-cells-and-tissue-homeostasis
#1
Xin Xu, Liwei Zheng, Quan Yuan, Gehua Zhen, Janet L Crane, Xuedong Zhou, Xu Cao
TGF-β 1-3 are unique multi-functional growth factors that are only expressed in mammals, and mainly secreted and stored as a latent complex in the extracellular matrix (ECM). The biological functions of TGF-β in adults can only be delivered after ligand activation, mostly in response to environmental perturbations. Although involved in multiple biological and pathological processes of the human body, the exact roles of TGF-β in maintaining stem cells and tissue homeostasis have not been well-documented until recent advances, which delineate their functions in a given context...
2018: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423330/mtor-signaling-in-skeletal-development-and-disease
#2
Jianquan Chen, Fanxin Long
The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that integrates inputs from nutrients and growth factors to control many fundamental cellular processes through two distinct protein complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2. Recent mouse genetic studies have established that mTOR pathways play important roles in regulating multiple aspects of skeletal development and homeostasis. In addition, mTORC1 has emerged as a common effector mediating the bone anabolic effect of Igf1, Wnt and Bmp...
2018: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354304/calcium-phosphate-cements-for-bone-engineering-and-their-biological-properties
#3
REVIEW
Hockin Hk Xu, Ping Wang, Lin Wang, Chongyun Bao, Qianming Chen, Michael D Weir, Laurence C Chow, Liang Zhao, Xuedong Zhou, Mark A Reynolds
Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are frequently used to repair bone defects. Since their discovery in the 1980s, extensive research has been conducted to improve their properties, and emerging evidence supports their increased application in bone tissue engineering. Much effort has been made to enhance the biological performance of CPCs, including their biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity, biodegradability, bioactivity, and interactions with cells. This review article focuses on the major recent developments in CPCs, including 3D printing, injectability, stem cell delivery, growth factor and drug delivery, and pre-vascularization of CPC scaffolds via co-culture and tri-culture techniques to enhance angiogenesis and osteogenesis...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285402/bone-biomaterials-and-interactions-with-stem-cells
#4
REVIEW
Chengde Gao, Shuping Peng, Pei Feng, Cijun Shuai
Bone biomaterials play a vital role in bone repair by providing the necessary substrate for cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation and by modulating cell activity and function. In past decades, extensive efforts have been devoted to developing bone biomaterials with a focus on the following issues: (1) developing ideal biomaterials with a combination of suitable biological and mechanical properties; (2) constructing a cell microenvironment with pores ranging in size from nanoscale to submicro- and microscale; and (3) inducing the oriented differentiation of stem cells for artificial-to-biological transformation...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285401/multifunctional-stimuli-responsive-polymer-gated-iron-and-gold-embedded-silica-nano-golf-balls-nanoshuttles-for-targeted-on-demand-theranostics
#5
Liping Wang, Grace Jang, Deependra Kumar Ban, Vrinda Sant, Jay Seth, Sami Kazmi, Nirav Patel, Qingqing Yang, Joon Lee, Woraphong Janetanakit, Shanshan Wang, Brian P Head, Gennadi Glinsky, Ratneshwar Lal
Multi-functional nanoshuttles for remotely targeted and on-demand delivery of therapeutic molecules and imaging to defined tissues and organs hold great potentials in personalized medicine, including precise early diagnosis, efficient prevention and therapy without toxicity. Yet, in spite of 25 years of research, there are still no such shuttles available. To this end, we have designed magnetic and gold nanoparticles (NP)-embedded silica nanoshuttles (MGNSs) with nanopores on their surface. Fluorescently labeled Doxorubicin (DOX), a cancer drug, was loaded in the MGNSs as a payload...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263938/angiogenesis-in-a-3d-model-containing-adipose-tissue-stem-cells-and-endothelial-cells-is-mediated-by-canonical-wnt-signaling
#6
Xiaoxiao Cai, Jing Xie, Yang Yao, Xiangzhu Cun, Shiyu Lin, Taoran Tian, Bofeng Zhu, Yunfeng Lin
Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) have gained great attention in regenerative medicine. Progress in our understanding of adult neovascularization further suggests the potential of ASCs in promoting vascular regeneration, although the specific cues that stimulate their angiogenic behavior remain controversial. In this study, we established a three-dimensional (3D) angiogenesis model by co-culturing ASCs and endothelial cells (ECs) in collagen gel and found that ASC-EC-instructed angiogenesis was regulated by the canonical Wnt pathway...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263937/experimental-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-induces-deficits-in-trabecular-bone-microarchitecture-and-strength-in-mice
#7
Chandrasekhar Kesavan, Nikita M Bajwa, Heather Watt, Subburaman Mohan
To evaluate the long-term consequence of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on bone, mTBI was induced in 10-week-old female C57BL/6J mice using a weight drop model, once per day for 4 consecutive days at different drop heights (0.5, 1 and 1.5 m) and the skeletal phenotype was evaluated at different time points after the impact. In vivo micro-CT (μ-CT) analysis of the tibial metaphysis at 2, 8 and 12 weeks after the impact revealed a 5%-32% reduction in trabecular bone mass. Histomorphometric analyses showed a reduced bone formation rate in the secondary spongiosa of 1...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263936/rankl-induced-m1-macrophages-are-involved-in-bone-formation
#8
Rong Huang, Xin Wang, Yinghong Zhou, Yin Xiao
The activation of M1 macrophages can be achieved by stimulating them with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). However, M1 can be found under physiological conditions without any pathological stimuli. This study aimed to understand the involvement of RANKL-induced M1 macrophages in bone formation compared with pathologically induced macrophages. Fischer rats were used to investigate macrophage distribution in normal and injured femoral condyles in vivo. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were activated with LPS+IFN-γ and RANKL to achieve M1 activation in vitro...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167750/dysregulation-of-the-mir-146a-smad4-axis-impairs-osteogenesis-of-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-under-inflammation
#9
Wei Kuang, Liwei Zheng, Xin Xu, Yao Lin, Jiong Lin, Jiahua Wu, Jiali Tan
Osteoporosis is a common disease that affects patient quality of life, especially among the elderly population. Although inflammation contributes significantly to osteoporosis, the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we found that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, an inflammatory environment mimic, inhibits osteogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), induces miR-146a and decreases Smad4. Moreover, overexpression of miR-146a inhibited the osteogenic ability of BMSCs, whereas blocking miR-146a partially rescued the osteogenesis deficiency under TNF-α treatment...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152381/selective-deletion-of-the-soluble-colony-stimulating-factor-1-isoform-in-vivo-prevents-estrogen-deficiency-bone-loss-in-mice
#10
Gang-Qing Yao, Nancy Troiano, Christine A Simpson, Karl L Insogna
Neutralizing CSF1 in vivo completely prevents ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in mice. There are two isoforms of CSF1, soluble (sCSF1), and membrane-bound (mCSF1), but their individual biological functions are unclear. It had been previously reported that mCSF1 knockout (K/O) and wild type (Wt) female mice experience the same degree of bone loss following OVX. In Wt mice the expression of sCSF1 was elevated fourfold in skeletal tissue following OVX while expression of mCSF1 was unchanged. To examine the role of sCSF1 in OVX-induced bone loss, mice were engineered in which sCSF1 was not expressed but expression of mCSF1 was unaffected (sCSF1 K/O)...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134132/abnormal-subchondral-bone-remodeling-and-its-association-with-articular-cartilage-degradation-in-knees-of-type-2-diabetes-patients
#11
Yan Chen, Yong-Can Huang, Chun Hoi Yan, Kwong Yuen Chiu, Qingjun Wei, Jingmin Zhao, X Edward Guo, Frankie Leung, William W Lu
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with systemic abnormal bone remodeling and bone loss. Meanwhile, abnormal subchondral bone remodeling induces cartilage degradation, resulting in osteoarthritis (OA). Accordingly, we investigated alterations in subchondral bone remodeling, microstructure and strength in knees from T2D patients and their association with cartilage degradation. Tibial plateaus were collected from knee OA patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and divided into non-diabetic (n=70) and diabetes (n=51) groups...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021920/vitamin-d-and-calcium-are-required-at-the-time-of-denosumab-administration-during-osteoporosis-treatment
#12
Yukio Nakamura, Takako Suzuki, Mikio Kamimura, Kohei Murakami, Shota Ikegami, Shigeharu Uchiyama, Hiroyuki Kato
To evaluate the differences in outcomes of treatment with denosumab alone or denosumab combined with vitamin D and calcium supplementation in patients with primary osteoporosis. Patients were split into a denosumab monotherapy group (18 cases) or a denosumab plus vitamin D supplementation group (combination group; 23 cases). We measured serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP)-5b and urinary N-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTX) at baseline, 1 week, as well as at 1 month and 2, 4, 8 and 12 months...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983411/intestinal-microbiota-a-potential-target-for-the-treatment-of-postmenopausal-osteoporosis
#13
REVIEW
Xin Xu, Xiaoyue Jia, Longyi Mo, Chengcheng Liu, Liwei Zheng, Quan Yuan, Xuedong Zhou
Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) is a prevalent metabolic bone disease characterized by bone loss and structural destruction, which increases the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women. Owing to the high morbidity and serious complications of PMO, many efforts have been devoted to its prophylaxis and treatment. The intestinal microbiota is the complex community of microorganisms colonizing the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics, which are dietary or medical supplements consisting of beneficial intestinal bacteria, work in concert with endogenous intestinal microorganisms to maintain host health...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955517/aff1-and-aff4-differentially-regulate-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-mscs
#14
Chen-Chen Zhou, Qiu-Chan Xiong, Xin-Xing Zhu, Wen Du, Peng Deng, Xiao-Bing Li, Yi-Zhou Jiang, Shu-Juan Zou, Cun-Yu Wang, Quan Yuan
AFF1 and AFF4 belong to the AFF (AF4/FMR2) family of proteins, which function as scaffolding proteins linking two different transcription elongation factors, positive elongation factor b (P-TEFb) and ELL1/2, in super elongation complexes (SECs). Both AFF1 and AFF4 regulate gene transcription through elongation and chromatin remodeling. However, their function in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is unknown. In this study, we show that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of AFF1 in human MSCs leads to increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, enhanced mineralization and upregulated expression of osteogenic-related genes...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944088/loss-of-the-vitamin-d-receptor-in-human-breast-and-prostate-cancers-strongly-induces-cell-apoptosis-through-downregulation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#15
Yu Zheng, Trupti Trivedi, Ruby Cy Lin, Colette Fong-Yee, Rick Nolte, Jeline Manibo, Yunzhao Chen, Musharraf Hossain, Konstantin Horas, Colin Dunstan, Hong Zhou, Markus J Seibel
Vitamin D co-regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in numerous tissues, including cancers. The known anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] are mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Here, we report on the unexpected finding that stable knockdown of VDR expression in the human breast and prostate cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and PC3, strongly induces cell apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation in vitro...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944087/exercise-induced-irisin-in-bone-and-systemic-irisin-administration-reveal-new-regulatory-mechanisms-of-bone-metabolism
#16
Jin Zhang, Paloma Valverde, Xiaofang Zhu, Dana Murray, Yuwei Wu, Liming Yu, Hua Jiang, Michel M Dard, Jin Huang, Zhiwei Xu, Qisheng Tu, Jake Chen
Irisin is a polypeptide hormone derived from the proteolytic cleavage of fibronectin-type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) protein. Once released to circulation upon exercise or cold exposure, irisin stimulates browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression, leading to an increase in total body energy expenditure by augmented UCP1-mediated thermogenesis. It is currently unknown whether irisin is secreted by bone upon exercise or whether it regulates bone metabolism in vivo...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944086/development-of-spinal-deformities-in-the-tight-skin-mouse
#17
Bing Li, Jill Pg Urban, Jing Yu
Tight-skin (TSK) mice are commonly used as an animal model to study the pathogenesis of Marfan syndrome (MFS), but little is known of their skeletal phenotype and in particular of the development of the spinal deformities, common in MFS. Here we examined growth of the axial skeletons of TSK and wild-type(B6) mice during their period of rapid growth. The whole bodies of mice, 4-12 weeks of age, were scanned after sacrifice, by micro-computed tomography (microCT). We reconstructed three-dimensional models of the spine and ribs, and measured vertebral body heights and rib lengths using the Mac-based image-processing software "OsiriX"...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868163/new-insights-into-the-vitamin-d-requirements-during-pregnancy
#18
REVIEW
Bruce W Hollis, Carol L Wagner
Pregnancy represents a dynamic period with physical and physiological changes in both the mother and her developing fetus. The dramatic 2-3 fold increase in the active hormone 1,25(OH)2D concentrations during the early weeks of pregnancy despite minimal increased calcium demands during that time of gestation and which are sustained throughout pregnancy in both the mother and fetus suggests an immunomodulatory role in preventing fetal rejection by the mother. While there have been numerous observational studies that support the premise of vitamin D's role in maintaining maternal and fetal well-being, until recently, there have been few randomized clinical trials with vitamin D supplementation...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698818/the-association-between-the-baseline-bone-resorption-marker-ctx-and-incident-dysglycemia-after-4-years
#19
Ting-Ting Liu, Dong-Mei Liu, Yan Xuan, Lin Zhao, Li-Hao Sun, Dian-Dian Zhao, Xiao-Feng Wang, Yang He, Xing-Zhi Guo, Rui Du, Ji-Qiu Wang, Jian-Min Liu, Hong-Yan Zhao, Bei Tao
Bone is an endocrine organ involved in modulating glucose homeostasis. The role of the bone formation marker osteocalcin (OCN) in predicting diabetes was reported, but with conflicting results. No study has explored the association between baseline bone resorption activity and incident diabetes or prediabetes during follow-up. Our objective was to examine the relationship between the baseline bone resorption marker crosslinked C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and glycemic dysregulation after 4 years. This longitudinal study was conducted in a university teaching hospital...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698817/the-fabrication-of-biomimetic-biphasic-can-pac-hydrogel-with-a-seamless-interfacial-layer-applied-in-osteochondral-defect-repair
#20
Jinfeng Liao, Taoran Tian, Sirong Shi, Xueping Xie, Quanquan Ma, Guo Li, Yunfeng Lin
Cartilage tissue engineering based on biomimetic scaffolds has become a rapidly developing strategy for repairing cartilage defects. In this study, a biphasic CAN-PAC hydrogel for osteochondral defect (OCD) regeneration was fabricated based on the density difference between the two layers via a thermally reactive, rapid cross-linking method. The upper hydrogel was cross-linked by CSMA and NIPAm, and the lower hydrogel was composed of PECDA, AAm and PEGDA. The interface between the two layers was first grafted by the physical cross-linking of calcium gluconate and alginate, followed by the chemical cross-linking of the carbon-carbon double bonds in the other components...
2017: Bone Research
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