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Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634538/prevalence-and-clinical-impact-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-on-abdominal-tuberculosis
#1
Vishal Sharma, Harshal S Mandavdhare, Amit Kumar, Ravi Sharma, Naresh Sachdeva, Kaushal K Prasad, Surinder S Rana
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is recognised to have multiple actions, including role in immune modulation. The prevalence and impact of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in abdominal tuberculosis is unknown. METHODS: We report the prevalence and clinical impact of VDD in patients with abdominal tuberculosis. The patients were divided into two groups: VDD (<20 ng/ml) or vitamin D sufficient (VDS) (⩾20 ng/ml). Groups were compared for extent (abdominal alone or extra-abdominal also) of disease and pattern of involvement (intestinal, peritoneal or both) and inflammatory response [serum C-reactive protein (CRP)]...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634537/a-meta-analysis-of-antibacterial-envelope-use-in-prevention-of-cardiovascular-implantable-electronic-device-infection
#2
Sajid Ali, Yousuf Kanjwal, Steven R Bruhl, Mohammed Alo, Mohammed Taleb, Syed S Ali, Ameer Kabour, Owais Khawaja
OBJECTIVES: Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection has been a major clinical problem in addition to being a major financial burden. In spite of antimicrobial prophylaxis, CIED infection rates have been increasing disproportionately. We therefore conducted this meta-analysis to assess the role of TYRX antibiotic envelope for the prevention of CIED infection. METHODS: Using extensive online search, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting CIED infections with versus without the use of TYRX antibiotic envelope...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634536/telavancin-a-novel-semisynthetic-lipoglycopeptide-agent-to-counter-the-challenge-of-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#3
REVIEW
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634535/effectiveness-and-safety-of-daptomycin-in-patients-with-infective-endocarditis-undergoing-heart-valve-replacement-a-subgroup-analysis-from-real-world-data
#4
Achyut Guleri, Riccardo Utili, Pascal Dohmen, Kamal Hamed
BACKGROUND: European Cubicin(®) Outcomes Registry and Experience (EU-CORE) was a retrospective, non-interventional, multicenter registry that collected real-world clinical outcomes following daptomycin use for the treatment of Gram-positive infections. EU-CORE data from patients with infective endocarditis (IE) who underwent heart valve replacement were analysed. METHODS: Clinical outcomes were assessed as success (cured or improved), failure, or non-evaluable...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357062/treatment-optimization-for-hiv-hcv-co-infected-patients
#5
REVIEW
Jake A Scott, Kara W Chew
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections affect millions of persons around the globe and cause profound morbidity and mortality. A major intersection exists between these two epidemics, with HCV infection being more common in persons with HIV than in the general population, largely due to shared routes of transmission. HCV co-infection increases risk for liver- and non-liver-related morbidity and mortality, making HCV treatment a priority in HIV co-infected persons, but the treatment of HCV in co-infected patients has been daunting for multiple reasons...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357061/oral-mucositis-caused-by-candida-glabrata-biofilms-failure-of-the-concomitant-use-of-fluconazole-and-ascorbic-acid
#6
Célia F Rodrigues, Mariana Henriques
OBJECTIVES: Candida glabrata is becoming one of the most prevalent pathogenic yeasts in cases of oral diseases. Mucositis is an recurrent oral infection in immunocompromised patients, and the actual guidelines recommend the use of fluconazole (Flu) for many cases. However, the azole resistance by C. glabrata is renowned, causing a reduced therapeutic response, especially when it occurs in biofilms. In this study, we performed an in vitro evaluation of an alternative pharmacotherapy for C...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357060/visceral-scalloping-on-abdominal-computed-tomography-due-to-abdominal-tuberculosis
#7
Vishal Sharma, Anmol Bhatia, Sarthak Malik, Navjeet Singh, Surinder S Rana
OBJECTIVE: Scalloping of visceral organs is described in pseudomyxoma peritonei, malignant ascites, among other conditions, but not tuberculosis. METHODS: We report findings from a retrospective study of patients with abdominal tuberculosis who had visceral scalloping on abdominal computed tomography (CT). Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis was made on the basis of combination of clinical, biochemical, radiological and microbiological criteria. The clinical data, hematological and biochemical parameters, and findings of chest X-ray, CT, Mantoux test, and HIV serology were recorded...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386408/gallbladder-tuberculosis-camouflaging-as-gallbladder-cancer-case-series-and-review-focussing-on-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Gautham Krishnamurthy, Harjeet Singh, Jayapal Rajendran, Vishal Sharma, Thakur Deen Yadav, Balan Louis Gaspar, Rakesh Kumar Vasishta, Rajinder Singh
INTRODUCTION: Gallbladder tuberculosis, in an endemic region, is a common infectious etiology affecting a rare organ. The high prevalence of carcinoma gallbladder in the endemic regions of tuberculosis, like India, poses diagnostic dilemma. CASE SERIES: We are reporting three cases of gallbladder tuberculosis mimicking carcinoma gallbladder of which the first two cases were operated with a presumptive diagnosis of malignancy. The third case presented to us after laparoscopic cholecystectomy elsewhere and on evaluation was found to have disseminated tuberculosis...
December 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386407/current-tools-available-for-the-diagnosis-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#9
REVIEW
Christopher Gilpin, A Korobitsyn, K Weyer
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) poses a major threat to control of tuberculosis worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment of DR-TB are considerably more difficult than for drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB) and require higher level infrastructure and proficiency from laboratory specialists and clinicians. The World Health Organization (WHO) End TB Strategy calls for early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment of all persons of all ages with any form of drug-susceptible TB or DR-TB. This requires ensuring access to WHO-recommended rapid diagnostics and universal drug susceptibility testing (DST) for all persons with signs and symptoms of TB...
December 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386406/a-rare-case-of-emphysematous-pyelonephritis-in-a-renal-transplant-patient
#10
Dennis Narcisse, Manyoo Agarwal, Michael Hancock, Daniel Wells, Christopher Sands
Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a rare life-threatening complication of a properly functioning renal allograft leading to potential graft loss and hemodialysis. Currently, no clear management guidelines exist in these clinically challenging immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients. We report a case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with class 4 EPN and was managed with intravenous antibiotics and nephrectomy at our medical center.
December 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149517/primary-ethambutol-resistance-among-iranian-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi, Hossein Dabiri, Ali Pormohammad, Alireza Salimi Chirani, Masoud Dadashi, Hamidreza Houri, Mohsen Heidary, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi
INTRODUCTION: Ethambutol (EMB) is an anti-mycobacterial agent that is most commonly used in combination with other anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs in the treatment of TB. Studies have shown that primary resistance rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to EMB vary widely, that is, from 1% to as high as 14%. In this study, we aimed to determine the exact prevalence of primary EMB resistance among pulmonary TB cases. METHODS: Several databases, including Medline, Embase, and Iranian databases, were searched from March 2000 to January 2016 to identify studies addressing EMB-resistant TB in Iran...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149516/salmonella-enteritidis-primary-bacteremia-in-previously-healthy-patient-from-taiwan-case-report
#12
Sevda Mileva, Margarita Gospodinova, Ilian Todorov
BACKGROUND: Diseases caused by invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella strains present with various extraintestinal manifestations, including bacteremia. Factors affecting the incidence include Salmonella serotype, geographic location, and host factors. CASE: We present an unusual case of Salmonella enteritidis primary bacteremia in a patient without any risk factors and originating from a region with the lowest burden of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella infections. We observed an incomplete clinical response to the treatment with a third-generation cephalosporin, despite the in vitro susceptibility of the strain...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149515/bloodstream-infections-and-antimicrobial-sensitivity-patterns-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-india
#13
Nikita Vasudeva, Prem Singh Nirwan, Preeti Shrivastava
BACKGROUND: Invasion of the bloodstream by microorganisms constitutes one of the most serious situations in infectious disease. Microorganisms present in circulating blood whether continuously, intermittently, or transiently are a threat to every organ in the body. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms vary depending upon the geography and the use of antibiotics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalent organisms causing bloodstream infection was conducted...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536355/a-case-of-testicular-tuberculosis-mimicking-malignancy-in-a-healthy-young-man
#14
REVIEW
Sherly Abraham, Dora Ernestina Izaguirre Anariba, Kirandeep Dua, Mohammad Mir, Arvind Ankireddypalli
Genitourinary tuberculosis represents a form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis that occurs in the kidneys, ureters, seminal vesicles, prostate, testis, vas deferens, and epididymis. Isolated testicular involvement is unusual, and differential diagnosis includes testicular tumor, acute infection, infarction, and granulomatous infection. We report a case of a 36-year-old Ecuadorian man residing in New York, New York, who presented with a painful scrotal mass, weight loss, and purulent discharge from ulcerated lesion in scrotal area 10 years following his immigration to the United States...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536354/recent-developments-and-future-prospects-in-the-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis
#15
REVIEW
Shyam Sundar, Anup Singh
Limited therapeutic options in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) make the treatment of this neglected disease very challenging. In addition to this, long treatment duration and toxic adverse effects make it even more difficult. With no effective vaccine available to date, treatment of VL is based only on chemotherapy. In the Indian subcontinent, a single dose of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) and multidrug therapy (L-AmB + miltefosine, L-AmB + paromomycin [PM], or miltefosine + PM) are the treatments of choice for VL...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536353/the-current-status-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-management-and-prevention-in-children-under-5-years-of-age-in-india-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Krishna Kumar Yadav, Shally Awasthi
India has the highest number of global deaths of children under 5 years of age. In the year 2015, it was reported that there were 5.9 million deaths of children under 5 years of age globally, of which 1.2 million (20%) occurred in India alone. Currently, India has an under 5 mortality rate of 48 per 1000 live births. Community-acquired pneumonia contributes to about one sixth of this mortality. Fast breathing is the key symptom of community-acquired pneumonia. The World Health Organization recently categorized community-acquired pneumonia in children under 5 years of age into two, pneumonia, and severe pneumonia...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536352/the-anti-borreliae-efficacy-of-phytochemicals-and-micronutrients-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Anna Goc, Matthias Rath
Naturally occurring substances have been used for centuries to fight against various pathogens. They serve as a source for new chemical entities or provide options to already existing therapeutics. While there is an increasing interest in studying antimicrobial properties of naturally derived agents, little is known about their effects against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative pathogens of Lyme disease. A better understanding of this aspect could advance knowledge about pathophysiology of these bacteria and help improve the efficacy of current approaches against Lyme disease...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034777/best-practice-in-the-prevention-and-management-of-paediatric-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#18
REVIEW
Simon B Drysdale, Christopher A Green, Charles J Sande
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is ubiquitous with almost all infants having been infected by 2 years of age and lifelong repeated infections common. It is the second largest cause of mortality, after malaria, in infants outside the neonatal period and causes up to 200,000 deaths per year worldwide. RSV results in clinical syndromes that include upper respiratory tract infections, otitis media, bronchiolitis (up to 80% of cases) and lower respiratory tract disease including pneumonia and exacerbations of asthma or viral-induced wheeze...
April 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034776/the-implications-of-whole-genome-sequencing-in-the-control-of-tuberculosis
#19
REVIEW
Robyn S Lee, Marcel A Behr
The availability of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a tool for the diagnosis and clinical management of tuberculosis (TB) offers considerable promise in the fight against this stubborn epidemic. However, like other new technologies, the best application of WGS remains to be determined, for both conceptual and technical reasons. In this review, we consider the potential value of WGS in the clinical laboratory for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the prediction of antibiotic resistance. We also discuss issues pertaining to data generation, interpretation and dissemination, given that WGS has to date been generally performed in research labs where results are not necessarily packaged in a clinician-friendly format...
April 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26862400/recent-advances-in-the-understanding-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
REVIEW
Patrizia Spigaglia
Clostridium difficile epidemiology has changed in recent years, with the emergence of highly virulent types associated with severe infections, high rates of recurrences and mortality. Antibiotic resistance plays an important role in driving these epidemiological changes and the emergence of new types. While clindamycin resistance was driving historical endemic types, new types are associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones. Furthermore, resistance to multiple antibiotics is a common feature of the newly emergent strains and, in general, of many epidemic isolates...
February 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
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