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Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013774/mycobacterial-chylous-ascites-report-of-three-cases-and-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Bipadabhanjan Mallick, Harshal S Mandavdhare, Sourabh Aggarwal, Harjeet Singh, Usha Dutta, Vishal Sharma
Background: Chylous ascites is an uncommon presentation of mycobacterial infection. Methods: We report three cases of tubercular chylous ascites, and in addition, we performed a systematic review of the published literature for the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcomes of mycobacterial chylous ascites. We followed the PRISMA guidelines for the systematic review. Results: A total of 33 cases (including three of ours) were included...
July 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013773/a-study-of-antibiotic-prescription-pattern-in-patients-referred-to-tertiary-care-center-in-northern-india
#2
Amritpal Kaur, Rajan Bhagat, Navjot Kaur, Nusrat Shafiq, Vikas Gautam, Samir Malhotra, Vikas Suri, Ashish Bhalla
Background: Tremendous infectious disease burden and rapid emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens continues to burden our healthcare system. Antibiotic stewardship program often implements antibiotic policies that help in preventing unnecessary use of antibiotics and in optimizing management. To develop such a policy for management of infections in the emergency unit, it is important to analyze the information regarding antibiotic prescription patterns in patients presenting to the emergency room referred from various healthcare settings...
July 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796265/clinical-efficacy-of-12-h-metronidazole-dosing-regimens-in-patients-with-anaerobic-or-mixed-anaerobic-infections
#3
Ashley F Soule, Sarah B Green, Lisa M Blanchette
Traditional metronidazole dosing regimens utilize an every 8 h dosing strategy to treat anaerobic and mixed anaerobic infections. However, pharmacokinetic data demonstrate that the half-life of metronidazole is 8-12 h and blood levels at 12 h exceed the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for most anaerobic infections. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of clinical cure among patients who received metronidazole every 12 h compared with those who received an every 8 h frequency...
May 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468056/implementation-of-universal-rapid-human-immunodeficiency-virus-screening-on-labor-and-delivery
#4
Stacia Crochet, Chun-Chih Huang, Melissa Fries, Rachel K Scott
Background: A case of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV at a medical center in Washington, DC, resulted in the implementation of universal opt-out rapid testing of patients admitted for delivery. This article evaluates the policy's efficacy and implementation. Methods: We evaluated the implementation using the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Results: We could not evaluate decrease in MTCT rate secondary to low sample size ( n  = 3324) and no true-positive results...
March 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344358/the-global-problem-of-childhood-diarrhoeal-diseases-emerging-strategies-in-prevention-and-management
#5
REVIEW
Margaret Mokomane, Ishmael Kasvosve, Emilia de Melo, Jeffrey M Pernica, David M Goldfarb
Acute diarrhoeal diseases remain a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality particularly among young children in resource-limited countries. Recent large studies utilizing case-control design, prospective sampling and more sensitive and broad diagnostic techniques have shed light on particular pathogens of importance and highlighted the previously under recognized impact of these infections on post-acute illness mortality and growth. Vaccination, particularly against rotavirus, has emerged as a key effective means of preventing significant morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoeal disease...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344357/examining-the-effectiveness-of-a-cognitive-intervention-to-improve-cognitive-function-in-a-population-of-older-adults-living-with-hiv-a-pilot-study
#6
Judy A Frain, Ling Chen
Objective: The purpose of this randomized-controlled pilot study was to explore the effectiveness of a home-based computerized cognitive training intervention in improving cognitive function in a population of older adults with mild cognitive impairment who are living with HIV. Methods: In all, 24 participants were enrolled in this study. All study participants were impaired [defined as Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score < 26]; 12 were randomly assigned to a computer-training intervention group and 12 to a control group...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344356/risk-factors-and-outcomes-for-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-bacteremia
#7
Swati Patolia, Getahun Abate, Nirav Patel, Setu Patolia, Sharon Frey
Background: The incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms is increasing along with mortality. Identifying risk factors for the development of MDR Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) bacteremia could greatly impact patient care and management. Methods: Data from the electronic health record of patients with GNB over 13-month period were collected at a single university medical center. Baseline demographic data, risk factor, microbiological data, recurrence of bacteremia, and mortality were recorded...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344355/impact-of-an-antifungal-stewardship-intervention-on-optimization-of-candidemia-management
#8
Hana Rac, Jamie L Wagner, S Travis King, Katie E Barber, Kayla R Stover
Background: Candidemia represents a leading cause of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections with significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that comprehensive care bundles improve candidemia management but are time-consuming. Objective: To determine the impact of a one-time targeted candidemia intervention on time to initiation of adequate therapy compared to standard of care. Methods: This Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, quasi-experiment evaluated a targeted candidemia intervention involving a single phone call to the primary team providing recommendations for care...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662674/corrigendum
#9
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1177/2049936117690501.].
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662673/epidemiology-and-management-of-healthcare-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-non-neutropenic-immunosuppressed-patients-a-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
Nursel Calik Basaran, Sibel Ascioglu
Advancements in medicine have led to a considerable increase in the proportion of patients living with severe chronic diseases, malignancies, and HIV infections. Most of these conditions are associated with acquired immune-deficient states and treatment-related immunosuppression. Although infections as a result of neutropenia have long been recognized and strategies for management were developed, non-neutropenic immunosuppression has been overlooked. Recently, community-acquired infections in patients with frequent, significant exposure to healthcare settings and procedures have been classified as 'healthcare-associated infections' since they are more similar to hospital-acquired infections...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662672/results-of-a-local-combination-therapy-antibiogram-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-is-double-worth-the-trouble
#11
Matthew Song, Thomas J Dilworth, Erik Munson, Jim Davis, Ramy H Elshaboury
Purpose: To determine the frequency at which fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides demonstrate in vitro activity against non-urinary, non-skin/skin structure Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates exhibiting decreased susceptibilities to one or more β-lactam agents. Methods: β-lactam-non-susceptible P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from blood, bone, lower respiratory tract, pleural fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, or peritoneal fluid cultures between October 2010 and October 2014 were reviewed from four community hospitals within a single health-system...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959445/management-of-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-with-a-focus-on-patients-at-high-risk-of-treatment-failure
#12
REVIEW
Abraham Pulido-Cejudo, Mario Guzmán-Gutierrez, Abel Jalife-Montaño, Alejandro Ortiz-Covarrubias, Jose Luis Martínez-Ordaz, Héctor Faustino Noyola-Villalobos, Luis Mauricio Hurtado-López
Over the last 25 years, the terminology of skin and soft tissue infections, as well as their classification for optimal management of patients, has changed. The so-called and recently introduced term 'acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections' (ABSSSIs), a cluster of fairly common types of infection, including abscesses, cellulitis, and wound infections, require an immediate effective antibacterial treatment as part of a timely and cautious management. The extreme level of resistance globally to many antibiotic drugs in the prevalent causative pathogens, the presence of risk factors of treatment failure, and the high epidemic of comorbidities (e...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959444/efficacy-of-raltegravir-etravirine-and-darunavir-ritonavir-for-treatment-experienced-hiv-patients-from-a-non-urban-clinic-population-in-the-united-states
#13
Andrew M Ebers, Yusra Alkabab, Brian Wispelwey, Rebecca Dillingham, Xin-Qun Wang, Julie Schexnayder, Scott K Heysell
BACKGROUND: The regimen of raltegravir (RAL), ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DAR/r), and etravirine (ETR) for HIV treatment-experienced patients in a non-clinical trial setting in the rural/semi-urban United States had not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: A retrospective cohort analysis was performed of adult patients prescribed the regimen from 2008 to 2013 at a HIV clinic serving such a population. RESULTS: In all, 51 patients met inclusion criteria including 15 with suppressed viral loads at regimen initiation...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748089/the-role-of-nanotechnology-in-the-treatment-of-viral-infections
#14
REVIEW
Lavanya Singh, Hendrik G Kruger, Glenn E M Maguire, Thavendran Govender, Raveen Parboosing
Infectious diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, with viruses in particular making global impact on healthcare and socioeconomic development. In addition, the rapid development of drug resistance to currently available therapies and adverse side effects due to prolonged use is a serious public health concern. The development of novel treatment strategies is therefore required. The interaction of nanostructures with microorganisms is fast-revolutionizing the biomedical field by offering advantages in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748088/modeling-risk-for-developing-drug-resistant-bacterial-infections-in-an-mdr-naive-critically-ill-population
#15
Rajiv Sonti, Megan E Conroy, Elena M Welt, Yi Hu, George Luta, Daniel B Jamieson
PURPOSE: To create a model predictive of an individual's risk of developing a de novo multidrug-resistant (MDR) infection while in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: This is a case-control study in which 189 ICU patients diagnosed with their first infection with an MDR organism were compared on the basis of demographic, past medical and clinical variables to randomly selected ICU patients without such an infection, era-matched in a 2:1 ratio. A prediction tool was derived using multivariate logistic regression...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748087/antimicrobial-effects-of-lysophosphatidylcholine-on-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Haruko Miyazaki, Naoko Midorikawa, Saki Fujimoto, Natsumi Miyoshi, Hideto Yoshida, Tetsuya Matsumoto
OBJECTIVES: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important health care-associated and community-associated pathogen and causes a large number of infections worldwide. For the purpose of application to topical treatment of MRSA infection, we examined the antimicrobial effects of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) on MRSA strains. We also investigated the combination effect of LPC and gentamicin on MRSA growth. METHODS: The LPC minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Gram-positive (S...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634538/prevalence-and-clinical-impact-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-on-abdominal-tuberculosis
#17
Vishal Sharma, Harshal S Mandavdhare, Amit Kumar, Ravi Sharma, Naresh Sachdeva, Kaushal K Prasad, Surinder S Rana
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is recognised to have multiple actions, including role in immune modulation. The prevalence and impact of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in abdominal tuberculosis is unknown. METHODS: We report the prevalence and clinical impact of VDD in patients with abdominal tuberculosis. The patients were divided into two groups: VDD (<20 ng/ml) or vitamin D sufficient (VDS) (⩾20 ng/ml). Groups were compared for extent (abdominal alone or extra-abdominal also) of disease and pattern of involvement (intestinal, peritoneal or both) and inflammatory response [serum C-reactive protein (CRP)]...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634537/a-meta-analysis-of-antibacterial-envelope-use-in-prevention-of-cardiovascular-implantable-electronic-device-infection
#18
Sajid Ali, Yousuf Kanjwal, Steven R Bruhl, Mohammed Alo, Mohammed Taleb, Syed S Ali, Ameer Kabour, Owais Khawaja
OBJECTIVES: Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection has been a major clinical problem in addition to being a major financial burden. In spite of antimicrobial prophylaxis, CIED infection rates have been increasing disproportionately. We therefore conducted this meta-analysis to assess the role of TYRX antibiotic envelope for the prevention of CIED infection. METHODS: Using extensive online search, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting CIED infections with versus without the use of TYRX antibiotic envelope...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634536/telavancin-a-novel-semisynthetic-lipoglycopeptide-agent-to-counter-the-challenge-of-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#19
REVIEW
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA ( S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis )...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634535/effectiveness-and-safety-of-daptomycin-in-patients-with-infective-endocarditis-undergoing-heart-valve-replacement-a-subgroup-analysis-from-real-world-data
#20
Achyut Guleri, Riccardo Utili, Pascal Dohmen, Kamal Hamed
BACKGROUND: European Cubicin® Outcomes Registry and Experience (EU-CORE) was a retrospective, non-interventional, multicenter registry that collected real-world clinical outcomes following daptomycin use for the treatment of Gram-positive infections. EU-CORE data from patients with infective endocarditis (IE) who underwent heart valve replacement were analysed. METHODS: Clinical outcomes were assessed as success (cured or improved), failure, or non-evaluable. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded for up to 30 days after daptomycin treatment...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
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