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Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536355/a-case-of-testicular-tuberculosis-mimicking-malignancy-in-a-healthy-young-man
#1
REVIEW
Sherly Abraham, Dora Ernestina Izaguirre Anariba, Kirandeep Dua, Mohammad Mir, Arvind Ankireddypalli
Genitourinary tuberculosis represents a form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis that occurs in the kidneys, ureters, seminal vesicles, prostate, testis, vas deferens, and epididymis. Isolated testicular involvement is unusual, and differential diagnosis includes testicular tumor, acute infection, infarction, and granulomatous infection. We report a case of a 36-year-old Ecuadorian man residing in New York, New York, who presented with a painful scrotal mass, weight loss, and purulent discharge from ulcerated lesion in scrotal area 10 years following his immigration to the United States...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536354/recent-developments-and-future-prospects-in-the-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis
#2
REVIEW
Shyam Sundar, Anup Singh
Limited therapeutic options in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) make the treatment of this neglected disease very challenging. In addition to this, long treatment duration and toxic adverse effects make it even more difficult. With no effective vaccine available to date, treatment of VL is based only on chemotherapy. In the Indian subcontinent, a single dose of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) and multidrug therapy (L-AmB + miltefosine, L-AmB + paromomycin [PM], or miltefosine + PM) are the treatments of choice for VL...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536353/the-current-status-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-management-and-prevention-in-children-under-5-years-of-age-in-india-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Krishna Kumar Yadav, Shally Awasthi
India has the highest number of global deaths of children under 5 years of age. In the year 2015, it was reported that there were 5.9 million deaths of children under 5 years of age globally, of which 1.2 million (20%) occurred in India alone. Currently, India has an under 5 mortality rate of 48 per 1000 live births. Community-acquired pneumonia contributes to about one sixth of this mortality. Fast breathing is the key symptom of community-acquired pneumonia. The World Health Organization recently categorized community-acquired pneumonia in children under 5 years of age into two, pneumonia, and severe pneumonia...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536352/the-anti-borreliae-efficacy-of-phytochemicals-and-micronutrients-an-update
#4
REVIEW
Anna Goc, Matthias Rath
Naturally occurring substances have been used for centuries to fight against various pathogens. They serve as a source for new chemical entities or provide options to already existing therapeutics. While there is an increasing interest in studying antimicrobial properties of naturally derived agents, little is known about their effects against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative pathogens of Lyme disease. A better understanding of this aspect could advance knowledge about pathophysiology of these bacteria and help improve the efficacy of current approaches against Lyme disease...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034777/best-practice-in-the-prevention-and-management-of-paediatric-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#5
REVIEW
Simon B Drysdale, Christopher A Green, Charles J Sande
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is ubiquitous with almost all infants having been infected by 2 years of age and lifelong repeated infections common. It is the second largest cause of mortality, after malaria, in infants outside the neonatal period and causes up to 200,000 deaths per year worldwide. RSV results in clinical syndromes that include upper respiratory tract infections, otitis media, bronchiolitis (up to 80% of cases) and lower respiratory tract disease including pneumonia and exacerbations of asthma or viral-induced wheeze...
April 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034776/the-implications-of-whole-genome-sequencing-in-the-control-of-tuberculosis
#6
REVIEW
Robyn S Lee, Marcel A Behr
The availability of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a tool for the diagnosis and clinical management of tuberculosis (TB) offers considerable promise in the fight against this stubborn epidemic. However, like other new technologies, the best application of WGS remains to be determined, for both conceptual and technical reasons. In this review, we consider the potential value of WGS in the clinical laboratory for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the prediction of antibiotic resistance. We also discuss issues pertaining to data generation, interpretation and dissemination, given that WGS has to date been generally performed in research labs where results are not necessarily packaged in a clinician-friendly format...
April 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26862400/recent-advances-in-the-understanding-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#7
REVIEW
Patrizia Spigaglia
Clostridium difficile epidemiology has changed in recent years, with the emergence of highly virulent types associated with severe infections, high rates of recurrences and mortality. Antibiotic resistance plays an important role in driving these epidemiological changes and the emergence of new types. While clindamycin resistance was driving historical endemic types, new types are associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones. Furthermore, resistance to multiple antibiotics is a common feature of the newly emergent strains and, in general, of many epidemic isolates...
February 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26862399/carbapenem-resistance-overview-of-the-problem-and-future-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Georgios Meletis
Carbapenem resistance, mainly among Gram-negative pathogens, is an ongoing public-health problem of global dimensions. This type of antimicrobial resistance, especially when mediated by transferable carbapenemase-encoding genes, is spreading rapidly causing serious outbreaks and dramatically limiting treatment options. In this article, important key points related to carbapenem resistance are reviewed and future perspectives are discussed.
February 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26862398/extrahepatic-manifestations-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#9
REVIEW
Patrice Cacoub, Cloe Comarmond, Fanny Domont, Léa Savey, Anne C Desbois, David Saadoun
During hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection, extrahepatic manifestations are frequent and polymorphous. This article reports on a large cohort of patients with HCV-related autoimmune or lymphoproliferative disorders, from mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis to frank lymphomas. The relationship between HCV infection and such immune-related diseases has been formally demonstrated by epidemiological, clinical, immunological and pathological data, and results of therapeutic trials. More recently, other nonliver-related HCV disorders have been reported, including cardiovascular (i...
February 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25745561/urogenital-tuberculosis-definition-and-classification
#10
REVIEW
Ekaterina Kulchavenya
OBJECTIVES: To improve the approach to the diagnosis and management of urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB), we need clear and unique classification. UGTB remains an important problem, especially in developing countries, but it is often an overlooked disease. As with any other infection, UGTB should be cured by antibacterial therapy, but because of late diagnosis it may often require surgery. METHODS: Scientific literature dedicated to this problem was critically analyzed and juxtaposed with the author's own more than 30 years' experience in tuberculosis urology...
October 2014: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25745560/management-of-invasive-candidiasis-in-nonneutropenic-icu-patients
#11
REVIEW
Emmanuel Weiss, Jean-François Timsit
Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among nonneutropenic ICU patients and these life-threatening nosocomial infections require early diagnosis and prompt treatment. However, none of the predictive tools are sufficiently accurate to identify high-risk patients and the potential interest of IC prophylactic, empirical and preemptive treatment in the nonneutropenic ICU population has not yet been demonstrated. In the case of nosocomial severe sepsis after necrotizing pancreatitis or upper digestive anastomotic leakage, early probabilistic antifungals are probably indicated...
October 2014: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25469236/dengue-fever-induced-cold-agglutinin-syndrome
#12
Deepti Kulkarni, Bela Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2014: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25469235/jorge-lobo-s-disease-a-case-of-keloidal-blastomycosis-lobomycosis-in-a-nonendemic-area
#13
REVIEW
Rezina Arju, Jiten P Kothadia, Monica Kaminski, Sherly Abraham, Shah Giashuddin
Lobomycosis or lacaziosis is a chronic subcutaneous fungal infection, caused by the fungus Lacazia loboi, which is phylogenetically related to Coccidioides, Blastomyces, Histoplasma, and Paracoccidioides. The disease was first recognized in 1931 by Jorge Lobo, who found the disease to be a keloidal blastomycosis and named it Jorge Lobo's disease. This case was perplexing initially as this fungal infection is very uncommon in the USA. However, with the ever-increasing frequency of international travel, many more cases of lobomycosis have been diagnosed in areas of nonendemicity, such as the USA, Europe, and South Africa...
June 2014: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25469234/the-role-of-the-healthcare-environment-in-the-spread-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-update-on-current-best-practices-for-containment
#14
REVIEW
Roy F Chemaly, Sarah Simmons, Charles Dale, Shashank S Ghantoji, Maria Rodriguez, Julie Gubb, Julie Stachowiak, Mark Stibich
The role of the environment in harboring and transmitting multidrug-resistant organisms has become clearer due to a series of publications linking environmental contamination with increased risk of hospital-associated infections. The incidence of antimicrobial resistance is also increasing, leading to higher morbidity and mortality associated with hospital-associated infections. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence supporting the existing methods of environmental control of organisms: environmental disinfection, contact precautions, and hand hygiene...
June 2014: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25165557/a-novel-genetic-modifier-for-clarithromycin-related-cardiac-arrhythmia-risk
#15
Jules C Hancox, Chunyun Du, Aziza El Harchi, Adrian Baranchuk, Henggui Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2014: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25165556/extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-are-statistical-reports-accurate
#16
REVIEW
Ekaterina Kulchavenya
Before discussing the epidemiology of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) and particularly urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB), unification of the terminology is necessary. The term 'urogenital tuberculosis' is preferable to 'genitourinary tuberculosis', as renal and urinary tract tuberculosis is more common than genital tuberculosis. Some understand the term 'extrapulmonary tuberculosis' as a specific tuberculosis (TB) lesion of all organs excluding the bronchus, lungs, pleura and intrathoracic bronchopulmonary lymph nodes, but others consider pleural TB as one form of EPTB - and it is a reason for very different proportions in the spectrum of EPTB...
April 2014: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25165555/erythromycin-qtc-interval-prolongation-and-torsade-de-pointes-case-reports-major-risk-factors-and-illness-severity
#17
Jules C Hancox, Mehrul Hasnain, W Victor R Vieweg, Michael Gysel, Michelle Methot, Adrian Baranchuk
OBJECTIVES: Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that is widely used for various infections of the upper respiratory tract, skin, and soft tissue. Similar to other macrolides (clarithromycin, azithromycin), erythromycin has been linked to QTc interval prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) arrhythmia. We sought to identify factors that link to erythromycin-induced/associated QTc interval prolongation and TdP. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a critical evaluation of case reports, we found 29 cases: 22 women and 7 men (age range 18-95 years)...
April 2014: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25165554/management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-older-adults
#18
REVIEW
Antonella F Simonetti, Diego Viasus, Carolina Garcia-Vidal, Jordi Carratalà
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an increasing problem among the elderly. Multiple factors related to ageing, such as comorbidities, nutritional status and swallowing dysfunction have been implicated in the increased incidence of CAP in the older population. Moreover, mortality in patients with CAP rises dramatically with increasing age. Streptococcus pneumoniae is still the most common pathogen among the elderly, although CAP may also be caused by drug-resistant microorganisms and aspiration pneumonia...
February 2014: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24949199/relevance-of-liver-failure-for-anti-infective-agents-from-pharmacokinetic-alterations-to-dosage-adjustments
#19
Fiona V Bϋdingen, Daniel Gonzalez, Amelia N Tucker, Hartmut Derendorf
The liver is a complex organ with great ability to influence drug pharmacokinetics. Due to its wide array of function, its impairment has the potential to affect bioavailability, enterohepatic circulation, drug distribution, metabolism, clearance, and biliary elimination. These alterations differ widely depending on the cause of the liver failure, if it is acute or chronic in nature, the extent of impairment, and comorbid conditions. In addition, effects on liver functions do not occur in a proportional or predictable manner for escalating degrees of liver impairment...
February 1, 2014: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25165553/an-update-on-the-treatment-of-genotype-1-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-lessons-from-recent-clinical-trials
#20
REVIEW
Astrid Wendt, Marc Bourlière
The launch of first-generation protease inhibitors (PIs) was a major step forward in hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. However, this major advance is, up to now, restricted to genotype-1 (GT-1) patients. However, the ongoing development of new direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) allows new hope for the future. The development of second-wave and second-generation PIs yields higher antiviral potency through plurigenotypic activity, more convenient daily administration, fewer side effects and, for the second-generation PIs, potential activity against resistance-associated variants...
December 2013: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
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