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Journal of Clinical Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897995/monitoring-of-physiological-parameters-to-predict-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-a-systematic-review
#1
Ahmed M Al Rajeh, John R Hurst
INTRODUCTION: The value of monitoring physiological parameters to predict chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations is controversial. A few studies have suggested benefit from domiciliary monitoring of vital signs, and/or lung function but there is no existing systematic review. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of monitoring physiological parameters to predict COPD exacerbation. METHODS: An electronic systematic search compliant with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886126/inebilizumab-a-b-cell-depleting-anti-cd19-antibody-for-the-treatment-of-autoimmune-neurological-diseases-insights-from-preclinical-studies
#2
REVIEW
Ding Chen, Sandra Gallagher, Nancy L Monson, Ronald Herbst, Yue Wang
Exaggerated or inappropriate responses by B cells are an important feature in many types of autoimmune neurological diseases. The recent success of B-cell depletion in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has stimulated the development of novel B-cell-targeting therapies with the potential for improved efficacy. CD19 has emerged as a promising target for the depletion of B cells as well as CD19-positive plasmablasts and plasma cells. Inebilizumab (MEDI-551), an anti-CD19 antibody with enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against B cells, is currently being evaluated in MS and neuromyelitis optica...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886071/case-formulation-in-young-people-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-first-episode-psychosis
#3
Emma Halpin, Vanessa Kugathasan, Carol Hulbert, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez, Sarah Bendall
BACKGROUND: Evidence based treatment interventions for young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and trauma histories is lacking. Although case formulation (CF) has been widely regarded in cognitive behavioural therapy manuals as beneficial, there is limited empirical research examining how clients and therapists experience the process. AIM: This study aimed to explore young people's reactions to CF in treatment for PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) and FEP...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879650/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-overview-of-evidence-based-assessment-and-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Cynthia L Lancaster, Jenni B Teeters, Daniel F Gros, Sudie E Back
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic psychological disorder that can develop after exposure to a traumatic event. This review summarizes the literature on the epidemiology, assessment, and treatment of PTSD. We provide a review of the characteristics of PTSD along with associated risk factors, and describe brief, evidence-based measures that can be used to screen for PTSD and monitor symptom changes over time. In regard to treatment, we highlight commonly used, evidence-based psychotherapies and pharmacotherapies for PTSD...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869721/the-benefit-of-conserving-and-gaining-resources-after-trauma-a-systematic-review
#5
Michael Hollifield, Andrea Gory, Jennifer Siedjak, Linda Nguyen, Lucie Holmgreen, Stevan Hobfoll
BACKGROUND: Traumatic events involve loss of resources, which has consistently been found to be associated with developing stress-related illness such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic literature review was to determine if there is evidence for the salutatory effect of resource gain on PTSD, and if there are intervention models that utilize and assess gain in PTSD. DATA SOURCES: All relevant online databases were systematically searched using key terms and a method, detailed in Figure 1...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869655/a-shared-decision-making-approach-to-telemedicine-engaging-rural-patients-in-glycemic-management
#6
Michelle L Griffith, Linda Siminerio, Tammie Payne, Jodi Krall
Telemedicine can connect specialist health care providers with patients in remote and underserved areas. It is especially relevant in diabetes care, where a proliferation of treatment options has added further complexity to the care of an already complex, highly prevalent disease. Recent developments in health reform encourage delivery systems to use team-based models and engage patients in shared decision-making (SDM), where patients and providers together make health care decisions that are tailored to the specific characteristics and values of the patient...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854317/modulating-the-gut-micro-environment-in-the-treatment-of-intestinal-parasites
#7
REVIEW
Luis Vitetta, Emma Tali Saltzman, Tessa Nikov, Isabelle Ibrahim, Sean Hall
The interactions of micro-organisms cohabitating with Homo sapiens spans millennia, with microbial communities living in a symbiotic relationship with the host. Interacting to regulate and maintain physiological functions and immunological tolerance, the microbial community is able to exert an influence on host health. An example of micro-organisms contributing to an intestinal disease state is exhibited by a biodiverse range of protozoan and bacterial species that damage the intestinal epithelia and are therefore implicated in the symptoms of diarrhea...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854264/integrated-exposure-based-therapy-for-co-occurring-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-and-substance-dependence-predictors-of-change-in-ptsd-symptom-severity
#8
Katherine L Mills, Emma L Barrett, Sabine Merz, Julia Rosenfeld, Philippa L Ewer, Claudia Sannibale, Amanda L Baker, Sally Hopwood, Sudie E Back, Kathleen T Brady, Maree Teesson
This paper examines factors associated with change in PTSD symptom severity among individuals randomised to receive an integrated exposure-based psychotherapy for PTSD and substance dependence-Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure (COPE). Outcomes examined include change in PTSD symptom severity as measured by the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), and the reliability and clinical significance of change in PTSD symptom severity. Factors examined include patient baseline characteristics, treatment characteristics, and events over follow-up...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854242/the-future-prospects-of-immune-therapy-in-gastric-and-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#9
REVIEW
Walid L Shaib, Jean Paul A Nammour, Harpaul Gill, Mayur Mody, Nabil F Saba
The prognosis of esophageal cancers is poor and novel approaches are urgently needed. Despite improvements in outcomes with transtuzumab and ramucirumab, these improvements added an average of only 2 to 3 months with a median overall survival reported to be around 1 year. Comprehensive genomic sequencing has defined some molecular alterations with potential targets, but the majority of patients still do not benefit from druggable targets. Breakthroughs in immune checkpoint blockade have provided new therapeutic options in many cancers...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834898/an-admission-to-discharge-bnp-increase-is-a-predictor-of-six-month-all-cause-death-in-adhf-patients-inferences-from-multivariate-analysis-including-admission-bnp-and-various-clinical-measures-of-congestion
#10
Renato De Vecchis, Carmelina Ariano, Cesare Baldi
BACKGROUND: According to some authors, a single isolated measurement of serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) executed on hospital admission would not be a sufficiently accurate method to predict the outcome of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). AIMS: To verify this assumption, a retrospective study was conducted on patients hospitalized for ADHF. Our main objective was to ascertain whether there was any difference in midterm mortality among patients with increasing BNP at discharge as compared with those with decreasing BNP at discharge...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834793/b-cell-receptor-affinity-for-insulin-dictates-autoantigen-acquisition-and-b-cell-functionality-in-autoimmune-diabetes
#11
Thomas A Packard, Mia J Smith, Francis J Conrad, Sara A Johnson, Andrew Getahun, Robin S Lindsay, Rochelle M Hinman, Rachel S Friedman, James W Thomas, John C Cambier
B cells have been strongly implicated in the development of human type 1 diabetes and are required for disease in the NOD mouse model. These functions are dependent on B cell antigen receptor (BCR) specificity and expression of MHC, implicating linked autoantigen recognition and presentation to effector T cells. BCR-antigen affinity requirements for participation in disease are unclear. We hypothesized that BCR affinity for the autoantigen insulin differentially affects lymphocyte functionality, including tolerance modality and the ability to acquire and become activated in the diabetogenic environment...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827979/an-age-related-morphometric-profile-of-skeletal-muscle-in-healthy-untrained-women
#12
Anastasia Bougea, George Papadimas, Constantinos Papadopoulos, George P Paraskevas, Nikolaos Kalfakis, Panagiota Manta, Evangelia Kararizou
There is a paucity of data on muscle biopsies in females of mixed ages in terms of age-related changes. Cross sections of autopsy material including the quadriceps femoris and biceps brachii muscles were obtained from 23 healthy women, aged 24-82 years, who had suffered sudden death. We calculated the percentage of the number, and the mean diameter, of type I and type II muscle fibers within the fascicles as well as in their peripheral parts. The number of type II fibers were shown to reduce significantly with age (p < 0...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827889/tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-bone-remodeling-and-osteosarcoma-progression
#13
REVIEW
Audrey Lamora, Julie Talbot, Mathilde Mullard, Benedicte Brounais-Le Royer, Fran├žoise Redini, Franck Verrecchia
Osteosarcomas are the most prevalent malignant primary bone tumors in children. Despite intensive efforts to improve both chemotherapeutics and surgical management, 40% of all osteosarcoma patients succumb to the disease. Specifically, the clinical outcome for metastatic osteosarcoma remains poor; less than 30% of patients who present metastases will survive five years after initial diagnosis. Treating metastatic osteosarcoma thus remains a challenge. One of the main characteristics of osteosarcomas is their ability to deregulate bone remodelling...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827830/do-alcohol-misuse-service-utilisation-and-demographic-characteristics-differ-between-uk-veterans-and-members-of-the-general-public-attending-an-nhs-general-hospital
#14
Dominic Murphy, Emily Palmer, Greta Westwood, Walter Busuttil, Neil Greenberg
The aim of this paper was to provide insights into alcohol misuse within UK veterans to inform as to whether their presentations differ from the general public. This was done by exploring differences in the severity of alcohol misuse between UK veterans and the general public admitted to a general NHS hospital over an 18 month period using retrospective data. All patients admitted to the hospital were screened for alcohol misuse. Those deemed as experiencing problems were referred for specialist nurse-led support...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809274/ashamed-and-afraid-a-scoping-review-of-the-role-of-shame-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd
#15
REVIEW
Tanya Saraiya, Teresa Lopez-Castro
BACKGROUND: Despite considerable progress in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a large percentage of individuals remain symptomatic following gold-standard therapies. One route to improving care is examining affective disturbances that involve other emotions beyond fear and threat. A growing body of research has implicated shame in PTSD's development and course, although to date no review of this specific literature exists. This scoping review investigated the link between shame and PTSD and sought to identify research gaps...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809224/air-embolism-practical-tips-for-prevention-and-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Colin J McCarthy, Sasan Behravesh, Sailendra G Naidu, Rahmi Oklu
Air embolism is a rarely encountered but much dreaded complication of surgical procedures that can cause serious harm, including death. Cases that involve the use of endovascular techniques have a higher risk of air embolism; therefore, a heightened awareness of this complication is warranted. In particular, central venous catheters and arterial catheters that are often placed and removed in most hospitals by a variety of medical practitioners are at especially high risk for air embolism. With appropriate precautions and techniques it can be preventable...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782093/effects-of-hyponatremia-normalization-on-the-short-term-mortality-and-rehospitalizations-in-patients-with-recent-acute-decompensated-heart-failure-a-retrospective-study
#17
Renato De Vecchis, Marco Di Maio, Giuseppina Di Biase, Carmelina Ariano
Background: Several studies have shown that hyponatremia is associated with increased risk of rehospitalization and death in patients with heart failure. In these studies, chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with persistent hyponatremia were compared only with CHF patients with a normal sodium level at hospital admission. Aims: In the present retrospective study, conducted in a cohort of patients with recent acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), all with hyponatremia ascertained at the time of hospital admission, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the normalization of serum sodium on the composite endpoint of short-term rehospitalization and mortality...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775643/advances-in-radiotherapy-management-of-esophageal-cancer
#18
Vivek Verma, Amy C Moreno, Steven H Lin
Radiation therapy (RT) as part of multidisciplinary oncologic care has been marked by profound advancements over the past decades. As part of multimodality therapy for esophageal cancer (EC), a prime goal of RT is to minimize not only treatment toxicities, but also postoperative complications and hospitalizations. Herein, discussion commences with the historical approaches to treating EC, including seminal trials supporting multimodality therapy. Subsequently, the impact of RT techniques, including three-dimensional conformal RT, intensity-modulated RT, and proton beam therapy, is examined through available data...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775587/guilt-shame-and-compassionate-imagery-in-war-traumatized-german-soldiers-with-ptsd-a-pilot-study
#19
Christina Alliger-Horn, Peter Lutz Zimmermann, Mervyn Schmucker
BACKGROUND: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which soldiers' PTSD symptoms and their trauma-related guilt and shame may be affected as a function of their ability to develop compassionate imagery between their CURRENT SELF (today) and their TRAUMATIZED SELF (back then)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727158/repurposing-treatments-to-enhance-innate-immunity-can-statins-improve-neutrophil-functions-and-clinical-outcomes-in-copd
#20
Georgia M Walton, James A Stockley, Diane Griffiths, Charandeep S Sadhra, Thomas Purvis, Elizabeth Sapey
Drug classes used in the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have not changed for many years, and none to date have shown disease-modifying activity. Statins are used to help reduce cardiovascular risk, which is high in many patients with COPD. Their use has been associated with improvements in some respiratory manifestations of disease and reduction in all-cause mortality, with greatest reductions seen in patients with the highest inflammatory burden. The mechanism for these effects is poorly understood...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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