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Toxicology Research

Jay I Goodman
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1039/C8TX00004B.].
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Yan Fang, Jie Li, Pei-Pei Han, Qiu-Xia Han, Ming-Xue Li
Four metal complexes based on 2-benzoylpyridine N , N -dimethylthiosemicarbazone (Bp44mT) were designed. Free ligand and zinc(ii), diorganotin(iv), gallium(iii) and cadmium(ii) complexes all demonstrated pronounced activity, which was indicated using the growth inhibition test in vitro . Interestingly, most of the compounds were found to be selective against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells but had little effect on normal hepatocyte (QSG7701) cells. In particular, Zn(Bp44mT)2 ( 1 ) exhibited toxicity on QSG7701 cells which approximately 12-fold lower than that on HepG2 cells...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Bo-Yi Jhou, Wei-Chen Fang, Yen-Lien Chen, Chin-Chu Chen
Cordyceps militaris ( C. militaris ) is a parasitic fungus that grows on the larvae of Lepidoptera . It is a well-known fungus with immunomodulatory activity. The study was conducted to clarify the edible safety of C. militaris mycelium for long term use. Eighty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups (10 males and 10 females in each group). Rats were orally administrated with reverse osmosis water or 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg per kg BW per day freeze dried C. militaris mycelium powder for 90 consecutive days...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Lu Han, Yu-Long Wang, Yan-Chi Sun, Zi-Yuan Hu, Kun Hu, Li-Bo Du
Macrophage apoptosis occurs throughout all stages of atherosclerosis, mainly induced by oxidized low density lipoproteins (Ox LDLs), leading to the formation of necrotic cores. Nevertheless, the mechanism of macrophage apoptosis induced by Ox LDLs is not yet clearly understood. In this study, a model of RAW264.7 macrophages exposed to an Ox LDL analogue, i.e. tert -butylhydroperoxide ( t -BHP), was established. We thoroughly evaluated the viability and apoptosis of RAW264.7 cells treated with t -BHP at different time intervals...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Hardik Makkar, Suresh K Verma, Pritam Kumar Panda, Nandini Pramanik, Ealisha Jha, Mrutyunjay Suar
Improvising bioceramics for enhancing their biocompatibility and physical properties has been a focus area for the dental industry. To further explore this area, this study reports a novel green synthesis and molecular in vitro biocompatibility of calcium aluminosilicate-chitosan nanohybrid (CAS-CH). The nanohybrids were synthesized by using a high energy ball milling (HEBM) technique and then characterized for their physiochemical properties using standard techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS)...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
S Shruthi, K Bhasker Shenoy
Chemotherapeutic drugs are used for the treatment of cancer. However, the use of these drugs is limited due to their side effects on normal cells. One of the measures to detect chemoprotection of plant extracts is to evaluate their anticlastogenic effects. In this study, we report the anticlastogenic effect of gallic acid (GA) against cisplatin (Csp), a chemotherapeutic drug, in Swiss albino mice. Three different doses of GA (100, 200 and 400 mg per kg bw) were administered orally to the experimental animals in 0...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Abdulaziz Almalik, Ibrahim Alradwan, Majed A Majrashi, Bashayer A Alsaffar, Abdulmalek T Algarni, Mohammed S Alsuabeyl, Haitham Alrabiah, Nicola Tirelli, Ali H Alhasan
In recent years, nanotechnology has been proven to offer promising biomedical applications for in vivo diagnostics and drug delivery, stressing the importance of thoroughly investigating the biocompatibility of potentially translatable nanoparticles (NPs). Herein, we report the cellular responses of uncoated chitosan NPs (CS NPs) and hyaluronic acid-coated chitosan NPs (HA-CS NPs) when introduced into Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) in a dose-dependent manner (2.5, 0.25, 0.025, 0.0025, and 0.00025 mg mL-1 ) at two time points (24 and 48 h)...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Neha Bhardwaj, Satish K Pandey, Jyotsana Mehta, Sanjeev K Bhardwaj, Ki-Hyun Kim, Akash Deep
More effective antibiotics are needed to overcome the problem of multidrug resistance. The antibacterial efficacies of three Zn-based nano metal-organic frameworks (nMOFs) - IRMOF-3, MOF-5, and Zn-BTC - were explored, both alone and as mixtures with ampicillin and kanamycin. When tested against Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus lentus , and Listeria monocytogenes , the nMOF/drug mixtures demonstrated synergistic (IRMOF-3/kanamycin) or additive (other nMOF/drug combinations) effects compared with the nMOFs or antibiotics alone...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Annu, Shakeel Ahmed, Gurpreet Kaur, Praveen Sharma, Sandeep Singh, Saiqa Ikram
This work aimed to synthesize silver nanoparticles via an environmentally benign route, using the aqueous extract of Punica granatum as a precursor as well as a stabilizing and reducing agent. The as-synthesized silver nanoparticles were confirmed using UV-visible spectroscopy with an absorbance peak at 450 nm and were thereafter further confirmed using dynamic light scattering (DLS), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). TEM analysis revealed 6-45 nm and spherically dispersed nanoparticles and XRD showed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Longlue Jia, Danyan Zhang, Hannian Huang, Yongyong Zhou, Shengli Zhou, Jiangfeng Guo
Triazophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide, causing acute toxicity to brain tissue, and neurotoxicity and embryotoxicity to animals. Therefore, triazophos is considered as a public health problem due to its acute hazard index. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous noncoding RNAs, can regulate the expression of target gene(s) by mediating mRNA cleavage or translational repression in organisms exposed to environmental chemicals. We found that nup43 is targeted by miR-217 , which was significantly regulated in adult zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) exposed to triazophos (phenyl-1,2,4-triazolyl-3-( o , o -diethyl thionophosphate))...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Yan Su, Shiyou Lu, Jincun Li, Liya Deng
Retinoblastoma (RB) is an ocular tumor that occurs mainly in children. The pathogenesis of RB is not well understood, and its treatment strategies are very limited. Shikonin is widely reported as an anti-tumor agent. However, its effect on RB is still unknown. MTT assay was performed to detect the proliferation ability of two RB cell lines, Y-79 and WERI-Rb-1, upon treatment with Shikonin. Colony formation assay was conducted to examine the clonogenic ability of Shikonin-treated cells. Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed for expression analysis of miRNAs and MYCN, respectively...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Bin Zhu, Song Zhu, Jian Li, Xin Hui, Gao-Xue Wang
With the increasing production and applications of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), concerns about the likelihood of SWCNTs being present in the aquatic environment and the subsequent effects on aquatic organisms are emerging. This work aimed to investigate the developmental toxicity, bioaccumulation and distribution of oxidized SWCNTs (O-SWCNTs) in a marine model organism, Artemia salina ( A. salina ). The results indicated that the hatching rates of capsulated and decapsulated cysts were decreased as the O-SWCNT concentration increased from 0 to 600 mg L-1 at 12, 18, 24 and 36 h...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Xiaowei Yang, Yinhuan Zhang, Yan Liu, Chang Chen, Wenjuan Xu, Hongbin Xiao
Emodin is a natural anthraquinone derivative that occurs in many Chinese medicinal herbs. It might induce liver damage, but the mechanism is not clear. In this research, seven groups of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with three doses of emodin were used. The liver injury was examined by analyzing biochemical indexes and histopathology. Altered proteins between the control group (CG) and the liver injury group were determined by proteomic technology. The results showed that emodin causes liver injury in a time- and dose-dependent manner...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Prem Rajak, Salma Khatun, Moumita Dutta, Moutushi Mandi, Sumedha Roy
The present study demonstrates ROS-mediated organismal and sub-organismal injuries in Drosophila melanogaster following chronic acephate exposure. Larvae and adults of Drosophila were reared on food supplemented with sub-lethal concentrations (1-6 μg mL-1 ) of acephate (LC50 8.71 μg mL-1 ). The longevity of the treated adults was reduced to half at 6 μg mL-1 exposure along with declined neuromuscular coordination and physical activities. Apparent developmental defects in the compound eyes were confirmed through the detection of apoptotic lesions in larval eye imaginal discs...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Gözde Karabulut, Nurhayat Barlas
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer and people are exposed to various amounts on a daily basis. This study was designed to evaluate the genotoxic, histologic, immunohistochemical, morphometric and hormonal effects of DEHP (100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 per day DEHP) administered daily to rats by oral gavage for 28 days. The rats were divided into five groups including oil control, positive control (MMS) and treatment groups (100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 per day DEHP). They were euthanized at the end of the experiment, organ and body weights were recorded and serum was collected for biochemical and hormone analysis...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Hizlan H Agus, Cemaynur Sarp, Meryem Cemiloglu
Terpinolene is one of the most abundant monoterpenes used as a food supplement or odorant in cosmetics and the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we aimed to assess apoptotic, oxidative and cytotoxic effects of terpinolene. We used the fission yeast ( Schizosaccharomyces pombe ) as a promising uni-cellular model organism in molecular toxicology and cell death research, due to its resemblance to mammalian cells at the molecular level. After terpinolene exposure (200-800 mg L-1 ), the IC50 and LC50 were calculated as 349...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Wei Hong, Yan Liu, Ming-Hui Li, Yue-Xiao Xing, Ting Chen, Yong-Hong Fu, Lei Jiang, He Zhao, Ai-Qun Jia, Jun-Song Wang
Owing to the promising applications of C-dots in biomedical engineering, concerns about their safety have drawn increasing attention recently. In this study, mice were intraperitoneally injected at different C-dot concentrations (0, 6.0, 12.0 and 24.0 mg kg-1 ) once every 2 days for 30 days. A 1 H NMR-based metabolic approach supplemented with biochemical analysis and histopathology was used for the first time to explore the toxicity of C-dots in vivo . Histopathological inspection revealed that C-dots did not induce any obvious impairment in tissues...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Chang Zhang, Pan Gong, Yan Ye, Lulu Zhang, Minjian Chen, Yanhui Hu, Aihua Gu, Shanshan Chen, Yubang Wang
This study was aimed at assessing steroidogenesis stimulated by low-dose exposure to DBP in prepubertal female rats. Animals were gavaged with DBP from postnatal day 21 to 33 at 0, 1, 10 and 500 mg kg-1 day-1 . 500 mg kg-1 day-1 was selected since it was used in numerous studies and the inhibitory effect could be observed at this dosage. After treatment, hormone levels in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. mRNA and protein expressions of vimentin, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 (p-p65) were assayed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Sinem Ilgin, Volkan Kilic, Merve Baysal, Gozde Aydogan-Kilic, Seyda Ucarcan, Begum Dermenci, Ozlem Atli
Sertraline is an antidepressant that is frequently prescribed to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and anxiety. This drug had a safe cardiotoxicity profile, until the reporting of cases of sertraline-associated cardiotoxicities in the early 2000s. Since then, there have been conflicting results on the cardiotoxicity of this drug. In the study reported here we aimed to identify the cardiotoxic effects of sertraline by evaluating serum cardiac biomarkers, such as serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine phosphokinase-myoglobin band (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cardiac troponin T (cTn-T) levels as well as electrocardiographic parameters, DNA damage in cardiomyocytes, and histological findings of heart tissue in rats that were administered oral doses of 5, 10, or 20 mg kg-1 of sertraline for 28 days...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Hong-Yu Zhang, Ru-Long Chen, Yang Shao, Hua-Lin Wang, Zhi-Guo Liu
Objective : To explore the toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the liver lipid metabolism of offspring mice and the possible mechanisms involved. Method : Virgin female (16-18 g) and male (18-20 g) C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: Control group and Test group. After anesthesia with chloral hydrate, the mice were administered 50 μL saline or dust solution by intratracheal instillation (Control group: 50 μL saline; Test group: 15 mg kg-1 MWCNTs). Mice were injected with these doses once a week for 13 weeks...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
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