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Toxicology Research

Disi Bai, Qingzhao Li, Jianhui Wang, Junjian Zhao, Xuenan Deng, Lu Yuan, Ping Wu
Recently, interest in the potential applications of tin disulphide nanoflowers (SnS2 NFs) in the treatment of waste water and their antibacterial properties has increased. However, their effects on neurotoxicity, brain cognition and behavioural injury, as well as the underlying mechanisms of these effects have remained unknown. In the present study, we compared the neurotoxicity of SnS2 NFs (50 nm) administered intragastrically at different doses (5, 10, and 50 mg kg-1 ) in mice for 60 days. The results showed that the neurotoxicity of SnS2 NFs in mice is dose-dependent...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Tanwei Yuan, Hongbo Zhang, Bin Chen, Hong Zhang, Shasha Tao
High dose arsenic in drinking water (≥100 μg L-1 ) is known to induce lung cancer, but lung cancer risks at low to moderate arsenic levels and its dose-response relationship remains inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review of cohort and case-control studies that quantitatively reported the association between arsenic concentrations in drinking water and lung cancer risks by searching the PubMed database till June 14, 2018. Pooled relative risks (RRs) of lung cancer associated with full range (10 μg L-1 -1000 μg L-1 ) and low to moderate range (<100 μg L-1 ) of water arsenic concentrations were calculated using random-effects models...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Nelson Andrade, Cláudia Silva, Fátima Martel
The pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal diseases, including gastrointestinal cancers and inflammatory bowel disease, is associated with increased oxidative stress levels. We aimed to investigate the effect of oxidative stress induced by tert -butylhydroperoxide (TBH) on the uptake of 3 H-deoxy-d-glucose (3 H-DG) and 14 C-fructose by the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. TBH (500 μM; 24 h) increased lipid peroxidation (TBARS) levels and was not cytotoxic. TBH (500 μM; 24 h) increased uptake of both low (SGLT1-mediated) and high concentrations (SGLT1- and GLUT2-mediated) of 3 H-DG, but did not affect absorption of 14 C-fructose (GLUT2- and GLUT5-mediated)...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Ronghua Li, Tingting Zhang, Mei Qin, Peng Yue, Ming Cai, Xuejun He, Hongqun Qiao
Ginkgo biloba (a herbal product) has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. Ginkgolide B is one of the important pharmacologically active components of Ginkgo biloba . Dimethylaminoethyl ginkgolide B (a novel ginkgolide B derivative) has been developed to overcome the poor water-solubility of natural drugs and to achieve higher bioavailability. This study investigated the potential effects of dimethylaminoethyl ginkgolide B on pregnant dams and embryo-fetal development in Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand white rabbits following maternal exposure on gestational day (GD) 6-15 and GD 6-18, respectively...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Yueli Yao, Xiaoru Chang, Dong Wang, Haitao Ma, Huiling Wang, Haojun Zhang, Chengyun Li, Junling Wang
The absence of the thyroid hormone (TH) could impair testicular function, but its mechanism is still rudimentary. This study aims to explore the roles of estrogen receptor (ER α, β) and G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathways in apoptosis in testes of hypothyroidism rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (C), low-(L) and high-hypothyroidism (H) groups [1 mL per 100 g BW per day normal saline, 0...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Wenjun Qu, Dong Yuan, Lining Zhao, Wansong Zong, Rutao Liu
The wide range of applications of copper have caused widespread concern about its toxicity. However, few studies have reported the mechanism of the binding interaction between copper ions and digestive enzymes, which play an important role in physiological health and industrial production. In this study, the effects of copper ions on the conformation and activity of Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) were evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), multiple spectral techniques, molecular simulation and enzyme activity assays...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Neha P Sangai, Chirag N Patel, Himanshu A Pandya
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor of xenobiotic type, mainly used for the production of polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins and non-polymer additives. Because of its wide usages in the environment, the toxic effects of BPA have proved to be harmful to human health. However, its effects on human haemoglobin remain unclear. The affinity between BPA and haemoglobin, as well as erythrocytes, is an important factor in understanding the mechanism of the toxicity of BPA. Flavonoids are strong antioxidants that prevent oxidative stress and Quercetin is a flavonoid found in numerous vegetables and fruits...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Bingqiong Yu, Long Ma, Jiancheng Jin, Fenglei Jiang, Gangcheng Zhou, Kun Yan, Yi Liu
Gold(i) complexes have been widely used as antibacterial and antitumor agents because of their excellent biological activities. However, there are few reports on the study of gold(i) complexes at the subcellular level. Herein, we investigated the toxicity of a gold(i) complex ( N , N '-disubstituted cyclic thiourea ligand) - AuTuCl - to isolated mitochondria via various methods. The results showed that AuTuCl induced mitochondrial swelling, elevated ROS generation and triggered collapse of the membrane potential, which indicated the induction of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Xun Xiang, Tao Gao, Bo-Rui Zhang, Feng-Lei Jiang, Yi Liu
Quantum dots (QDs) are used in the bio-medical area because of their excellent optical properties. Their biomedical utilization has remained a serious biosecurity concern. Cytotoxicity experiments have shown that QD toxicity is connected to the properties of the QDs. In this paper, the toxicity of QDs was studied from the aspect of surface functional groups at the mitochondrial level. Three types of ligands, thioglycollic acid (TGA), mercaptoethylamine (MEA) and l-cysteine (l-Cys), which have similar structures but different functional groups were used to coat CdTe QDs...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
R L Smith, S C Mitchell
Unravelling the molecular basis of thalidomide embryotoxicity, which is remarkably species-specific, is challenging in view of its low toxicity in the mature animal. Employing data derived solely from proven sensitive primate species or susceptible strains of rabbit, the structure-activity relationship of over 50 compounds which are, arguably, congeners of thalidomide has been reviewed. The molecular requirement for 'thalidomide-type' teratogenicity was highly structure dependent. Both the phthalimide and glutarimide groups were essential for embryopathic activity, although minor substitutions in either or both rings could be tolerated without a loss of toxicity...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Xiaoqi Li, Rui An, Kun Liang, Xinhong Wang, Lisha You
Phototoxicity can cause toxic responses such as edemas and lesions, and is one of the severe adverse effects that largely limit the use of these phototoxic drugs. Some traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and their constituents have been reported to be phototoxic. However, to date, their phototoxicity information is still very limited, and lacks systemic investigation. This article presents the phototoxicity potential of various types of TCMs and their active components in an effort to provide valuable information for drug research and discovery to mitigate phototoxicity concerns...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
P K Zhou, R X Huang
The mitochondrion is an important subcellular target of environmental toxicants. With environmental stress, a series of toxic effects on mitochondria are induced, which originate from the dynamic changes of mitochondrial fusion and fission, structure/membrane damage, and respiratory chain dysfunction. The toxic effects of various toxicants on mitochondrial morphology and intact membranes, and their determination of cell fate, have already been broadly studied and reported on. However, their effects on the integrity and function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) remain incompletely understood...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Xuan Qiu, Xiaobing Zhou, Yufa Miao, Bo Li
The kidney is one of the major target organs for drug-induced toxicity. During drug development, the traditional markers of nephrotoxicity indicate only severe and late damage, which leads to high costs. The new biomarkers are needed for a more sensitive and reliable evaluation of nephrotoxicity, especially for the regulatory accepted and validated in vitro model. We developed an in vitro model based on the HK-2 cell using the biomarkers of nephrotoxicity as endpoints for the evaluation of nephrotoxicity. The predictive performance of the biomarkers including LDH, GGT, KIM-1, clusterin, CysC, NGAL, TIMP-1, GSTπ and osteopontin was evaluated with 22 well characterized compounds...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
A K Sai Siva Ram, K Pratap Reddy, B P Girish, Ch Supriya, P Sreenivasula Reddy
The aim of this study was to assess the reproductive toxic effects of arsenic on adult Wistar rats exposed to lead during the perinatal period. The pregnant rats were allowed ad libitum access to tap water containing 819 mg of lead (Pb) per L or without Pb from conception until weaning. Litter size, survival rate and developmental milestones of the pups delivered by Pb exposed dams were comparable to those of the control rats. Conversely, the pups exposed to Pb during the perinatal period exhibited significant delay in cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface righting reflex, ascending wire mesh and testis descent...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Sonia Maryam, Muhammad Rashid Khan, Sayed Afzal Shah, Zartash Zahra, Muhammad Majid, Moniba Sajid, Saima Ali
The aim of present study was to access the antioxidant and ameliorative efficacy of Wendlandia heynei stem bark's crude methanol extract (WHBM) against bisphenol A (BPA)-induced hepatotoxicity in the rat moel. WHBM and its derived fractions exhibited promising activity for the scavenging of DPPH, hydroxyl and nitrite radicals, iron chelation, and for the inhibition of β-carotene oxidation. The administration of BPA to Sprague Dawley rats (25 mg kg-1 ) for 28 days resulted in an elevated ( p < 0.01) level of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and globulin, and at the same time a decrease ( p < 0...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Mu Wang, Wei Xia, Hongbin Liu, Fang Liu, Han Li, Huailong Chang, Jie Sun, Wenyu Liu, Xiaojie Sun, Yangqian Jiang, Hongxiu Liu, Chuansha Wu, Xinyun Pan, Yuanyuan Li, Weiqing Rang, Songfeng Lu, Shunqing Xu
Pregnant women are a unique group undergoing profound structural modifications in uterus, breast, adipose tissue and extracellular fluids. Amino acid metabolic stress is a unique physical process that occurs during pregnancy. Metals constitute a fundamental part of the maternal body and have a universal effect on amino acid metabolism. However, the exact interaction between metals and amino acid metabolism during pregnancy is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the correlations of metals with amino acid metabolic intermediates in the urine of 232 healthy pregnant women in their first, second and third trimesters during normal pregnancy...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Houmin Luo, Caiyun Gu, Chuanxin Liu, Yuming Wang, Hao Wang, Yubo Li
Both Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. (SNV) and Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) have received extensive attention due to their excellent clinical efficacies. However, clinical applications of SNV and TwHF have been limited by their narrow therapeutic windows and severe kidney toxicities. In this paper, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS), endogenous metabolites after administration of SNV and TwHF extracts were detected, and biomarkers were screened successfully...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Qingzhao Li, Jiali Zheng, Sheng Xu, Jingshu Zhang, Yanhua Cao, Zhenlong Qin, Xiaoqin Liu, Chunyang Jiang
Objective : The complex components of PM2.5 including metal elements transported through the blood brain barrier could induce nervous system damage. This study discusses the relationship between rats' learning and memory and changes in the hippocampal neuron histomorphology and neurotransmitter levels induced by PM2.5 exposure. Methods : Male rats were treated with different concentrations of PM2.5 by tracheal perfusion once per week for up to 12 weeks. After the rats were sacrificed, the main metal element contents (Al, Pb, Cu, Mn, As, Cr, Cd, and Ni) of the blood and whole hippocampus, levels of neurotransmitters released in the whole hippocampus and relative receptors, and changes in the hippocampal structure were detected...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Long Ma, Kai-Dong Bi, Yu-Meng Fan, Zi-Yi Jiang, Xiao-Yi Zhang, Jing-Wen Zhang, Jie Zhao, Feng-Lei Jiang, Jia-Xin Dong
Mercury (Hg) is a toxic environmental pollutant that exerts its cytotoxic effects as cations by targeting mitochondria. In our work, we determined different mitochondrial toxicity factors using specific substrates and inhibitors following the addition of Hg2+ to the mitochondria isolated from Wistar rat liver in vitro . We found that Hg2+ induced marked changes in the mitochondrial ultrastructure accompanied by mitochondrial swelling, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, mitochondrial membrane fluidity increase and Cytochrome c release...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Jassana Moreira Floriano, Emanoeli da Rosa, Queila Daiane Fonseca do Amaral, Luísa Zuravski, Pamella Eduardha Espindola Chaves, Michel Mansur Machado, Luís Flávio Souza de Oliveira
The use of food colorings has a long-recorded history. Tartrazine (TRZ) is a dye that confers a lemon-yellow color to food and is widely used in the manufacture of numerous food products, as well as in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. However, few studies have addressed the toxicology of TRZ in human cells or tissues. Considering the frequent consumption of the TRZ dye in food products and the lack of toxicological data, the present study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the TRZ dye in human leukocyte cultures and perform theoretical studies to predict its toxicity in silico ...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
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