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Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology

Ruben Jauregui, Galaxy Y Cho, Vitor K L Takahashi, Julia T Takiuti, Alexander G Bassuk, Vinit B Mahajan, Stephen H Tsang
Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are a major cause of incurable familial blindness in the Western world. In the pediatric population, IRDs are a major contributor to the 19 million children worldwide with visual impairment. Unfortunately, the road to the correct diagnosis is often complicated in the pediatric population, as typical diagnostic tools such as fundus examination, electrodiagnostic studies, and other imaging modalities may be difficult to perform in the pediatric patient. In this review, we describe the most significant IRDs with onset during the pediatric years (ie, before the age of 18)...
March 14, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Taraprasad Das
PURPOSE: The International Agency for Prevention of Blindness (IAPB) South East Asia region (SEAR) that consists of 11 countries contains 26% of the world's population (1,761,000,000). In this region 12 million are blind and 78.5 million are visually impaired. This amounts to 30% of global blindness and 32% of global visual impairment. DESIGN: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) survey analysis. METHODS: RAAB, either a repeat or a first time survey, was completed in 8 countries in this decade (2010 onwards)...
March 13, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Stella Yue Sun, Woon Chee Yeo, Andrew Ban Guan Tay, Donald Tiang Hwee Tan, Danny Ben Poon Tan
PURPOSE: Osteoodontokeratoprosthesis (OOKP) surgery is used to restore vision in end-stage corneal disorders, where an autogenous tooth supporting an optical cylinder is implanted through the cornea under a buccal mucosal graft. The ideal tooth for OOKP is a healthy single-rooted permanent tooth with sufficient buccolingual/palatal root diameter to accommodate an optical cylinder. The aim of this study was to determine the buccolingual/palatal diameters of canine and premolar roots in Chinese, for selection of teeth for OOKP surgery...
March 6, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Sonoko Sensaki, Charumati Sabanayagam, Sharon Chua, Hla Myint Htoon, Brit F P Broekman, Daniel Goh Yam Thiam, Cheryl Ngo, Seang Mei Saw
PURPOSE: To investigate the association of sleep duration and quality at 12 months and myopia at 3 years. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort recruited pregnant women at 2 major public maternity hospitals (n = 1236). We included 376 children of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity who had completed caregiver questionnaires on the child's sleep at 12 months of age [Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ)] and also completed cycloplegic autorefraction and eye axial length (AL) measurement at 3 years of age...
February 26, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Sathyadeepak Ramesh, Adit Gupta, Daniel Benson Rootman, Robert Alan Goldberg
PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term results of lateral canthal resuspension over time. DESIGN: A cohort study of adults (n = 25, 45 eyelids) undergoing lateral canthal resuspension. METHODS: Marginal reflex distance 2 (MRD2), inferior scleral show, lateral canthal height, lateral canthal angle, horizontal palpebral aperture, and lateral scleral triangle area were measured preoperatively and at postoperative week 1, month 3, and the final follow-up visit...
February 26, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Chris Or, Almyr S Sabrosa, Osama Sorour, Malvika Arya, Nadia Waheed
As ischemia remains a key prognostic factor in the management of various diseases including diabetic retinopathy, an increasing amount of research has been dedicated to its quantification as a potential biomarker. Advancements in the quantification of retinal ischemia have been made with the imaging modalities of fluorescein angiography (FA), ultra-widefield imaging (UWF), and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), with each imaging modality offering certain benefits over the others. FA remains the gold standard in assessing the extent of ischemia...
February 13, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Parag K Shah, Appanraj Ramya, Venkatapathy Narendran
With the increasing survival of preterm babies in the Asia-Pacific region, there has been an increase in the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). There is also a lack of trained ophthalmologists to screen for this disease. New strategies for screening of ROP are required, wherein the load on the ophthalmologist can be reduced. Telemedicine is an excellent tool to address this need. This paper reviews the initial studies comparing digital imaging with indirect ophthalmoscopy, the current active ROP telescreening programs in the world, and ends with studies dealing with automated diagnosis of ROP...
February 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Recivall P Salongcay, Paolo S Silva
The emergence of diabetes as a global epidemic is accompanied by the rise in diabetes‑related retinal complications. Diabetic retinopathy, if left undetected and untreated, can lead to severe visual impairment and affect an individual's productivity and quality of life. Globally, diabetic retinopathy remains one of the leading causes of visual loss in the working‑age population. Teleophthalmology for diabetic retinopathy is an innovative means of retinal evaluation that allows identification of eyes at risk for visual loss, thereby preserving vision and decreasing the overall burden to the health care system...
January 26, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Jacqueline Chua, Claire Xin Ying Lim, Tien Yin Wong, Charumathi Sabanayagam
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common complication of diabetes mellitus, is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in middle-aged and elderly in the Asia-Pacific. It has been estimated that 51% of all those with blindness due to DR globally (n = 424,400) and 56% of those with visual impairment due to DR (2.1 million) come from the Asia-Pacific. Prevalence of DR among those with diabetes ranged from 10% in India to 43% in Indonesia within the Asia-Pacific. Awareness of DR among persons with diabetes ranged from 28% to 84%...
January 26, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Michael Ip, Andrew Hendrick
Retinal vein occlusions are a very common condition with great importance in ophthalmology clinical practice. This article reviews the salient epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, and treatments related to retinal vein occlusions.
December 27, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Daniela Reyes-Capó, Kara M Cavuoto, Ta C Chang
PURPOSE: The incidence of infantile-onset secondary glaucoma associated with periocular cutaneous vascular malformations is high and the outcomes of these glaucomatous eyes have anecdotally been poor. The purpose of this study was to determine the anatomic and visual outcomes of affected eyes. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Consecutive patients with early-onset (younger than 36 months of age) glaucoma associated with cutaneous vascular malformations from 1995‒2015 were included...
December 27, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Andrzej Grzybowski, Magdalena Turczynowska
Increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics has recently become an important medical challenge. In ophthalmology antibiotics are widely used for treatment and prophylaxis of ocular infections. In many cases antiseptics may be a valuable adjunct and sometimes even an alternative to antibiotics for the prevention and treatment of infections, reducing the overuse of antibiotics. This review aims to highlight the available literature on the subject of antibiotic resistance in ophthalmology. Full understanding of this growing problem is necessary for tailoring effective pre-, intra-, and postoperative management to improve antibiotic stewardship programs...
December 27, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Taraprasad Das, Savitri Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Kevin Miller, Jorge A Fortun
Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema comprise a major source of visual disability throughout the developed world. The etiology and pathogenesis of macular edema is intricate and multifactorial, in which the hyperglycemic state in diabetes induces a microangiopathy. Through several inflammatory and vasogenic mediators, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upregulation and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, pathologic changes are induced in the vascular endothelium triggering breakdown of the blood retinal barrier, causing extravasation of fluid into the extracellular space and manifesting clinically as macular edema, resulting in visual loss...
January 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Suber S Huang, Lihteh Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Marco A Zarbin
Blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling, whether via sequestration of free VEGF or via inhibition of the tyrosine kinases activated by VEGF, is associated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin-I 2 (PG-I 2) production along with vascular endothelial cell death. Systemic administration of drugs that block VEGF signaling (eg, for cancer treatment) is associated with systemic complications such as hypertension and thrombosis. Evidence regarding the risk of systemic serious adverse events after intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF agents in patients with diabetic macular edema or neovascular age-related macular degeneration is inconsistent, in part because of study design limitations (eg, bias of ascertainment through strict enrollment criteria and/or inadequate power to identify the risk of low frequency events)...
January 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Dhariana Acón, Lihteh Wu
Throughout ophthalmic history it has been shown that progress has gone hand in hand with technological breakthroughs. In the past, fluorescein angiography and fundus photographs were the most commonly used imaging modalities in the management of diabetic macular edema (DME). Today, despite the moderate correlation between macular thickness and functional outcomes, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has become the DME workhorse in clinical practice. Several SD-OCT biomarkers have been looked at including presence of epiretinal membrane, vitreomacular adhesion, disorganization of the inner retinal layers, central macular thickness, integrity of the ellipsoid layer, and subretinal fluid, among others...
January 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Kimberly D Tran, Linda A Cernichiaro-Espinosa, Audina M Berrocal
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Although laser photocoagulation re-mains the gold standard for treating threshold and prethreshold disease (type 1 ROP), the off-label use of anti‒vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy to treat ROP is increasing. Benefits include acute regression of ROP, growth of retinal vasculature beyond the demarcation line, lesser degree of myopia and peripheral visual field loss, and avoidance of sedation and intubation required for laser...
January 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
J Fernando Arevalo, T Y Alvin Liu
The advent of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) medications has revolutionized the treatment of diabetic eye diseases. Herein, we report the outcomes of clinical studies carried out by the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group (PACORES), with a specific focus on the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab in the management of diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. We will also discuss the use of intravitreal bevacizumab as a preoperative, adjuvant therapy before vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy...
January 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Yanin Suwan, Lawrence S Geyman, Masoud Aghsaei Fard, Apichat Tantraworasin, Toco Y Chui, Richard B Rosen, Robert Ritch
PURPOSE: To compare the peripapillary perfused capillary density (PCD) among eyes with exfoliation syndrome (XFS), exfoliation glaucoma (XFG), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and controls. DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images (4.5×4.5 mm) of the optic nerve head were obtained using a commercial spectral domain OCTA system (AngioVue Avanti RTVue-XR, OptoVue, Fremont, CA)...
November 22, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
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