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Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766684/neuromyelitis-optica-review-and-utility-of-testing-aquaporin-4-antibody-in-typical-optic-neuritis
#1
Meagan Seay, Janet C Rucker
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, inflammatory demyelinating disorder often leading to severe vision impairment and disability. The discovery of a diagnostic biomarker, the aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-IgG), transformed the clinical diagnosis and treatment of NMO and broadened the spectrum of disease [NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD)]. Though the antibody is highly sensitive and specific to NMOSD, routine testing in patients with typical optic neuritis is considered controversial. This article will provide a brief review of NMOSD and highlight the pros and cons of routine testing in typical optic neuritis...
May 16, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737052/retinoblastoma-for-pediatric-ophthalmologists
#2
Alaa AlAli, Stephanie Kletke, Brenda Gallie, Wai-Ching Lam
Retinoblastoma can present in 1 or both eyes and is the most common intraocular malignancy in childhood. It is typically initiated by biallelic mutation of the RB1 tumor suppressor gene, leading to malignant transformation of primitive retinal cells. The most common presentation is leukocoria, followed by strabismus. Heritable retinoblastoma accounts for 45% of all cases, with 80% being bilateral. Treatment and prognosis of retinoblastoma is dictated by the disease stage at initial presentation. The 8th Edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNMH (tumor, node, metastasis, heritable trait) staging system defines evidence-based clinical and pathological staging for overall prognosis for eye(s) and child...
May 8, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717825/treatment-of-nonarteritic-acute-central-retinal-artery-occlusion
#3
Rahul A Sharma, Michael Dattilo, Nancy J Newman, Valerie Biousse
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an event most often caused by an embolus originating in the ipsilateral carotid artery, aortic arch, or heart. CRAO may result from partial or complete occlusion of the central retinal artery (CRA), which acts as the primary blood supply to the inner neurosensory retina, and typically results in profound vision loss and permanent visual disability. No consensus has emerged regarding the optimal treatment of CRAO. All proposed treatments are of questionable efficacy and many have uncertain risk profiles...
May 2, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701429/pharmacotherapy-and-rop-going-back-to-the-basics
#4
Julia P Shulman, M Elizabeth Hartnett
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of blindness in preterm infants around the world. Through the development of animal models and clinical trials our understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease and approach to therapy has evolved significantly since ROP was first described in the 1940s in the United States. The mainstay of treatment in ROP remains ablative laser therapy to the avascular retina but pharmacologic agents are being more and more commonly used with new targets for pharmacotherapy emerging...
April 27, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682916/pediatric-uveitis
#5
Nicole Shu-Wen Chan, Jessy Choi, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung
Pediatric uveitis differs from adult-onset uveitis and is a topic of special interest because of its diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Children with uveitis are often asymptomatic and the uveitis is often chronic, persistent, recurrent, and resistant to conventional treatment. Anterior uveitis is the most common type of uveitis in children; the prevalence of intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis varies geographically and among ethnic groups. Regarding etiology, most cases of pediatric uveitis are idiopathic but can be due to systemic inflammatory disorders, infections, or a manifestation of masquerade syndrome...
April 23, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667789/updates-and-controversies-in-the-management-of-acute-optic-neuritis
#6
Ethan Meltzer, Sashank Prasad
Optic neuritis remains a common diagnosis with controversial management. Although typical optic neuritis is often associated with "good" recovery of visual acuity, patients are often left with persistent impairments of contrast sensitivity, color vision, and visual field. These permanent visual deficits correlate with structural injury to the anterior visual pathway and are closely linked to visual quality of life. High dose corticosteroids are commonly used for patients with acute optic neuritis...
April 18, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29638049/visual-evoked-potentials-and-glaucoma
#7
Tak Yee Tania Tai
Visual evoked potentials (VEP) can be used to assess the function of the visual system objectively. Research on VEP testing as a method of glaucoma evaluation has been performed for many years. Pattern VEP has shown good specificity and sensitivity in the detection of glaucoma in some studies, but other studies have not shown similar efficacy. Multifocal VEP can produce a topographical measure of glaucomatous damage and has been shown to be able to detect a similar number of defects in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension as compared with the visual field test...
April 11, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633786/vascular-anomalies-of-the-orbit-a-reappraisal
#8
Timothy John Sullivan
The recent International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification of vascular anomalies can be applied to orbital lesions, dividing them into vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Orbital cavernous hemangiomas are probably best considered cavernous venous malformations under this classification. Management of symptomatic lesions can be with surgical excision or stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy in selected cases. Beta-blockers including propranolol and topical timolol maleate represent first-line therapy for infantile hemangiomas, although surgery has a role in selected cases...
April 10, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633588/familial-exudative-vitreoretinopathy-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-management
#9
Zujaja Tauqeer, Yoshihiro Yonekawa
Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a heritable vitreoretinopathy characterized by anomalous retinal vascular development. The principal feature of the disease is an avascular peripheral retina. This in turn can cause further pathological changes including neovascularization, exudation, hemorrhage, and retinal detachment. The biological basis of the disease is thought to be from defects in the Wnt signaling pathway. Many gene mutations have been implicated, and these can be inherited in an autosomal dominant (most common), autosomal recessive, and X-linked recessive fashion...
April 9, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633587/anti-vegf-for-rop-and-pediatric-retinal-diseases
#10
An-Lun Wu, Wei-Chi Wu
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important mediator of the pathological neovascularization and vascular permeability of the eye. The increasing use of intravitreal therapies targeting VEGF has revolutionized the treatment of pediatric vitreoretinal diseases. In retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), the role of VEGF in pathogenesis has been well recognized and the use of anti-VEGF treatment in phase 2 ROP has demonstrated promising results, particularly in severe cases of posterior disease. This has made VEGF an established target in the treatment of pediatric retinal diseases known to have abnormal vascular activity...
April 9, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633586/congenital-x-linked-retinoschisis-an-updated-clinical-review
#11
Prethy Rao, Vaidehi S Dedania, Kimberly A Drenser
We present an updated clinical review of the pathophysiology, progression, and current treatments in pediatric patients with congenital X-linked retinoschisis (CXLRS). CXLRS is an X-linked inherited retinal degeneration characterized by splitting of the superficial layers of the retina. Most recent classification divides CXLRS into 4 distinct clinical phenotypes: type 1, foveal; type 2, foveolamellar; type 3, complex; and type 4, foveoperipheral. The majority of retinoschisis cavities remain stable throughout life and may spontaneously collapse...
April 9, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664241/surgical-management-of-coats-disease
#12
Shunji Kusaka
Coats disease is a sporadic, chronic retinal vascular disorder with telangiectatic and aneurysmal retinal vessels, with retinal exudation and retinal detachment in severe cases. Various treatment modalities have been used, including laser therapy, cryotherapy, anti‒vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy, and surgery. Anti-VEGF therapy seems to be effective in reducing exudative changes and is often combined with other treatment modalities. For severe cases with exudative retinal detachment, external drainage of subretinal fluid with or without vitrectomy is commonly performed, combined with laser therapy and/or cryotherapy...
March 27, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536675/caring-for-hereditary-childhood-retinal-blindness
#13
Ruben Jauregui, Galaxy Y Cho, Vitor K L Takahashi, Julia T Takiuti, Alexander G Bassuk, Vinit B Mahajan, Stephen H Tsang
Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are a major cause of incurable familial blindness in the Western world. In the pediatric population, IRDs are a major contributor to the 19 million children worldwide with visual impairment. Unfortunately, the road to the correct diagnosis is often complicated in the pediatric population, as typical diagnostic tools such as fundus examination, electrodiagnostic studies, and other imaging modalities may be difficult to perform in the pediatric patient. In this review, we describe the most significant IRDs with onset during the pediatric years (ie, before the age of 18)...
March 14, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532647/blindness-and-visual-impairment-profile-and-rapid-assessment-of-avoidable-blindness-in-south-east-asia-analysis-of-new-data-2017-apao-holmes-lecture
#14
Taraprasad Das
PURPOSE: The International Agency for Prevention of Blindness (IAPB) South East Asia region (SEAR) that consists of 11 countries contains 26% of the world's population (1,761,000,000). In this region 12 million are blind and 78.5 million are visually impaired. This amounts to 30% of global blindness and 32% of global visual impairment. DESIGN: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) survey analysis. METHODS: RAAB, either a repeat or a first time survey, was completed in 8 countries in this decade (2010 onwards)...
March 13, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558571/endophthalmitis-prevention
#15
EDITORIAL
Taraprasad Das, Savitri Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508951/canine-and-premolar-root-dimensions-in-chinese-a-reference-for-osteoodontokeratoprosthesis-surgery
#16
Stella Yue Sun, Woon Chee Yeo, Andrew Ban Guan Tay, Donald Tiang Hwee Tan, Danny Ben Poon Tan
PURPOSE: Osteoodontokeratoprosthesis (OOKP) surgery is used to restore vision in end-stage corneal disorders, where an autogenous tooth supporting an optical cylinder is implanted through the cornea under a buccal mucosal graft. The ideal tooth for OOKP is a healthy single-rooted permanent tooth with sufficient buccolingual/palatal root diameter to accommodate an optical cylinder. The aim of this study was to determine the buccolingual/palatal diameters of canine and premolar roots in Chinese, for selection of teeth for OOKP surgery...
March 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480655/sleep-duration-in-infants-was-not-associated-with-myopia-at-3-years
#17
Sonoko Sensaki, Charumati Sabanayagam, Sharon Chua, Hla Myint Htoon, Brit F P Broekman, Daniel Goh Yam Thiam, Cheryl Ngo, Seang Mei Saw
PURPOSE: To investigate the association of sleep duration and quality at 12 months and myopia at 3 years. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort recruited pregnant women at 2 major public maternity hospitals (n = 1236). We included 376 children of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity who had completed caregiver questionnaires on the child's sleep at 12 months of age [Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ)] and also completed cycloplegic autorefraction and eye axial length (AL) measurement at 3 years of age...
March 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480654/long-term-follow-up-of-lateral-canthal-resuspension
#18
Sathyadeepak Ramesh, Adit Gupta, Daniel Benson Rootman, Robert Alan Goldberg
PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term results of lateral canthal resuspension over time. DESIGN: A cohort study of adults (n = 25, 45 eyelids) undergoing lateral canthal resuspension. METHODS: Marginal reflex distance 2 (MRD2), inferior scleral show, lateral canthal height, lateral canthal angle, horizontal palpebral aperture, and lateral scleral triangle area were measured preoperatively and at postoperative week 1, month 3, and the final follow-up visit...
March 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280366/outcomes-of-infantile-onset-glaucoma-associated-with-port-wine-birthmarks-and-other-periocular-cutaneous-vascular-malformation
#19
Daniela Reyes-Capó, Kara M Cavuoto, Ta C Chang
PURPOSE: The incidence of infantile-onset secondary glaucoma associated with periocular cutaneous vascular malformations is high and the outcomes of these glaucomatous eyes have anecdotally been poor. The purpose of this study was to determine the anatomic and visual outcomes of affected eyes. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Consecutive patients with early-onset (younger than 36 months of age) glaucoma associated with cutaneous vascular malformations from 1995‒2015 were included...
March 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280365/more-antisepsis-less-antibiotics-whenever-possible
#20
Andrzej Grzybowski, Magdalena Turczynowska
Increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics has recently become an important medical challenge. In ophthalmology antibiotics are widely used for treatment and prophylaxis of ocular infections. In many cases antiseptics may be a valuable adjunct and sometimes even an alternative to antibiotics for the prevention and treatment of infections, reducing the overuse of antibiotics. This review aims to highlight the available literature on the subject of antibiotic resistance in ophthalmology. Full understanding of this growing problem is necessary for tailoring effective pre-, intra-, and postoperative management to improve antibiotic stewardship programs...
March 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
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