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Advances in Neurobiology

Yousheng Wang, Hengming Ke
This chapter describes crystal structures of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) that are involved in CNS diseases and their interactions with family selective inhibitors. The structural comparison identifies a small hydrophobic pocket next to the active site, which may be valuable for improvement of selectivity of PDE inhibitors.
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Anjana Munshi, Satrupa Das
Phosphodiesterase (PDE) gene family is a large family having at least 21 genes and multiple versions (isoforms) of the phosphodiesterase enzymes. These enzymes catalyze the inactivation of intracellular mediators of signal transduction such as cAMP and cGMP and therefore, play a pivotal role in various cellular functions. PDE inhibitors (PDEI) are drugs that block one or more of the five subtypes of the PDE family and thereby prevent inactivation of the intracellular cAMP and cGMP by the respective PDE-subtypes...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Rui-Ting Wen, Jian-Hui Liang, Han-Ting Zhang
Substance dependence is a chronic relapsing brain disorder associated with adaptational changes in synaptic plasticity and neuronal functions. The high levels of substance consumption and relapse rate suggest more reliable medications are in need to better address the underlying causes of this disease. It has been well established that the intracellular second messengers cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) and their signaling systems play an important role in the molecular mechanisms of substance taking behaviors...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Gretchen L Snyder, Kimberly E Vanover
Schizophrenia is a pervasive neuropsychiatric disorder affecting over 1% of the world's population. Dopamine system dysfunction is strongly implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. Data support the long-standing concept of schizophrenia as a disease characterized by hyperactivity within midbrain (striatal D2) dopamine systems. In addition, there is now considerable evidence that glutamate neurotransmission, mediated through NMDA-type receptors, is deficient in patients with schizophrenia and that hypoactivity in cortical dopamine and glutamate pathways is a key feature of this serious mental disorder...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Lawrence P Wennogle, Helen Hoxie, Youyi Peng, Joseph P Hendrick
The focus of this chapter is on the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1) family. PDE1 is one member of the 11 PDE families (PDE 1-11). It is the only phosphodiesterase family that is calcium/calmodulin activated. As a result, whereas other families of PDEs 2-11 play a dominant role controlling basal levels of cyclic nucleotides, PDE1 is involved when intra-cellular calcium levels are elevated and, thus, has an "on demand" or activity-dependent involvement in the control of cyclic nucleotides in excitatory cells including neurons, cardiomyocytes and smooth muscle...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Chong Zhang, Lindsay M Lueptow, Han-Ting Zhang, James M O'Donnell, Ying Xu
Cyclic nucleotide PDEs are a super-family of enzymes responsible for regulating intracellular levels of the second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Through their catalysis, PDEs are able to exert tight regulation over these important intracellular signaling cascades. Previously, PDEs have been implicated in learning and memory, as well as in mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression. PDE2 is of special interest due to its high level of expression in the forebrain, specifically in the isocortex, entorhinal cortex, striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, and medial habenula...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Francesca R Fusco, Emanuela Paldino
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant rare inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by a wide variety of symptoms encompassing movement, cognition and behaviour. The cause of the disease is a genetic mutation in the huntingtin protein. The mutation leads to an unstable CAG expansion, translated into a polyglutamine domain within the disease protein. Indeed, huntingtin has a CAG/polyglutamine expansion in the range of 6-39 units in normal individuals, whereas it reaches 39-180 units in HD patients...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Fernando E Padovan-Neto, Anthony R West
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis and inactivation of cyclic nucleotides (cAMP/cGMP) in the brain. Several classes of PDE enzymes with distinct tissue distributions, cyclic nucleotide selectivity, and regulatory factors are highly expressed in brain regions subserving cognitive and motor processes known to be disrupted in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, small-molecule inhibitors of several different PDE family members alter cyclic nucleotide levels and favorably enhance motor performance and cognition in animal disease models...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
C Dorner-Ciossek, K S Kroker, H Rosenbrock
Inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) has been demonstrated to enhance performance of animals in various cognition tasks and accordingly PDE inhibitors have been proposed as new approach for treatment of cognitive dysfunction (Reneerkens et al. Psychopharmacology 202:419-443, 2009; Schmidt Curr Top Med Chem 10(2):222-230, 2010). One of the eleven PDE isoforms, showing expression in cognition relevant brain regions across species, is PDE9, which hydrolyzes cGMP only. Furthermore, it is well established that the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP pathway and NMDA receptor signaling has a crucial function in synaptic plasticity and cognitive function...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Michy P Kelly
The most recently discovered 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family is the Phosphodiesterase 11 (PDE11) family, which is encoded by a single gene PDE11A. PDE11A is a dual-specific PDE, breaking down both cAMP and cGMP. There are four PDE11A splice variants (PDE11A1-4) with distinct tissue expression profiles and unique N-terminal regulatory regions, suggesting that each isoform could be individually targeted with a small molecule or biologic. PDE11A4 is the PDE11A isoform expressed in brain and is found in the hippocampal formation of humans and rodents...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Rolf T Hansen, Han-Ting Zhang
The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the state of progress for phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) modulation as a potential therapeutic for psychiatric illness, and to draw attention to particular hurdles and obstacles that must be overcome in future studies to develop PDE4-mediated therapeutics. Pathological and non-pathological related memory loss will be the focus of the chapter; however, we will at times also touch upon other psychiatric illnesses like anxiety and depression. First, we will provide a brief background of PDE4, and the rationale for its extensive study in cognition...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Pim R A Heckman, Arjan Blokland, Jos Prickaerts
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-Is) are pharmacological compounds enhancing cAMP and/or cGMP signaling. Both these substrates affect neural communication by influencing presynaptic neurotransmitter release and postsynaptic intracellular pathways after neurotransmitter binding to its receptor. Both cAMP and cGMP play an important role in a variety of cellular functions including neuroplasticity and neuroprotection. This chapter provides a translational overview of the effects of different classes of PDE-Is on cognition enhancement in age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Steven J Clapcote
People in modern, affluent societies are living longer but also becoming increasingly overweight. With increased life expectancy comes increased risk of developing age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases, such that an increasing proportion of life may be lived with cognitive impairment as age increases. Obesity is associated with poorer cognitive function in elderly subjects, and often leads to ill-health arising from various complications such as metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes mellitus...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Graeme B Bolger
The PDE4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases are essential regulators of cAMP abundance in the CNS through their ability to regulate PKA activity, the phosphorylation of CREB, and other important elements of signal transduction. In pre-clinical models and in early-stage clinical trials, PDE4 inhibitors have been shown to have antidepressant and memory-enhancing activity. However, the development of clinically-useful PDE4 inhibitors for CNS disorders has been limited by variable efficacy and significant side effects...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Yafang Hu, Suyue Pan, Han-Ting Zhang
Both cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) regulate fundamental central nervous system (CNS) functions including neuronal survival, neurite and axonal outgrowth, neuron development and cognition. Cdk5, a serine/threonine kinase, is activated by p35 or p39 and phosphorylates multiple signaling components of various pathways, including cAMP/PKA signaling. Here, we review the recent literature on the interaction between Cdk5 and cAMP/PKA signaling and their role in the mediation of CNS functions and neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Jan-Philip Schülke, Nicholas J Brandon
The basal ganglia are a forebrain network of interconnected nuclei that are involved in action selection, reward circuits and coordinating movement. PDE10A inhibition has been proposed as a novel way to modulate basal ganglia circuitry and to ameliorate symptoms in Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and Schizophrenia. However, despite encouraging results from pre-clinical models, PDE10A inhibitors failed to show efficacy as an antipsychotic in several clinical trials. PDE10A is expressed in the medium spiny neurons of the striatum and works to limit cyclic nucleotide signaling in response to modulatory neurotransmitters like dopamine...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Susana R Neves-Zaph
A large number of neuromodulators activate G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and mediate their cellular actions via the regulation of intracellular cAMP, the small highly diffusible second messenger. In fact, in the same neuron several different GPCRs can regulate cAMP with seemingly identical timecourses that give rise to distinct signaling outcomes, suggesting that cAMP does not have equivalent access to all its downstream effectors and may exist within defined intracellular pools or domains. cAMP compartmentalization is the process that allows the neuron to differentially interpret these various intracellular cAMP signals into cellular response...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Liliana Letra, Daniela Pereira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Functional neuroimaging is beginning to yield valuable insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of the effects of obesity on neural circuits. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have been used to identify aberrant activation patterns in regions implicated in reward (e.g., striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, insula), emotion and memory (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus), sensory and motor processing (e...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Hans Eickhoff
In moderately or morbidly obese patients, bariatric surgery has been proven to be an effective therapeutic approach to control body weight and comorbidities. Surgery-mediated modulation of brain function via modified postoperative secretion of gut peptides and vagal nerve stimulation was identified as an underlying mechanism in weight loss and improvement of weight-related diseases. Increased basal and postprandial plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones like glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY that act on specific areas of the hypothalamus to reduce food intake, either directly or mediated by the vagus nerve, are observed after surgery while suppression of meal-induced ghrelin release is increased...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Ana Margarida Novo, Sónia Batista
Since the discovery of the remarkable properties of adipose tissue as a metabolically active organ, several evidences on the possible link between obesity and the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) have been gathered. Obesity in early life, mainly during adolescence, has been proposed as a relevant risk factor for late MS development. Moreover, once MS is initiated, obesity can contribute to increase disease severity by negatively influencing disease progress. Despite the fact that clinical data are not yet conclusive, many biochemical links have been recently disclosed...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
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