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Advances in Neurobiology

T Sengupta, J Vinayagam, R Singh, P Jaisankar, K P Mohanakumar
Plant-derived natural products have made their own niche in the treatment of neurological diseases since time immemorial. Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, has no cure and the treatment available currently is symptomatic. This chapter thoughtfully and objectively assesses the scientific basis that supports the increasing use of these plant-derived natural products for the treatment of this chronic and progressive disorder. Proper considerations are made on the chemical nature, sources, preclinical tests and their validity, and mechanisms of behavioural or biochemical recovery observed following treatment with various plants derived natural products relevant to PD therapy...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Senthilkumar Rajagopal, Supraj Raja Sangam, Shubham Singh, Venkateswara Rao Joginapally
Proteins are playing a vital role in maintaining the cellular integrity and function, as well as for brain cells. Protein intake and supplementation of individual amino acids can affect the brain functioning and mental health, and many of the neurotransmitters in the brain are made from amino acids. The amino acid supplementation has been found to reduce symptoms, as they are converted into neurotransmitters which in turn extenuate the mental disorders. The biosynthesis of amino acids in the brain is regulated by the concentration of amino acids in plasma...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Rola Aldana Bekdash
Choline is an essential nutrient that is required for normal development of the brain. Via its metabolite betaine, it participates in the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, a major methyl donor for histone and DNA methylation, two epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression and may alter brain function. Besides its role in methyl group metabolism, choline also has pivotal functions, including the maintenance of structural integrity of membranes and modulation of cholinergic neurotransmission, functions that are often dysregulated in some neurodegenerative disorders...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Mohammad Abdur Rashid, Mahmuda Haque, Mohammed Akbar
The nervous system is highly enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Essential fatty acids, namely, ω-6 (n - 6) and ω-3 (n - 3) PUFA, and their metabolites are critical components of cell structure and function and could therefore influence stem cell fate. The available supporting experimental data reveal that n - 6 and n - 3 PUFA and their metabolites can act through multiple mechanisms to promote the proliferation and differentiation of various stem cell types. PUFAs and their mediators regulate several processes within the brain, such as neurotransmission, cell survival and neuroinflammation, and thereby mood and cognition...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Mohammad Abdur Rashid, Mahmuda Haque, Mohammed Akbar
Oxidative stress in the brain is the major cause of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Under conditions of oxidative stress, the production of highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) overwhelms antioxidant defenses, resulting in the modification of macromolecules and their deposition in neuronal cell tissues. ROS plays an important role in neuronal cell death that they generate reactive aldehydes from membrane lipid peroxidation...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Kalandar Ameer
Avocados have a high content of phytochemicals especially antioxidants with potential neuroprotective effect. Aging is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A large body of evidence indicates that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Oxidative stress can induce neuronal damages and modulate intracellular signaling, ultimately leading to neuronal death by apoptosis or necrosis. There is evidence for increased oxidative damage to macromolecules in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Padmanabhan Mannangatti, Kamalakkannan Narasimha Naidu
Ayurveda, an ancient system of medicine that is indigenous to India, is believed to be the world's oldest comprehensive health-care system and is now one of the most recognized and widely practiced disciplines of alternative medicine in the world. Medicinal herbs have been in use for treating diseases since ancient times in India. Ayurvedic therapies with medicinal herbs and herbomineral products generally provide relief without much adverse effects even after prolonged administration. Neurodegenerative disorders are a major cause of mortality and disability, and increasing life spans represent one of the key challenges of medical research...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Vishal Jain
Scenic view at high altitude is a pleasure to the eyes, but it has some shortcoming effects as well. High altitude can be divided into different categories, i.e., high altitude (3000-5000 ft), very high altitude (5000-8000 ft), and extreme altitude (above 8000 ft). Much of the population resides at high altitude, and others go there for tourism. Military personnel are also posted there to defend boundaries. As we ascent to high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen reduces, whereas concentration remains the same; this reduces the availability of oxygen to different body parts...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
M Ishwarya, R T Narendhirakannan
Neurological disorders are diseases of the brain, the spine, and the nerves that connect them. There are more than 600 diseases of the nervous system, such as brain tumors, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and stroke as well as less familiar ones such as frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias; cerebrovascular diseases including stroke, migraine, and other headache disorders; multiple sclerosis; neuroinfections; brain tumors; traumatic disorders of the nervous system such as brain trauma; and neurological disorders as a result of malnutrition...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Shinji Soeda, Kosuke Aritake, Yoshihiro Urade, Hiroshi Sato, Yukihiro Shoyama
We first considered that saffron is really safety food because it has a long-use history. The neuroprotective activities of saffron and its major constituent, crocin, are separately discussed in vitro and in vivo. We reviewed the inhibitory activities of crocin against PC-12 cell apoptosis. The oxidative stress decreased the cellular levels of glutathione (GSH) which is an inhibitor of neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase). Therefore, the level of GSH was assayed by the addition of crocin resulted in the activation of glutathione reductase (GR)...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
R Grant, J Guest
The importance of the essential, dietary-derived, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) omega-6 and omega-3 to human health was first reported over 85 years ago. Subsequent research has revealed many beneficial effects of the omega-3 PUFAs in particular. This has been linked to their involvement in multiple biochemical functions, including synthesis of inflammatory mediators, cell membrane fluidity, intracellular signalling and gene expression. Through these pathways, the omega-3 PUFAs help modulate aspects of inflammation and immunity, cell growth and tissue repair...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Preetham Elumalai, Sreeja Lakshmi
Neurodegenerative disorders are often life threatening and hired as an economic burden to the health-care system. Nutritional interventions principally involving polyphenols were practiced to arrest or reverse the age-related health disorders. Flavonoids, a class of dietary polyphenols, are rising to superstardom in preventing brain disorders with their potent antioxidant defense mechanism. Quercetin is a ubiquitous flavonoid reported to have all-natural myriad of health benefits. Citrus fruits, apple, onion, parsley, berries, green tea, and red wine comprise the major dietary supplements of quercetin apart from some herbal remedies like Ginkgo biloba...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
J Guest, R Grant
The consumption of carotenoid phytonutrients, largely as part of plant tissue, has been associated with a number of health benefits. Epidemiological and other studies support a link between higher dietary intake and tissue concentrations of carotenoids and lower risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers. Evidence also suggests that increased levels of carotenoids can help maintain healthy cognitive function, especially into older age. Carotenoids mediate their beneficial effects via several mechanisms including cell growth regulation and modulation of gene expression and immune activity...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Ana Laura Colín-González, Gabriela Aguilera, Abel Santamaría
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) comprises a complex of receptors, enzymes, and endogenous agonists that are widely distributed in the central nervous system of mammals and participates in a considerable number of neuromodulatory functions, including neurotransmission, immunological control, and cell signaling. In turn, the kynurenine pathway (KP) is the most relevant metabolic route for tryptophan degradation to form the metabolic precursor NAD(+). Recent studies demonstrate that the control exerted by the pharmacological manipulation of the ECS on the glutamatergic system in the brain may offer key information not only on the development of psychiatric disorders like psychosis and schizophrenia-like symptoms, but it also may constitute a solid basis for the development of therapeutic strategies to combat excitotoxic events occurring in neurological disorders like Huntington's disease (HD)...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Musthafa Mohamed Essa
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by notable memory loss, cognitive impairment, and personality disorders accompanied with structural abnormalities in the brain of aged population. Currently approved drugs for AD offer symptomatic relief without preventing the progression of the disease and having limited efficacy. Many experiments and clinical trials have shown that the traditional herbal medicine, which has multiple targets, could provide effective treatment of AD...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Saheem Ahmad, Mohammed Farhan
Non-enzymatic protein glycosylation is the addition of free carbonyls to the free amino groups of proteins, amino acids, lipoproteins and nucleic acids resulting in the formation of early glycation products. The early glycation products are also known as Maillard reaction which undergoes dehydration, cyclization and rearrangement to form advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). By and large the researchers in the past have also established that glycation and the AGEs are responsible for most type of metabolic disorders, including diabetes mellitus, cancer, neurological disorders and aging...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Pranay Srivastava, Rajesh Singh Yadav
Neurodegenerative disorders represent clusters of serious diseases that results in progressive deterioration of normal structure and physiology of central nervous system. Pathophysiology of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's or other neurodegenerative disorders involves multifaceted permutation of genetic and environmental factors. Combinations of lifestyle modification linked with environmental factor jointly or alone represent the largest share of cases of these disorders. Etiology of such neuronal degeneration involves manifestation of toxic reaction in the form of functional anomalies leading to dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, activated inflammatory cascade, compromised neuronal survival pathway, mitochondrial dysfunction and finally neuronal apoptosis/necrosis and cell death...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
S Manoharan, M Mohamed Essa, A Vinoth, R Kowsalya, A Manimaran, R Selvasundaram
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is progressive neurodegenerative disorder and identified as a major health concern globally. Individuals with AD and their care givers are affected in personal, emotional, financial, and social levels. Due to its significant impact and heavy burden on the individual, the patients' families, and society, it is highly needed to search for cost effective, long-time retention therapeutic targets. In recent decades, there are lots of research conducted the possible benefit of natural products and their active components on AD and other neurodegenerative disease, which are discussed here...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Farhan Hussain, Sandeep Mittal, Nirmal Joshee, Prahlad Parajuli
Inflammation of the brain is one of the most highly researched yet mysterious areas in modern day neurology. The process of inflammation is a normal mechanism of wound healing that can result from acute injuries such as traumas or can be caused by genetic/environmental factors. After the initial insult, the immune system defenses, specifically microglial cells, are activated in order to combat the infection or injury. However, prolonged or chronic inflammation is often deleterious due mainly to accumulation of free reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines in the brain FADDIN EN...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
N Satheeshkumar, R S K Vijayan, A Lingesh, S Santhikumar, Ch Vishnuvardhan
India has traditionally been known to all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Spices exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. In contemporary, Indian spices are used to rustle up delicious delicacies. However, the Indian spices are more than just adjuvant which adds aroma and fragrance to foods. A few spices are very widely used and grown commercially in many countries, contain many important chemical constituents in the form of essential oil, oleoresin, oleogum, and resins, which impart flavor, pungency, and color to the prepared dishes, simultaneously exerts diverse therapeutic benefits...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
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