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Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26437459/biogenic-amines-and-the-amino-acids-gaba-and-glutamate-relationships-with-pain-and-depression
#1
REVIEW
Curtis Benson, Katherine Mifflin, Bradley Kerr, Sam J B Jesudasan, Serdar Dursun, Glen Baker
Although it is well known that there is a high degree of comorbidity between chronic pain and mood and anxiety disorders, the mechanisms involved in these co-occurrences are not clear. It appears that numerous neurotransmitters and neuromodulators are involved, and this chapter focuses on the monoamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin), and dopamine and the amino acid neurotransmitters GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) and glutamate in chronic pain and depression. Numerous preclinical and clinical neurochemical, neuroanatomical, pharmacological and molecular biological studies as well as clinical pharmacological treatment investigations implicate noradrenaline, 5-HT and, to a lesser extent, dopamine in the etiology of pain and depression...
2015: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26437375/cytokines-in-neuropathic-pain-and-associated-depression
#2
REVIEW
Justin G Lees, Brett Fivelman, Samuel S Duffy, Preet G S Makker, Chamini J Perera, Gila Moalem-Taylor
Neuropathic pain occurs as a result of lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system and is present in a diverse set of peripheral and central pathologies such as nerve trauma, diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. Debilitating symptoms including allodynia, hyperalgesia and spontaneous pain have a substantial negative impact on patients' quality of life. The currently available therapeutic treatments are generally ineffective and characterised by poor response rates...
2015: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26437258/pain-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Christian Schmahl, Ulf Baumgärtner
Pain processing in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is abnormal primarily with respect to pain thresholds which are typically elevated or perception of phasic nociceptive stimuli which is reduced. In spite of this common finding, nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), often expressed as cutting, is a hallmark sign of the disease and serves to release aversive inner tension. The question thus arises, how does a painful stimulus release inner tension when these patients feel less pain than healthy people? However, intensity discrimination is normal in these patients...
2015: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26437255/neuroinflammatory-mechanisms-linking-pain-and-depression
#4
REVIEW
Nikita N Burke, David P Finn, Michelle Roche
Depression and chronic pain have been estimated to co-occur in up to 80% of patients suffering from these disorders, with this co-morbidity being more disabling and more expensive to both patients and society than either disorder alone. A number of neural substrates have been proposed to underlie this association; however, there has been increased interest and support for a role of neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory mechanisms as key players in this dyad. This chapter will provide an overview of the clinical and preclinical data supporting a role for neuroimmune alterations in depression-pain co-morbidity...
2015: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26437055/pain-depression-and-inflammation-are-interconnected-causative-factors-involved
#5
REVIEW
Brian E Leonard
Co-morbid depression and chronic pain are highly prevalent. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of chronic inflammation as a common mediator of these co-morbidities. Dysfunctional bidirectional pathways between the brain and the immune, endocrine and neurotransmitter systems have been extensively described and implicated in pain and psychiatric disorders. This short review therefore accesses the evidence in favour of the psychoneuroendocrine hypothesis of psychiatric disorders under three main headings: (1) by illustrating how different types of stress play a crucial role in initiating chronic inflammation in major depression, (2) by accessing the evidence that pain is frequently an important component of, and an initiator of, depression, and (3) considering the evidence that chronic inflammation provides an important link between chronic pain and depression, and the possible cellular mechanisms involved in this process...
2015: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26437036/generalized-anxiety-disorder-and-pain
#6
REVIEW
Borwin Bandelow
In this article, the co-occurrence of anxiety disorders (in particular generalized anxiety disorder) and pain conditions is described, characteristics of chronic pain are explained, and data on the prevalence of co-comorbidity of both conditions are reviewed. Further, hypotheses on the possible psychosocial and neurobiological backgrounds of the high rate of co-occurrence are discussed. This review will also focus on the role of 'unexplained' pain syndromes (e.g. somatic symptom disorder and fibromyalgia) and anxiety...
2015: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26436914/animal-models-for-the-study-of-comorbid-pain-and-psychiatric-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Hugo Leite-Almeida, Filipa Pinto-Ribeiro, Armando Almeida
Animal models of chronic pain have provided valuable information on the mechanisms of initiation and maintenance of the disease. Much of the research effort has targeted sensory abnormalities like hyperalgesia and allodynia. However, in the past 15 years a significant number of research groups have focused their attention on comorbid anxiety, depression and cognitive impairments that frequently emerge in chronic pain conditions. A myriad of paradigms have since then been introduced in the field to tackle multiple dimensions of rodents' behavior...
2015: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26436897/emotional-and-cognitive-influences-on-pain-experience
#8
REVIEW
Madelon L Peters
Multiple emotional and cognitive factors impact on the experience of pain. This chapter will review some of the most important emotional and cognitive determinants of the pain experience as found in experimental and clinical studies with human participants. Emotional factors that may increase pain perception are anxiety, depression and anger. Positive emotions usually decrease perceived pain. The cognitive factors attention, expectancy and appraisal can either increase or decrease pain experiences depending on their specific focus and content...
2015: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26436761/genetic-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-linking-pain-and-psychiatric-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Artur H Swiergiel, Grzegorz R Juszczak, Adrian M Stankiewicz
The neurophysiological link between neuropathic pain and depression remains unknown despite evident high comorbidity of these two disorders. However, there is convincing evidence that genotype plays a role in both pain and depression. Using various types of genetic analysis - population genetics, cytogenetics and molecular technologies - specific genes have been implicated in mediating almost all aspects of nociception and mood disorders. The current review attempts to identify specific genes and epigenetic mechanisms common to both disorders...
2015: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26436661/visceral-pain-and-psychiatric-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Valeria D Felice, Rachel D Moloney, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan, Siobhain M O'Mahony
The high comorbidity existing between visceral pain and psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety is well documented and it is gaining increasing interest among scientists. When visceral pain and psychiatric disorders are comorbid, they present a more debilitating condition than each disorder alone, impacting significantly on the quality of life of these patients. Despite several groups having shown that an overlapping pathophysiology exists between visceral pain and stress-related disorders the link between them is not clear yet...
2015: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26436548/involvement-of-neuroactive-steroids-in-pain-depression-and-anxiety
#11
REVIEW
Katherine Mifflin, Curtis Benson, Bradley Kerr, Feyza Aricioglu, Mesut Cetin, Serdar Dursun, Glen Baker
Comorbidity between major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety (generalized anxiety, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder) and pain is a major complicating factor in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Although numerous neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators may be involved, abnormalities in the GABAergic and glutamatergic systems seem to be a common factor in all these disorders. Neuroactive steroids (NASs) have been the object of considerable interest in this area in recent years since they appear to act predominantly on GABA-A and glutamate NMDA receptors...
2015: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26436415/supraspinal-transient-receptor-potential-subfamily-v-member-1-trpv1-in-pain-and-psychiatric-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Manish K Madasu, Michelle Roche, David P Finn
The transient receptor potential subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) belongs to the diverse transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels. It was first characterized in primary afferent fibres as a receptor for capsaicin. Peripheral TRPV1 has a very well-described role in nociception. However, TRPV1 is now recognized to have a broader distribution and function, with supraspinal/brain TRPV1 known to modulate pain processing. Recently, studies employing histological, genetic and pharmacological approaches have provided evidence that supraspinal TRPV1 also modulates brain neurobiology and behaviours related to anxiety, depression and schizophrenia...
2015: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25286463/concerted-efforts-to-improve-the-understanding-and-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders-preface
#13
EDITORIAL
Jules Angst, David S Baldwin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2013: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25286461/preface
#14
Angelos Halaris, Brian E Leonard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2013: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25225026/evidence-based-treatment-pathways-for-translational-studies-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorders
#15
REVIEW
N A Fineberg, S Pallanti, S Reghunandanan
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders are costly and burdensome long-term illnesses. Whilst evidence-based pharmacological and psychological treatments are available for OCD, a significant proportion of OCD patients fail to respond and for many of the OCD-related disorders no validated treatments are as yet recognised. In addition, predictors of treatment response/non-response to guide clinicians in the management of individual patients are lacking. The introduction of personalised medicine to psychiatry is expected to offer the novel prospect of identifying the most effective treatment for a patient in a timely and cost-effective way...
2013: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25225025/pharmacotherapy-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#16
REVIEW
Anthony Koller, Dan J Stein
Advances in the basic neuroscience of fear conditioning and extinction, as well as in the clinical neuroscience of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), have laid the foundations for research on the pharmacotherapy of PTSD. Clinical trials have ranged from early work on tricyclic antidepressants and benzodiazepines through to more recently introduced antidepressants, and on to a range of other psychotropic agents. Despite the growing database of trials, the area remains a controversial one insofar as key systematic reviews in the field have emphasized the methodological limitations of existing work...
2013: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25225024/pharmacological-treatment-of-social-anxiety-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Vasilios G Masdrakis, Darko Turic, David S Baldwin
Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) is a common and typically long-standing medical condition, characterized by an excessive fear of being observed or evaluated negatively in social or performance situations. Efficacious interventions in acute treatment include cognitive behavioural therapy and a range of medications including many antidepressants, some benzodiazepines and anticonvulsants, and the antipsychotic olanzapine. Most studies report no significant differences in overall efficacy or tolerability between active compounds...
2013: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25225023/pharmacological-treatment-of-panic-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Borwin Bandelow, David S Baldwin, Peter Zwanzger
A comprehensive database has developed and precise recommendations can be provided for treating patients with panic disorder. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are standard treatments for panic disorder. Tricyclic antidepressants are as effective as modern antidepressants, but less well tolerated. For short-term treatment and in non-responsive cases, benzodiazepines such as alprazolam may be used when the patient does not have a history of dependency and tolerance...
2013: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25225022/pharmacotherapy-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Christer Allgulander, David S Baldwin
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is chiefly characterized by a cognitive focus on threats and risks towards the individual and/or the immediate family. It is accompanied by a sense of tension, worry, muscle pain, disturbed sleep and irritability. The condition impairs work capacity, relations, and leisure activities, and aggravates concurrent somatic diseases. Due to its chronic course, GAD increases costs for the individual, the family, and health care services, and reduces work and educational performance...
2013: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25225021/duration-of-untreated-illness-and-duration-of-illness-in-anxiety-disorders-assessment-and-influence-on-outcome
#20
REVIEW
A Carlo Altamura, Giulia Camuri, Bernardo Dell'Osso
Anxiety disorders are disabling and generally chronic conditions, with a lifetime prevalence of 15-20% in the general population. These disorders are usually associated with early onset and often remain untreated for several years with important consequences on patients' functioning and quality of life. From this perspective, recent literature has considered duration of illness (DI) and duration of untreated illness (DUI), two important variables influencing outcome in many psychiatric conditions including anxiety disorders...
2013: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
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