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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191986/studies-of-learned-helplessness-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-ligustica
#1
Christopher W Dinges, Christopher A Varnon, Lisa D Cota, Stephen Slykerman, Charles I Abramson
The current study reports 2 experiments investigating learned helplessness in the honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica). In Experiment 1, we used a traditional escape method but found the bees' activity levels too high to observe changes due to treatment conditions. The bees were not able to learn in this traditional escape procedure; thus, such procedures may be inappropriate to study learned helplessness in honey bees. In Experiment 2, we used an alternative punishment, or passive avoidance, method to investigate learned helplessness...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936821/chrysippus-s-pigeon-exclusion-based-responding-in-an-avian-model
#2
Marisol C Lauffer, Leyre Castro, Edward A Wasserman
Inference by exclusion can be exhibited by deductively responding to new stimuli that are presented in the context of familiar stimuli. We investigated exclusion-based responding in pigeons using a 2-alternative forced-choice discrimination task. In Phase 1, pigeons learned to associate 2 stimuli (A and B) with Response 1 and 2 stimuli (C and D) with Response 2. Following successful acquisition of these stimulus-response pairings, pigeons advanced to Phase 2, in which stimuli A and B were now reassigned to Response 2...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045298/rats-show-adaptive-choice-in-a-metacognitive-task-with-high-uncertainty
#3
Shoko Yuki, Kazuo Okanoya
Metacognition refers to the use of one's cognitive processes to coordinate behavior. Many higher cognitive functions such as feeling-of-knowing judgment and theory of mind are thought to be metacognitive processes. Although some primate species also show this ability in the form of behavioral control, a rodent model of metacognition is required for advanced studies of this phenomenon at behavioral, molecular, and neural levels. Here we show that rats could reliably be trained in a metacognitive task. The rats were trained to remember the location of a nose-poke hole and later indicate the location via a behavioral task...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045297/the-quantification-of-behavior-in-the-presence-of-compound-stimuli
#4
Kathryn L Kalafut, Russell M Church
Animals live in complex environments where multiple cues can provide consistent or conflicting information about how to behave most effectively. Previous research has described how animals combine information with qualitative combination rules; the goal of this article was to quantify the combination rule used by rats when 2 previously trained stimuli of separate modalities were presented simultaneously. Rats in a lever box were trained with 2 stimuli (light and tone) assigned given probabilities of food before they were tested in compound...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045296/effects-of-outcome-devaluation-on-instrumental-behaviors-in-a-discriminated-heterogeneous-chain
#5
Eric A Thrailkill, Mark E Bouton
Operant behavior often takes place in a sequence, or chain, of linked responses that lead to a reinforcer. We have recently studied rats performing a discriminated heterogeneous behavior chain that involves the presentation of a discriminative stimulus (e.g., a panel light) to set the occasion for a procurement behavior (e.g., a lever press) that leads to a second stimulus (e.g., a second panel light) that indicates that a consumption response (e.g., a chain pull) will be reinforced. The present study assessed the role played by a representation of the reinforcer in controlling the performance of the responses in this chain...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045295/superior-ambiguous-occasion-setting-with-visual-than-temporal-feature-stimuli
#6
Andrew R Delamater, Rifka C Derman, Justin A Harris
Three experiments with rats compared the relative ease with which different sets of visual or temporal cues could participate in Pavlovian learning. In Experiment 1, 1 group was trained to discriminate between visual cues (Light vs. Dark), whereas the other group learned to discriminate between temporal cues (early [10 s] vs. late [90 s]). Both groups learned to distinguish food-paired from nonpaired periods equally well. In Experiment 2, 2 groups were trained on an ambiguous occasion setting task. For Group Visual, a 2-min Light period signaled that 1 10-s auditory conditioned stimulus, CS1, was reinforced with 1 unconditioned stimulus, US1, but that CS2 was not reinforced; whereas a 2-min dark period signaled that CS1 was not reinforced, but CS2 was reinforced with US2 (i...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045294/habituation-and-conditioning-salience-change-in-associative-learning
#7
Geoffrey Hall, Gabriel Rodríguez
Repeated presentation of a single stimulus produces habituation-engages a learning process that results in a reduction of the ability of the stimulus to evoke its customary response. Repeated stimulus presentation is a feature of the standard procedure for classical conditioning, although, in this case, subjects experience repeated presentations of 2 stimuli occurring in sequence: S1-S2. We ask how habituation to each of these stimuli (S1 and S2) is influenced by this form of sequential presentation and what implications any effects might have for the understanding of both conditioning and habituation itself...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045293/correction-to-schepers-and-bouton-2015
#8
Scott T Schepers, Mark E Bouton
Reports an error in "Effects of reinforcer distribution during response elimination on resurgence of an instrumental behavior" by Scott T. Schepers and Mark E. Bouton (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition, 2015[Apr], Vol 41[2], 179-192). The mean R2 responding during the resurgence test in the alternating group in the lower right panel of Figure 4 was incorrect. A corrected figure is given in the correction. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-12206-001...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045292/time-trials-and-extinction
#9
Justin A Harris, Benjamin J Andrew
Four experiments investigated the effect of number of trials and total duration of nonreinforced exposure to the conditioned stimulus (CS) on extinction of Pavlovian conditioning. Rats were first trained in a magazine approach paradigm with multiple CSs, each paired with the unconditioned stimulus (US) on a variable CS-US interval. During subsequent extinction, CSs would differ in the number and length of their extinction trials but would be matched for the total duration of exposure (e.g., 1 CS would have 20 trials per session with a mean length of 5 s; another CS would have 5 trials per session with a mean length of 20 s)...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045291/rescaling-of-temporal-expectations-during-extinction
#10
Michael R Drew, Carolyn Walsh, Peter D Balsam
Previous research suggests that extinction learning is temporally specific. Changing the conditioned stimulus (CS) duration between training and extinction can facilitate the loss of the conditioned response (CR) within the extinction session but impairs long-term retention of extinction. In 2 experiments using conditioned magazine approach with rats, we examined the relation between temporal specificity of extinction and CR timing. In Experiment 1, rats were trained on a 12-s, fixed CS-unconditional stimulus interval and then extinguished with CS presentations that were 6, 12, or 24 s in duration...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786508/a-theoretical-note-in-interpretation-of-the-redundancy-effect-in-associative-learning
#11
Edgar H Vogel, Allan R Wagner
In a recent series of papers, Pearce and colleagues (e.g., Pearce, Dopson, Haselgrove, & Esber, 2012) have demonstrated a so-called "redundancy effect" in Pavlovian conditioning, which is the finding of more conditioned responding to a redundant cue trained as part of a blocking procedure (A+AX+) than to a redundant cue trained as part of a simple discrimination procedure (BY+CY-). This phenomenon presents a serious challenge for those theories of conditioning that compute learning through a global error-term...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786507/mechanisms-of-midsession-reversal-accuracy-memory-for-preceding-events-and-timing
#12
Aaron P Smith, Joshua S Beckmann, Thomas R Zentall
The midsession reversal task involves a simultaneous discrimination between 2 stimuli (S1 and S2) in which, for the first half of each session, choice of S1 is reinforced and, for the last half, choice of S2 is reinforced. On this task, pigeons appear to time the occurrence of the reversal rather than using feedback from previous trials, resulting in increased numbers of errors. In the present experiments, we tested the hypothesis that pigeons make so many errors because they fail to remember the last response made and/or the consequence of making that response both of which are needed ideally as cues to respond on the next trial...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598058/serial-pattern-learning-in-pigeons-rule-based-or-associative
#13
Dennis Garlick, Stephen B Fountain, Aaron P Blaisdell
Extensive research has documented evidence for rule learning in sequential behavior tasks in both rats and humans. We adapted the 2-choice serial multiple choice (SMC) task developed for use with rats (Fountain & Rowan, 1995a) to study sequence behavior in pigeons. Pigeons were presented with 8 disks arranged in a circular array on a touchscreen, and pecking to an illuminated disk could lead to reward. Correct responding consisted of serial patterns involving "run" chunks of 3 elements (123 234, etc.). Some pigeons experienced a violation of the chunk rule in the final chunk...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732050/the-extinction-procedure-modifies-a-conditioned-flavor-preference-in-nonhungry-rats-only-after-revaluation-of-the-unconditioned-stimulus
#14
Felisa González, Enrique Morillas, Geoffrey Hall
In 3 experiments rats experienced 2 flavors, each paired with sucrose, in order to establish a conditioned preference to each. One (flavor Fe) was then presented alone (an extinction procedure) prior to a choice test between Fe and the flavor that did not undergo extinction (Fne). Hungry rats showed a preference for Fne over Fe (Experiment 1A), but rats that were not food-deprived showed no effect of extinction when given a choice between Fe and Fne immediately after extinction (Experiment 1B) or after an interval in which reexposure to sucrose was given (Experiment 2)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732049/smelling-the-goodness-sniffing-as-a-behavioral-measure-of-learned-odor-hedonics
#15
Martin R Yeomans, John Prescott
Pairing an odor and taste can change ratings of the odor's perceptual and hedonic characteristics. Behavioral indices of such changes are lacking and here we measured sniffing to assess learned changes in odor liking due to pairing with sweet and bitter tastes. Participants were divided on their liking for sweetness, as well as dietary disinhibition (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-Disinhibition scale [TFEQ-D]), both of which influence hedonic odor-taste learning. In sweet likers, both sniff duration and peak amplitude increased for the sweet-paired odor...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732048/evidence-for-multiple-processes-contributing-to-the-perruchet-effect-response-priming-and-associative-learning
#16
Gabrielle Weidemann, Amy McAndrew, Evan J Livesey, Ian P L McLaren
The Perruchet effect constitutes a robust demonstration that it is possible to dissociate conditioned responding and expectancy in a random partial reinforcement design across a variety of human associative learning paradigms. This dissociation has been interpreted as providing evidence for multiple processes supporting learning, with expectancy driven by cognitive processes that lead to a Gambler's fallacy, and the pattern of conditioned responding (CRs) the result of an associative learning process. An alternative explanation is that the pattern of CRs is the result of exposure to the unconditioned stimulus (US)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732047/the-role-of-instructions-in-perceptual-learning-using-complex-visual-stimuli
#17
Sergio A Recio, Adela F Iliescu, Simón P Mingorance, Germán D Bergés, Geoffrey Hall, Isabel de Brugada
Although modeled on procedures used with nonhuman animals, some recent studies of perceptual learning in humans, using complex visual stimuli, differ in that they usually instruct participants to look for differences between the to-be-discriminated stimuli. This could encourage the use of mechanisms not available to animal subjects. To investigate the role of instructions, in 2 experiments, participants were given preexposure to checkerboards that were similar except for the presence of a small distinctive feature on each...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732046/individual-difference-in-configural-associative-learning
#18
Nicola C Byrom, Robin A Murphy
Individuals differ in their ability to acquire associations between stimuli and paired outcomes, an ability that has been proposed to be independent of general metrics of intelligence or memory (e.g., Kaufman, DeYoung, Gray, Brown, & Mackintosh, 2009). The nature of these differences may reflect the type of associative structures acquired during learning, for instance, configuring stimuli to facilitate flexible learning and memory. We test the hypothesis that individuals differ in configural associative learning as distinct from simpler (elemental) stimulus-outcome learning...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732045/the-origins-of-individual-differences-in-how-learning-is-expressed-in-rats-a-general-process-perspective
#19
E Patitucci, A J D Nelson, Dominic M Dwyer, R C Honey
Laboratory rats can exhibit marked, qualitative individual differences in the form of acquired behaviors. For example, when exposed to a signal-reinforcer relationship some rats show marked and consistent changes in sign-tracking (interacting with the signal; e.g., a lever) and others show marked and consistent changes in goal-tracking (interacting with the location of the predicted reinforcer; e.g., the food well). Here, stable individual differences in rats' sign-tracking and goal-tracking emerged over the course of training, but these differences did not generalize across different signal-reinforcer relationships (Experiment 1)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598063/testing-the-boundaries-of-paradoxical-predictions-pigeons-do-disregard-bad-news
#20
Inês Fortes, Marco Vasconcelos, Armando Machado
Several studies have shown that, when offered a choice between an option followed by stimuli indicating whether or not reward is forthcoming and an option followed by noninformative stimuli, animals strongly prefer the former even when the latter is more profitable. Though this paradoxical preference appears to question the principles of optimal foraging theory, Vasconcelos, Monteiro, and Kacelnik (2015) proposed an optimality model that shows how such preference maximizes gains under certain conditions. In this paper, we tested the model's core assumption that a stimulus signaling the absence of food should not influence choice independently of its other properties, such as probability or duration...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
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