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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786508/a-theoretical-note-in-interpretation-of-the-redundancy-effect-in-associative-learning
#1
Edgar H Vogel, Allan R Wagner
In a recent series of papers, Pearce and colleagues (e.g., Pearce, Dopson, Haselgrove, & Esber, 2012) have demonstrated a so-called "redundancy effect" in Pavlovian conditioning, which is the finding of more conditioned responding to a redundant cue trained as part of a blocking procedure (A+AX+) than to a redundant cue trained as part of a simple discrimination procedure (BY+CY-). This phenomenon presents a serious challenge for those theories of conditioning that compute learning through a global error-term...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786507/mechanisms-of-midsession-reversal-accuracy-memory-for-preceding-events-and-timing
#2
Aaron P Smith, Joshua S Beckmann, Thomas R Zentall
The midsession reversal task involves a simultaneous discrimination between 2 stimuli (S1 and S2) in which, for the first half of each session, choice of S1 is reinforced and, for the last half, choice of S2 is reinforced. On this task, pigeons appear to time the occurrence of the reversal rather than using feedback from previous trials, resulting in increased numbers of errors. In the present experiments, we tested the hypothesis that pigeons make so many errors because they fail to remember the last response made and/or the consequence of making that response both of which are needed ideally as cues to respond on the next trial...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732050/the-extinction-procedure-modifies-a-conditioned-flavor-preference-in-nonhungry-rats-only-after-revaluation-of-the-unconditioned-stimulus
#3
Felisa González, Enrique Morillas, Geoffrey Hall
In 3 experiments rats experienced 2 flavors, each paired with sucrose, in order to establish a conditioned preference to each. One (flavor Fe) was then presented alone (an extinction procedure) prior to a choice test between Fe and the flavor that did not undergo extinction (Fne). Hungry rats showed a preference for Fne over Fe (Experiment 1A), but rats that were not food-deprived showed no effect of extinction when given a choice between Fe and Fne immediately after extinction (Experiment 1B) or after an interval in which reexposure to sucrose was given (Experiment 2)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732049/smelling-the-goodness-sniffing-as-a-behavioral-measure-of-learned-odor-hedonics
#4
Martin R Yeomans, John Prescott
Pairing an odor and taste can change ratings of the odor's perceptual and hedonic characteristics. Behavioral indices of such changes are lacking and here we measured sniffing to assess learned changes in odor liking due to pairing with sweet and bitter tastes. Participants were divided on their liking for sweetness, as well as dietary disinhibition (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-Disinhibition scale [TFEQ-D]), both of which influence hedonic odor-taste learning. In sweet likers, both sniff duration and peak amplitude increased for the sweet-paired odor...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732048/evidence-for-multiple-processes-contributing-to-the-perruchet-effect-response-priming-and-associative-learning
#5
Gabrielle Weidemann, Amy McAndrew, Evan J Livesey, Ian P L McLaren
The Perruchet effect constitutes a robust demonstration that it is possible to dissociate conditioned responding and expectancy in a random partial reinforcement design across a variety of human associative learning paradigms. This dissociation has been interpreted as providing evidence for multiple processes supporting learning, with expectancy driven by cognitive processes that lead to a Gambler's fallacy, and the pattern of conditioned responding (CRs) the result of an associative learning process. An alternative explanation is that the pattern of CRs is the result of exposure to the unconditioned stimulus (US)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732047/the-role-of-instructions-in-perceptual-learning-using-complex-visual-stimuli
#6
Sergio A Recio, Adela F Iliescu, Simón P Mingorance, Germán D Bergés, Geoffrey Hall, Isabel de Brugada
Although modeled on procedures used with nonhuman animals, some recent studies of perceptual learning in humans, using complex visual stimuli, differ in that they usually instruct participants to look for differences between the to-be-discriminated stimuli. This could encourage the use of mechanisms not available to animal subjects. To investigate the role of instructions, in 2 experiments, participants were given preexposure to checkerboards that were similar except for the presence of a small distinctive feature on each...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732046/individual-difference-in-configural-associative-learning
#7
Nicola C Byrom, Robin A Murphy
Individuals differ in their ability to acquire associations between stimuli and paired outcomes, an ability that has been proposed to be independent of general metrics of intelligence or memory (e.g., Kaufman, DeYoung, Gray, Brown, & Mackintosh, 2009). The nature of these differences may reflect the type of associative structures acquired during learning, for instance, configuring stimuli to facilitate flexible learning and memory. We test the hypothesis that individuals differ in configural associative learning as distinct from simpler (elemental) stimulus-outcome learning...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732045/the-origins-of-individual-differences-in-how-learning-is-expressed-in-rats-a-general-process-perspective
#8
E Patitucci, A J D Nelson, Dominic M Dwyer, R C Honey
Laboratory rats can exhibit marked, qualitative individual differences in the form of acquired behaviors. For example, when exposed to a signal-reinforcer relationship some rats show marked and consistent changes in sign-tracking (interacting with the signal; e.g., a lever) and others show marked and consistent changes in goal-tracking (interacting with the location of the predicted reinforcer; e.g., the food well). Here, stable individual differences in rats' sign-tracking and goal-tracking emerged over the course of training, but these differences did not generalize across different signal-reinforcer relationships (Experiment 1)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598063/testing-the-boundaries-of-paradoxical-predictions-pigeons-do-disregard-bad-news
#9
Inês Fortes, Marco Vasconcelos, Armando Machado
Several studies have shown that, when offered a choice between an option followed by stimuli indicating whether or not reward is forthcoming and an option followed by noninformative stimuli, animals strongly prefer the former even when the latter is more profitable. Though this paradoxical preference appears to question the principles of optimal foraging theory, Vasconcelos, Monteiro, and Kacelnik (2015) proposed an optimality model that shows how such preference maximizes gains under certain conditions. In this paper, we tested the model's core assumption that a stimulus signaling the absence of food should not influence choice independently of its other properties, such as probability or duration...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598062/asymmetry-between-excitatory-and-inhibitory-learning
#10
Justin A Harris, Angela E Patterson, Benjamin J Andrew, Dorothy W S Kwok, Ignacio Loy
Five experiments investigated how learning about the added feature in a feature-positive discrimination or feature-negative discrimination is related to the change in reinforcement rate that the feature signals. Rats were trained in a magazine-approach paradigm with 2 concurrent discriminations between A versus AX and B versus BY. In 2 experiments (1 and 3), X and Y signaled an increase of 0.3 in the probability of reinforcement, from 0.1 to 0.4 (A vs. AX), or from 0.6 to 0.9 (B vs. BY). After extended training, each session included probe test trials in which X and Y were presented alone (Experiment 1) or in compound with another excitatory conditional stimulus (CS), C (Experiment 3)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598061/a-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-predicts-poorer-hippocampal-related-memory-and-a-reduced-ability-to-suppress-wanting-under-satiety
#11
Tuki Attuquayefio, Richard J Stevenson, Robert A Boakes, Megan J Oaten, Martin R Yeomans, Mehmet Mahmut, Heather M Francis
Animal data indicate that greater intake of fats and sugars prevalent in a Western diet impairs hippocampal memory and tests of behavioral inhibition known to be related to hippocampal function (e.g., feature negative discrimination tasks). It has been argued that such high-fat high-sugar diets (HFS) impair the hippocampus, which then becomes less sensitive to modulation by physiological state. Thus retrieval of motivationally salient memories (e.g., when seeing or smelling food) occurs irrespective of state...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598060/contextual-control-of-chained-instrumental-behaviors
#12
Eric A Thrailkill, Jeremy M Trott, Christopher L Zerr, Mark E Bouton
Recent studies suggest a significant role for context in controlling the acquisition and extinction of simple operant responding. The present experiments examined the contextual control of a heterogeneous behavior chain. Rats first learned a chain in which a discriminative stimulus set the occasion for a procurement response (e.g., pulling a chain), which led to a second discriminative stimulus that occasion-set a consumption response (e.g., pressing a lever) that produced a food-pellet reinforcer. Experiment 1 showed that, after separate extinction of procurement and consumption, each response increased when it was returned to the acquisition context (ABA renewal) or was tested in a new context (AAB renewal)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598059/chimpanzees-can-point-to-smaller-amounts-of-food-to-accumulate-larger-amounts-but-they-still-fail-the-reverse-reward-contingency-task
#13
Michael J Beran, Brielle T James, Will Whitham, Audrey E Parrish
The reverse-reward contingency task presents 2 food sets to an animal, and they are required to choose the smaller of the 2 sets in order to receive the larger food set. Intriguingly, the majority of species tested on the reverse-reward task fail to learn this contingency in the absence of large trial counts, correction trials, and punishment techniques. The unique difficulty of this seemingly simple task likely reflects a failure of inhibitory control which is required to point toward a smaller and less desirable reward rather than a larger and more desirable reward...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598058/serial-pattern-learning-in-pigeons-rule-based-or-associative
#14
Dennis Garlick, Stephen B Fountain, Aaron P Blaisdell
Extensive research has documented evidence for rule learning in sequential behavior tasks in both rats and humans. We adapted the 2-choice serial multiple choice (SMC) task developed for use with rats (Fountain & Rowan, 1995a) to study sequence behavior in pigeons. Pigeons were presented with 8 disks arranged in a circular array on a touchscreen, and pecking to an illuminated disk could lead to reward. Correct responding consisted of serial patterns involving "run" chunks of 3 elements (123 234, etc.). Some pigeons experienced a violation of the chunk rule in the final chunk...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379720/switching-off-perceptual-learning-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-at-fp3-eliminates-perceptual-learning-in-humans
#15
Ciro Civile, Frederick Verbruggen, Rossy McLaren, Di Zhao, Yixuan Ku, I P L McLaren
Perceptual learning can be acquired as a result of experience with stimuli that would otherwise be difficult to tell apart, and is often explained in terms of the modulation of feature salience by an error signal based on how well that feature can be predicted by the others that make up the stimulus. In this article we show that anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) at Fp3 directly influences this modulation process so as to eliminate and possibly reverse perceptual learning. In 2 experiments, anodal stimulation disrupted perceptual learning (indexed by an inversion effect) compared with sham (Experiment 1) or cathodal (Experiment 2) stimulation...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379719/-contexts-control-negative-contrast-and-restrict-the-expression-of-flavor-preference-conditioning-correction-to-austen-and-sanderson-2016
#16
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Contexts control negative contrast and restrict the expression of flavor preference conditioning" by Joseph M. Austen and David J. Sanderson (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition, 2016[Jan], Vol 42[1], 95-105). In Table 2 of the article, the conditions in Experiment 3 are labeled AB and XY, but they should be AX and BY. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-59080-002.) Consumption of a high concentration of sucrose can have either a detrimental, negative contrast effect or a facilitatory, preference conditioning effect on subsequent consumption of a low concentration of sucrose, depending on the cues that are present during consumption...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379718/perceptual-learning-with-tactile-stimuli-in-rats-changes-in-the-processing-of-a-dimension
#17
Luke M Montuori, R C Honey
Four experiments with male rats investigated perceptual learning involving a tactile dimension (A, B, C, D, E), where A denotes 1 end of the continuum (e.g., a rough floor) and E the other (e.g., a smooth floor). In Experiment 1, rats given preexposure to A and E learned an appetitive discrimination between them more readily than those not given preexposure. Experiment 2a showed that rats preexposed to B and D acquired a discrimination between A and E more readily than those preexposed to A and E; and in Experiment 2b the same preexposure treatments had no effect on the acquisition of a discrimination between B and D...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379717/cue-salience-influences-the-use-of-height-cues-in-reorientation-in-pigeons-columba-livia
#18
Yu Du, Nuha Mahdi, Breanne Paul, Marcia L Spetch
Although orienting ability has been examined with numerous types of cues, most research has focused only on cues from the horizontal plane. The current study investigated pigeons' use of wall height, a vertical cue, in an open-field task and compared it with their use of horizontal cues. Pigeons were trained to locate food in 2 diagonal corners of a rectangular enclosure with 2 opposite high walls as height cues. Before each trial, pigeons were rotated to disorient them. In training, pigeons could use either the horizontal cues from the rectangular enclosure or the height information from the walls to locate the food...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379716/a-cumulative-decision-model-for-three-alternative-choice-in-concurrent-chains
#19
Randolph C Grace, Anthony P McLean
Traditional models for choice in the concurrent-chains procedure have assumed that terminal-link stimuli acquire value as conditioned reinforcers, and that 2-alternative choice provides a measure of relative value according to the matching law. By contrast, the cumulative decision model (CDM; Christensen & Grace, 2010) explains choice as the aggregate effect of comparing delays to a criterion on initial-link responding, not conditioned reinforcement. Here we test whether the CDM can account for choice in 3-alternative concurrent-chains (3ACC) and compare it with the hyperbolic value-added model (HVA; Mazur, 2001), which assumes that choice depends on the increase in conditioned reinforcement value signaled by terminal-link stimuli and has been successful in previous 3ACC research (Mazur, 2000)...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379715/learning-to-inhibit-the-response-during-instrumental-operant-extinction
#20
Mark E Bouton, Sydney Trask, Rodrigo Carranza-Jasso
Five experiments tested implications of the idea that instrumental (operant) extinction involves learning to inhibit the learned response. All experiments used a discriminated operant procedure in which rats were reinforced for lever pressing or chain pulling in the presence of a discriminative stimulus (S), but not in its absence. In Experiment 1, extinction of the response (R) in the presence of S weakened responding in S, but equivalent nonreinforced exposure to S (without the opportunity to make R) did not...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
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