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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805439/ratios-and-effect-size
#1
Jasper Robinson
Responding to a related pair of measurements is often expressed as a single discrimination ratio. Authors have used various discrimination ratios; yet, little information exists to guide their choice. A second use of ratios is to correct for the influence of a nuisance variable on the measurement of interest. I examine 4 discrimination ratios using simulated data sets. Three ratios, of the form a/(a + b), b/(a + b), and (a - b)/(a + b), introduced distortions to their raw data. The fourth ratio, (b - a)/b largely avoided such distortions and was the most sensitive at detecting statistical differences...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795826/competition-and-facilitation-in-compound-conditioning
#2
Gonzalo P Urcelay
Despite the generality and theoretical relevance of cue competition phenomena such as blocking and overshadowing, recent findings suggest that these observations may be due to some degree of publication bias, and that we lack insight into the boundary conditions of these phenomena. The present commentary does not question the existence of cue competition phenomena. Rather, I review findings showing that 3 variables, namely (a) relative stimulus duration, (b) contingency, and (c) contiguity parametrically determine not only whether cue competition is observed, but also whether no cue interaction, or cue facilitation occur...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771019/inhibitory-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer-in-humans
#3
Stephanie L Quail, Vincent Laurent, Bernard W Balleine
Although there has been extensive research in both humans and rodents regarding the influence of excitatory predictions on action selection, the influence of inhibitory reward predictions is less well understood. We used a feature-negative conditioned inhibition procedure to generate Pavlovian excitors and inhibitors, predicting the presence or absence of specific outcomes, and assessed their influence on action selection using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer test. Inhibitors predicting the absence of a specific outcome reversed the bias in action selection elicited by outcome-specific excitors; whereas excitors promoted responding on the action associated with the same outcome as the cue, inhibitors shifted responding away from such actions and toward other actions...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471226/extinction-of-specific-stimulus-outcome-s-o-associations-in-pavlovian-learning-with-an-extended-cs-procedure
#4
Andrew R Delamater, Kevin Schneider, Rifka C Derman
Three experiments with male and female rats were conducted to examine the effects of Pavlovian extinction training on Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) in a task in which the unconditioned stimulus (US) was presented at an early time point within an extended conditioned stimulus (CS). Two instrumental responses were trained with different reinforcing outcomes (R1-O1, R2-O2) and then, independently, 2 stimuli were trained with those outcomes (S1-O1, S2-O2). One group then underwent an extinction treatment (S1-, S2-) and a second was merely exposed to the experimental contexts without any stimulus events...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471225/do-salient-features-overshadow-learning-of-other-features-in-category-learning
#5
Gregory L Murphy, Joseph E Dunsmoor
Hundreds of associative learning experiments have examined how animals learn to predict an aversive outcome, such as a shock, loud sound, or puff of air in the eye. In this study, we reversed this pattern and examined the role of an aversive stimulus, shock, as a feature of a complex stimulus composed of several features, rather than as an outcome. In particular, we used a category learning paradigm in which multiple features predicted category membership and asked whether a salient, aversive feature would reduce learning of other category features through cue competition...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627906/evidence-of-a-goal-directed-process-in-human-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer
#6
Tina Seabrooke, Mike E Le Pelley, Lee Hogarth, Chris J Mitchell
Cues that signal rewards can motivate reward-seeking behaviors, even for outcomes that are not currently desired. Three experiments examined this phenomenon, using an outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) design and an outcome devaluation procedure. In Experiment 1, participants learned to perform one response to earn crisps points and another response to earn popcorn points. One outcome was then devalued by adulterating it to make it taste unpleasant. On test, overall response choice was biased toward the outcome that had not been devalued, indicating goal-directed control...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581307/correction-to-robinson-whitt-and-jones-2017
#7
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Familiarity-based stimulus generalization of conditioned suppression" by Jasper Robinson, Emma J. Whitt and Peter M. Jones (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition, 2017[Apr], Vol 43[2], 159-170). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-15338-002.) We report that stimulus novelty/familiarity is able to modulate stimulus generalization and discuss the theoretical implications of novelty/familiarity coding. Rats in Skinner boxes received clicker → shock pairings before generalization testing to a tone...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481560/an-examination-of-changes-in-behavioral-control-when-stimuli-with-different-associative-histories-are-conditioned-in-compound
#8
Justine Fam, R Frederick Westbrook, Nathan M Holmes
This series of experiments used rats to examine changes in behavioral control when stimuli with different associative histories are conditioned in compound. The initial experiments used blocking designs. Experiment 1 provided a within-subject demonstration of blocking, and Experiment 2 used the compound test procedure to show that, when a novel stimulus, X, is conditioned in compound with an already conditioned stimulus (CS), A, these audiovisual compound stimulus (AX)+ conditioning trials produce a greater increase in behavioral control for X than A...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383941/assessing-the-acquisition-of-anticipatory-responding-in-the-pigeon-using-reaction-time
#9
Daniel García-Gallardo, Víctor M Navarro, Edward A Wasserman
We report a novel method for investigating the acquisition of anticipatory responding in the pigeon. Four pigeons (Columba livia) received food for pecking a starburst target stimulus displayed in the bottom-left or bottom-right portion of a computer screen. The target stimulus was preceded by 1 of 3 fractal images displayed in either the upper-left or upper-right portion of the screen: 1 of the fractals was perfectly correlated with the target appearing in the bottom-left, the second fractal was perfectly correlated with the target appearing in the bottom-right, and the third fractal was uncorrelated with the location of the target...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383940/causal-superlearning-arising-from-interactions-among-cues
#10
Kouji Urushihara, Ralph R Miller
Superconditioning refers to supernormal responding to a conditioned stimulus (CS) that sometimes occurs in classical conditioning when the CS is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US) in the presence of a conditioned inhibitor for that US. In the present research, we conducted 4 experiments to investigate causal superlearning, a phenomenon in human causal learning analogous to superconditioning. Experiment 1 demonstrated superlearning relative to appropriate control conditions. Experiment 2 showed that superlearning wanes when the number of cues used in an experiment is relatively large...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383939/blocking-of-flavor-nausea-learning-by-non-flavor-cues-assessment-through-orofacial-reactivity-responses
#11
Patricia Gasalla, Alberto Soto, Dominic M Dwyer, Matías López
We investigated, using orofacial reactivity assessment, whether nonflavor context cues can elicit conditioned aversive reactions, and also whether context cues interfere, through blocking, with the reduction in taste palatability during taste aversion conditioning. Experiment 1 showed that a context previously paired with LiCl evoked aversive orofacial reactions, and also attenuated the reduction in palatability of a saccharin solution which was paired with LiCl in that context. In Experiment 2, this blocking effect was abolished when the rats were given nonreinforced exposure to the previously LiCl-paired context (context extinction) before aversive conditioning of the saccharin in compound with the context...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383938/familiarity-based-stimulus-generalization-of-conditioned-suppression
#12
Jasper Robinson, Emma J Whitt, Peter M Jones
We report that stimulus novelty/familiarity is able to modulate stimulus generalization and discuss the theoretical implications of novelty/familiarity coding. Rats in Skinner boxes received clicker → shock pairings before generalization testing to a tone. Before clicker training, different groups of rats received preexposure treatments designed to systematically modulate the clicker and the tone's novelty and familiarity. Rats whose preexposure matched novelty/familiarity (i.e., either both or neither clicker and tone were preexposed) showed enhanced suppression to the tone relative to rats whose preexposure mixed novelty/familiarity (i...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383937/rapid-visual-processing-of-picture-stimuli-by-pigeons-in-an-rsvp-rapid-serial-visual-presentation-task
#13
Masako Jitsumori, Tomokazu Ushitani
Three experiments that were carried out in series with 5 pigeons used novel training methods to investigate the rapid visual processing of picture stimuli by pigeons. On each trial, a sequence containing 1 of 2 bird pictures (the target) and nontarget bird pictures (the distractors) was presented. After the termination of the last item in the sequence, the pigeons were required to choose 1 of 2 colored squares corresponding to the target presented in the preceding sequence. The pigeons learned the task with 2-item lists (1 target and 1 distractor) in Experiment1 and with 3-item lists (1 target and 2 distractors) in Experiment 2...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191986/studies-of-learned-helplessness-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-ligustica
#14
Christopher W Dinges, Christopher A Varnon, Lisa D Cota, Stephen Slykerman, Charles I Abramson
The current study reports 2 experiments investigating learned helplessness in the honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica). In Experiment 1, we used a traditional escape method but found the bees' activity levels too high to observe changes due to treatment conditions. The bees were not able to learn in this traditional escape procedure; thus, such procedures may be inappropriate to study learned helplessness in honey bees. In Experiment 2, we used an alternative punishment, or passive avoidance, method to investigate learned helplessness...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936821/chrysippus-s-pigeon-exclusion-based-responding-in-an-avian-model
#15
Marisol C Lauffer, Leyre Castro, Edward A Wasserman
Inference by exclusion can be exhibited by deductively responding to new stimuli that are presented in the context of familiar stimuli. We investigated exclusion-based responding in pigeons using a 2-alternative forced-choice discrimination task. In Phase 1, pigeons learned to associate 2 stimuli (A and B) with Response 1 and 2 stimuli (C and D) with Response 2. Following successful acquisition of these stimulus-response pairings, pigeons advanced to Phase 2, in which stimuli A and B were now reassigned to Response 2...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045298/rats-show-adaptive-choice-in-a-metacognitive-task-with-high-uncertainty
#16
Shoko Yuki, Kazuo Okanoya
Metacognition refers to the use of one's cognitive processes to coordinate behavior. Many higher cognitive functions such as feeling-of-knowing judgment and theory of mind are thought to be metacognitive processes. Although some primate species also show this ability in the form of behavioral control, a rodent model of metacognition is required for advanced studies of this phenomenon at behavioral, molecular, and neural levels. Here we show that rats could reliably be trained in a metacognitive task. The rats were trained to remember the location of a nose-poke hole and later indicate the location via a behavioral task...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045297/the-quantification-of-behavior-in-the-presence-of-compound-stimuli
#17
Kathryn L Kalafut, Russell M Church
Animals live in complex environments where multiple cues can provide consistent or conflicting information about how to behave most effectively. Previous research has described how animals combine information with qualitative combination rules; the goal of this article was to quantify the combination rule used by rats when 2 previously trained stimuli of separate modalities were presented simultaneously. Rats in a lever box were trained with 2 stimuli (light and tone) assigned given probabilities of food before they were tested in compound...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045296/effects-of-outcome-devaluation-on-instrumental-behaviors-in-a-discriminated-heterogeneous-chain
#18
Eric A Thrailkill, Mark E Bouton
Operant behavior often takes place in a sequence, or chain, of linked responses that lead to a reinforcer. We have recently studied rats performing a discriminated heterogeneous behavior chain that involves the presentation of a discriminative stimulus (e.g., a panel light) to set the occasion for a procurement behavior (e.g., a lever press) that leads to a second stimulus (e.g., a second panel light) that indicates that a consumption response (e.g., a chain pull) will be reinforced. The present study assessed the role played by a representation of the reinforcer in controlling the performance of the responses in this chain...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045295/superior-ambiguous-occasion-setting-with-visual-than-temporal-feature-stimuli
#19
Andrew R Delamater, Rifka C Derman, Justin A Harris
Three experiments with rats compared the relative ease with which different sets of visual or temporal cues could participate in Pavlovian learning. In Experiment 1, 1 group was trained to discriminate between visual cues (Light vs. Dark), whereas the other group learned to discriminate between temporal cues (early [10 s] vs. late [90 s]). Both groups learned to distinguish food-paired from nonpaired periods equally well. In Experiment 2, 2 groups were trained on an ambiguous occasion setting task. For Group Visual, a 2-min Light period signaled that 1 10-s auditory conditioned stimulus, CS1, was reinforced with 1 unconditioned stimulus, US1, but that CS2 was not reinforced; whereas a 2-min dark period signaled that CS1 was not reinforced, but CS2 was reinforced with US2 (i...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045294/habituation-and-conditioning-salience-change-in-associative-learning
#20
Geoffrey Hall, Gabriel Rodríguez
Repeated presentation of a single stimulus produces habituation-engages a learning process that results in a reduction of the ability of the stimulus to evoke its customary response. Repeated stimulus presentation is a feature of the standard procedure for classical conditioning, although, in this case, subjects experience repeated presentations of 2 stimuli occurring in sequence: S1-S2. We ask how habituation to each of these stimuli (S1 and S2) is influenced by this form of sequential presentation and what implications any effects might have for the understanding of both conditioning and habituation itself...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
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