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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154562/psychophysics-of-associative-learning-quantitative-properties-of-subjective-contingency
#1
Susana Maia, Françoise Lefèvre, Jérémie Jozefowiez
Allan and collaborators (Allan, Hannah, Crump, & Siegel, 2008; Allan, Siegel, & Tangen, 2005; Siegel, Allan, Hannah, & Crump, 2009) recently proposed to apply signal detection theory to the analysis of contingency judgment tasks. When exposed to a flow of stimuli, participants are asked to judge whether there is a contingent relation between a cue and an outcome, that is, whether the subjective cue-outcome contingency exceeds a decision threshold. In this context, we tested the following hypotheses regarding the relation between objective and subjective cue-outcome contingency: (a) The underlying distributions of subjective cue-outcome contingency are Gaussian; (b) The mean distribution of subjective contingency is a linear function of objective cue-outcome contingency; and (c) The variance in the distribution of subjective contingency is constant...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035065/serial-decision-making-in-monkeys-during-an-oculomotor-task
#2
Zachary M Abzug, Marc A Sommer
Much of everyday behavior involves serial decision-making, in which the outcome of 1 choice affects another. An example is setting rules for oneself: choosing a behavioral rule guides appropriate choices in the future. How the brain links decisions across time is poorly understood. Neural mechanisms could be studied in monkeys, as it is known that they can select and use behavioral rules, but existing psychophysical paradigms are poorly suited for the constraints of neurophysiology. Therefore, we designed a streamlined task that requires sequential, linked decisions, and trained 2 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to perform it...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981310/dealing-with-interference-chimpanzees-respond-to-conflicting-cues-in-a-food-choice-memory-task
#3
Audrey E Parrish, Anamaria Otalora-Garcia, Michael J Beran
Interference effects emerge when responding on the basis of task-relevant features is directly pitted against task-irrelevant cues that could lead to errors. To study potential interference effects in a food-choice memory test, 3 chimpanzees were presented with conflicting information in a magnitude judgment task. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees were presented with an ordinal series of colored containers that they sequenced on the basis of relative preference for the different foods that were consistently hidden under the containers...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981309/learned-predictiveness-and-outcome-predictability-effects-are-not-simply-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#4
Anna Thorwart, Evan J Livesey, Francisco Wilhelm, Wei Liu, Harald Lachnit
The Learned Predictiveness effect refers to the observation that learning about the relationship between a cue and an outcome is influenced by the predictive relevance of the cue for other outcomes. Similarly, the Outcome Predictability effect refers to a recent observation that the previous predictability of an outcome affects learning about this outcome in new situations, too. We hypothesize that both effects may be two manifestations of the same phenomenon and stimuli that have been involved in highly predictive relationships may be learned about faster when they are involved in new relationships regardless of their functional role in predictive learning as cues and outcomes...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981308/individual-differences-case-studies-of-rodent-and-primate-intelligence
#5
Louis D Matzel, Bruno Sauce
Early in the 20th century, individual differences were a central focus of psychologists. By the end of that century, studies of individual differences had become far less common, and attention to these differences played little role in the development of contemporary theory. To illustrate the important role of individual differences, here we consider variations in intelligence as a compelling example. General intelligence (g) has now been demonstrated in at least 2 distinct genera: primates (including humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, and tamarins) and rodents (mice and rats)...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805439/ratios-and-effect-size
#6
Jasper Robinson
Responding to a related pair of measurements is often expressed as a single discrimination ratio. Authors have used various discrimination ratios; yet, little information exists to guide their choice. A second use of ratios is to correct for the influence of a nuisance variable on the measurement of interest. I examine 4 discrimination ratios using simulated data sets. Three ratios, of the form a/(a + b), b/(a + b), and (a - b)/(a + b), introduced distortions to their raw data. The fourth ratio, (b - a)/b largely avoided such distortions and was the most sensitive at detecting statistical differences...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795826/competition-and-facilitation-in-compound-conditioning
#7
Gonzalo P Urcelay
Despite the generality and theoretical relevance of cue competition phenomena such as blocking and overshadowing, recent findings suggest that these observations may be due to some degree of publication bias, and that we lack insight into the boundary conditions of these phenomena. The present commentary does not question the existence of cue competition phenomena. Rather, I review findings showing that 3 variables, namely (a) relative stimulus duration, (b) contingency, and (c) contiguity parametrically determine not only whether cue competition is observed, but also whether no cue interaction, or cue facilitation occur...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771019/inhibitory-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer-in-humans
#8
Stephanie L Quail, Vincent Laurent, Bernard W Balleine
Although there has been extensive research in both humans and rodents regarding the influence of excitatory predictions on action selection, the influence of inhibitory reward predictions is less well understood. We used a feature-negative conditioned inhibition procedure to generate Pavlovian excitors and inhibitors, predicting the presence or absence of specific outcomes, and assessed their influence on action selection using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer test. Inhibitors predicting the absence of a specific outcome reversed the bias in action selection elicited by outcome-specific excitors; whereas excitors promoted responding on the action associated with the same outcome as the cue, inhibitors shifted responding away from such actions and toward other actions...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627906/evidence-of-a-goal-directed-process-in-human-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer
#9
Tina Seabrooke, Mike E Le Pelley, Lee Hogarth, Chris J Mitchell
Cues that signal rewards can motivate reward-seeking behaviors, even for outcomes that are not currently desired. Three experiments examined this phenomenon, using an outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) design and an outcome devaluation procedure. In Experiment 1, participants learned to perform one response to earn crisps points and another response to earn popcorn points. One outcome was then devalued by adulterating it to make it taste unpleasant. On test, overall response choice was biased toward the outcome that had not been devalued, indicating goal-directed control...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120216/bridging-the-gap-learning-of-acoustic-nonadjacent-dependencies-by-a-songbird
#10
Jiani Chen, Carel Ten Cate
Many animal species can detect dependencies between adjacent visual or auditory items in a string. Compared with adjacent dependencies, detecting nonadjacent dependencies, as present in linguistic constructions, is more challenging as this requires detecting a relation between items irrespective of the number and nature of the intervening items. There is limited evidence that nonhuman animals can detect such dependencies. An animal group in which such abilities might be expected is songbirds, which have learned songs consisting of a series of vocal elements given in specific sequences...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120215/about-bouts-a-heterogeneous-tandem-schedule-of-reinforcement-reveals-dissociable-components-of-operant-behavior-in-fischer-rats
#11
Carter W Daniels, Federico Sanabria
According to the biexponential refractory model (BERM) of variable-interval (VI) performance, operant behavior is organized in bouts, described by 3 dissociable components: between-bout interresponse times (IRTs), within-bout IRTs, and bout lengths. Research has shown that between-bout IRTs are sensitive to changes in rate of reinforcement and reinforcer efficacy, the length of some bouts is selectively sensitive to changes in response-reinforcer contingencies, and within-bout IRTs are relatively insensitive to both manipulations...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120214/reinforcement-learning-models-of-risky-choice-and-the-promotion-of-risk-taking-by-losses-disguised-as-wins-in-rats
#12
Andrew T Marshall, Kimberly Kirkpatrick
Risky decisions are inherently characterized by the potential to receive gains or incur losses, and these outcomes have distinct effects on subsequent decision-making. One important factor is that individuals engage in loss-chasing, in which the reception of a loss is followed by relatively increased risk-taking. Unfortunately, the mechanisms of loss-chasing are poorly understood, despite the potential importance for understanding pathological choice behavior. The goal of the present experiment was to illuminate the mechanisms governing individual differences in loss-chasing and risky-choice behaviors...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120213/feature-predictiveness-and-selective-attention-in-pigeons-categorization-learning
#13
Leyre Castro, Edward A Wasserman
Prior categorization studies have shown that pigeons reliably track features that are perfect predictors of category membership (Castro & Wasserman, 2014, 2016a). One might further ask whether pigeons would also track features that are relevant, but imperfect predictors of category membership. In our present project, pigeons had to categorize multiple exemplars from 2 different artificial categories, in which the exemplars were composed of 4 different features that were associated with 1 of 2 different report responses...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471226/extinction-of-specific-stimulus-outcome-s-o-associations-in-pavlovian-learning-with-an-extended-cs-procedure
#14
Andrew R Delamater, Kevin Schneider, Rifka C Derman
Three experiments with male and female rats were conducted to examine the effects of Pavlovian extinction training on Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) in a task in which the unconditioned stimulus (US) was presented at an early time point within an extended conditioned stimulus (CS). Two instrumental responses were trained with different reinforcing outcomes (R1-O1, R2-O2) and then, independently, 2 stimuli were trained with those outcomes (S1-O1, S2-O2). One group then underwent an extinction treatment (S1-, S2-) and a second was merely exposed to the experimental contexts without any stimulus events...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471225/do-salient-features-overshadow-learning-of-other-features-in-category-learning
#15
Gregory L Murphy, Joseph E Dunsmoor
Hundreds of associative learning experiments have examined how animals learn to predict an aversive outcome, such as a shock, loud sound, or puff of air in the eye. In this study, we reversed this pattern and examined the role of an aversive stimulus, shock, as a feature of a complex stimulus composed of several features, rather than as an outcome. In particular, we used a category learning paradigm in which multiple features predicted category membership and asked whether a salient, aversive feature would reduce learning of other category features through cue competition...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581307/correction-to-robinson-whitt-and-jones-2017
#16
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Familiarity-based stimulus generalization of conditioned suppression" by Jasper Robinson, Emma J. Whitt and Peter M. Jones (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition, 2017[Apr], Vol 43[2], 159-170). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-15338-002.) We report that stimulus novelty/familiarity is able to modulate stimulus generalization and discuss the theoretical implications of novelty/familiarity coding. Rats in Skinner boxes received clicker → shock pairings before generalization testing to a tone...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481560/an-examination-of-changes-in-behavioral-control-when-stimuli-with-different-associative-histories-are-conditioned-in-compound
#17
Justine Fam, R Frederick Westbrook, Nathan M Holmes
This series of experiments used rats to examine changes in behavioral control when stimuli with different associative histories are conditioned in compound. The initial experiments used blocking designs. Experiment 1 provided a within-subject demonstration of blocking, and Experiment 2 used the compound test procedure to show that, when a novel stimulus, X, is conditioned in compound with an already conditioned stimulus (CS), A, these audiovisual compound stimulus (AX)+ conditioning trials produce a greater increase in behavioral control for X than A...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383941/assessing-the-acquisition-of-anticipatory-responding-in-the-pigeon-using-reaction-time
#18
Daniel García-Gallardo, Víctor M Navarro, Edward A Wasserman
We report a novel method for investigating the acquisition of anticipatory responding in the pigeon. Four pigeons (Columba livia) received food for pecking a starburst target stimulus displayed in the bottom-left or bottom-right portion of a computer screen. The target stimulus was preceded by 1 of 3 fractal images displayed in either the upper-left or upper-right portion of the screen: 1 of the fractals was perfectly correlated with the target appearing in the bottom-left, the second fractal was perfectly correlated with the target appearing in the bottom-right, and the third fractal was uncorrelated with the location of the target...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383940/causal-superlearning-arising-from-interactions-among-cues
#19
Kouji Urushihara, Ralph R Miller
Superconditioning refers to supernormal responding to a conditioned stimulus (CS) that sometimes occurs in classical conditioning when the CS is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US) in the presence of a conditioned inhibitor for that US. In the present research, we conducted 4 experiments to investigate causal superlearning, a phenomenon in human causal learning analogous to superconditioning. Experiment 1 demonstrated superlearning relative to appropriate control conditions. Experiment 2 showed that superlearning wanes when the number of cues used in an experiment is relatively large...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383939/blocking-of-flavor-nausea-learning-by-non-flavor-cues-assessment-through-orofacial-reactivity-responses
#20
Patricia Gasalla, Alberto Soto, Dominic M Dwyer, Matías López
We investigated, using orofacial reactivity assessment, whether nonflavor context cues can elicit conditioned aversive reactions, and also whether context cues interfere, through blocking, with the reduction in taste palatability during taste aversion conditioning. Experiment 1 showed that a context previously paired with LiCl evoked aversive orofacial reactions, and also attenuated the reduction in palatability of a saccharin solution which was paired with LiCl in that context. In Experiment 2, this blocking effect was abolished when the rats were given nonreinforced exposure to the previously LiCl-paired context (context extinction) before aversive conditioning of the saccharin in compound with the context...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
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