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Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24673911/neurotoxicity-of-nanoscale-materials
#1
REVIEW
Alokita Karmakar, Qinli Zhang, Yongbin Zhang
Nanotechnology has been applied in consumer products and commercial applications, showing a significant impact on almost all industries and all areas of society. Significant evidence indicates that manufactured nanomaterials and combustion-derived nanomaterials elicit toxicity in humans exposed to these nanomaterials. The interaction of the engineered nanomaterials with the nervous system has received much attention in the nanotoxicology field. In this review, the biological effects of metal, metal oxide, and carbon-based nanomaterials on the nervous system are discussed from both in vitro and in vivo studies...
March 2014: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24673910/using-a-holistic-approach-to-assess-the-impact-of-engineered-nanomaterials-inducing-toxicity-in-aquatic-systems
#2
REVIEW
Xiaojia He, Winfred G Aker, Jerzy Leszczynski, Huey-Min Hwang
In this report, we critically reviewed selected intrinsic physicochemical properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and their role in the interaction of the ENMs with the immediate surroundings in representative aquatic environments. The behavior of ENMs with respect to dynamic microenvironments at the nano-bio-eco interface level, and the resulting impact on their toxicity, fate, and exposure potential are elaborated. Based on this literature review, we conclude that a holistic approach is urgently needed to fulfill our knowledge gap regarding the safety of discharged ENMs...
March 2014: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24673909/molecular-toxicity-mechanism-of-nanosilver
#3
REVIEW
Danielle McShan, Paresh C Ray, Hongtao Yu
Silver is an ancient antibiotic that has found many new uses due to its unique properties on the nanoscale. Due to its presence in many consumer products, the toxicity of nanosilver has become a hot topic. This review summarizes recent advances, particularly the molecular mechanism of nanosilver toxicity. The surface of nanosilver can easily be oxidized by O(2) and other molecules in the environmental and biological systems leading to the release of Ag(+), a known toxic ion. Therefore, nanosilver toxicity is closely related to the release of Ag(+)...
March 2014: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24673908/assessment-of-the-toxic-potential-of-graphene-family-nanomaterials
#4
REVIEW
Xiaoqing Guo, Nan Mei
Graphene, a single-atom-thick carbon nanosheet, has attracted great interest as a promising nanomaterial for a variety of bioapplications because of its extraordinary properties. However, the potential for widespread human exposure raises safety concerns about graphene and its derivatives, referred to as graphene-family nanomaterials. This review summarizes recent findings on the toxicological effects and the potential toxicity mechanisms of graphene-family nanomaterials in bacteria, mammalian cells, and animal models...
March 2014: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24673907/genotoxicity-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles
#5
REVIEW
Tao Chen, Jian Yan, Yan Li
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2)-NPs, <100 nm) are increasingly being used in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics due to the unique properties derived from their small sizes. However, their large surface-area to mass ratio and high redox potential may negatively impact human health and the environment. TiO(2)-NPs can cause inflammation, pulmonary damage, fibrosis, and lung tumors and they are possibly carcinogenic to humans. Because cancer is a disease involving mutation, there are a large number of studies on the genotoxicity of TiO(2)-NPs...
March 2014: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24673906/reactive-oxygen-species-related-activities-of-nano-iron-metal-and-nano-iron-oxides
#6
REVIEW
Haohao Wu, Jun-Jie Yin, Wayne G Wamer, Mingyong Zeng, Y Martin Lo
Nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides are among the most widely used engineered and naturally occurring nanostructures, and the increasing incidence of biological exposure to these nanostructures has raised concerns about their biotoxicity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress is one of the most accepted toxic mechanisms and, in the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to investigate the ROS-related activities of iron nanostructures. In this review, we summarize activities of nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides in ROS-related redox processes, addressing in detail the known homogeneous and heterogeneous redox mechanisms involved in these processes, intrinsic ROS-related properties of iron nanostructures (chemical composition, particle size, and crystalline phase), and ROS-related bio-microenvironmental factors, including physiological pH and buffers, biogenic reducing agents, and other organic substances...
March 2014: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24673905/mechanistic-characterization-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticle-induced-toxicity-using-electron-spin-resonance
#7
REVIEW
Meng Li, Jun-Jie Yin, Wayne G Wamer, Y Martin Lo
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2) NPs) are one of the most widely used nanomaterials that have been manufactured worldwide and applied in different commercial realms. The well-recognized ability of TiO(2) to promote the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been extensively studied as one of the important mechanisms underlying TiO(2) NPs toxicity. As the "gold standard" method to quantify and identify ROS, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy has been employed in many studies aimed at evaluating TiO(2) NPs safety...
March 2014: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24673904/mechanisms-of-nanotoxicity-generation-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#8
REVIEW
Peter P Fu, Qingsu Xia, Huey-Min Hwang, Paresh C Ray, Hongtao Yu
Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing field in the 21(st) century, and the commercial use of nanomaterials for novel applications is increasing exponentially. To date, the scientific basis for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of most manufactured nanomaterials are not understood. The mechanisms underlying the toxicity of nanomaterials have recently been studied intensively. An important mechanism of nanotoxicity is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Overproduction of ROS can induce oxidative stress, resulting in cells failing to maintain normal physiological redox-regulated functions...
March 2014: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24673903/electron-spin-resonance-spectroscopy-for-the-study-of-nanomaterial-mediated-generation-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#9
REVIEW
Weiwei He, Yitong Liu, Wayne G Wamer, Jun-Jie Yin
Many of the biological applications and effects of nanomaterials are attributed to their ability to facilitate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a direct and reliable method to identify and quantify free radicals in both chemical and biological environments. In this review, we discuss the use of ESR spectroscopy to study ROS generation mediated by nanomaterials, which have various applications in biological, chemical, and materials science. In addition to introducing the theory of ESR, we present some modifications of the method such as spin trapping and spin labeling, which ultimately aid in the detection of short-lived free radicals...
March 2014: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24673902/raman-spectroscopy-in-the-analysis-of-food-and-pharmaceutical-nanomaterials
#10
REVIEW
Ying-Sing Li, Jeffrey S Church
Raman scattering is an inelastic phenomenon. Although its cross section is very small, recent advances in electronics, lasers, optics, and nanotechnology have made Raman spectroscopy suitable in many areas of application. The present article reviews the applications of Raman spectroscopy in food and drug analysis and inspection, including those associated with nanomaterials. Brief overviews of basic Raman scattering theory, instrumentation, and statistical data analysis are also given. With the advent of Raman enhancement mechanisms and the progress being made in metal nanomaterials and nanoscale metal surfaces fabrications, surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy has become an extra sensitive method, which is applicable not only for analysis of foods and drugs, but also for intracellular and intercellular imaging...
March 2014: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24673901/cell-microenvironment-stimuli-responsive-controlled-release-delivery-systems-based-on-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles
#11
REVIEW
Chun-Ling Zhu, Xian-Wei Wang, Zhen-Zhen Lin, Zeng-Hong Xie, Xiao-Ru Wang
To develop novel tumor cell microenvironment stimuli-responsive smart controlled-release delivery systems is one of the current common interests of materials science and clinical medicine. Meanwhile, mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a promising drug carrier have become the new area of interest in the field of biomedical application in recent years because of their unique characteristics and abilities to efficiently and specifically entrap cargo molecules. This review describes the more recent developments and achievements of mesoporous silica nanoparticles in drug delivery...
March 2014: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24673900/theranostic-nanomedicine-for-cancer-detection-and-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Zhen Fan, Peter P Fu, Hongtao Yu, Paresh C Ray
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA according to the American Cancer Society. In the past 5 years, "theranostic nanomedicine", for both therapeutics and imaging, has shown to be "the right drug for the right patient at the right moment" to manage deadly cancers. This review article presents an overview of recent developments, mainly from the authors' laboratories, along with potential medical applications for theranostic nanomedicine including basic concepts and critical properties. Finally, we outline the future research direction and possible challenges for theranostic nanomedicine research...
March 2014: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24673899/introduction-to-the-special-issue-nanomaterials-toxicology-and-medical-applications
#13
EDITORIAL
Peter P Fu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2014: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26334109/treatment-of-methamphetamine-abuse-an-antibody-based-immunotherapy-approach
#14
Yun-Hsiang Chen, Kuang-Lun Wu, Ho-Min Tsai, Chia-Hsiang Chen
Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant with tens of millions of abusers around the world, and currently there is no effective or approved medication for addiction to it. Monoclonal antibodies with a high affinity for methamphetamine have the potential to sequester the drug in the vascular compartment and reduce entry into the brain, acting as peripheral pharmacokinetic antagonists without inducing adverse effects on neurons. However, in order to maintain the antibodies at an effective level, repeated administration is required, which would be expensive and problematic for patient compliance...
December 2013: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25530687/foreword
#15
Nora D Volkow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2013: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25284965/current-status-of-drug-use-and-hiv-aids-prevention-in-drug-users-in-china
#16
Jianhua Li, Xinyue Li
The objective of this paper is to review the current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention for drug users in China and provide scientific evidence for HIV/AIDS prevention and control in drug users. Literature and articles related to drug abuse in China, as well as the results of prevention efforts and successful cases regarding HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users, are reviewed. Lessons learned are drawn out for the future improvement of work and the sustainable development of treatment programs. The number of drug users in China is increasing...
December 2013: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25278738/pharmacogenomics-study-in-a-taiwan-methadone-maintenance-cohort
#17
Sheng-Chang Wang, Hsiao-Hui Tsou, Ing-Kang Ho, Keh-Ming Lin, Yu-Li Liu
Pharmacogenomics is research to study the drug treatment responses in subgroups of patients according to their genetic variants or genetic expression information. Methadone maintenance treatment, which is usually prescribed for patients with heroin dependence, was launched in Taiwan by the government in 2006. In this study, 366 patients who had taken methadone continually in the previous 7 days were examined. Data from administration of the Treatment Outcomes Profile (TOP), Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), Clinical Opioid Withdrawal Scale (COWS), and Treatment Emergent Symptoms Scale (TESS) were obtained from patients' report records...
December 2013: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25278737/substance-abuse-and-the-hiv-situation-in-malaysia
#18
Darshan Singh, Marek C Chawarski, Richard Schottenfeld, Balasingam Vicknasingam
Heroin continues to be the main drug used in Malaysia, while amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) have been recently identified as a growing problem. A cumulative total of 300,241 drug users were detected between 1988 and 2006. It is also estimated that Malaysia has 170,000 injecting drug users. HIV prevalence among drug users in the country ranges from 25% to 45%. Currently, there are approximately 380 general medical practice offices that offer agonist maintenance treatments for approximately 10,000 patients...
December 2013: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25278736/substance-use-disorders-and-hiv-in-vietnam-since-doi-moi-renovation-an-overview
#19
Le Minh Giang, Lung Bich Ngoc, Vu Huy Hoang, Kevin Mulvey, Richard A Rawson
Drawing from published and gray literature, this manuscript focuses on the following topics: (1) changing patterns of substance use and abuse in Vietnam since the early 1990s; (2) the roles of substance use in the HIV epidemic; (3) the responses of the Vietnamese government and other entities (both domestic and international) to substance use disorders (SUDs) and HIV; and (4) the current research capacity in Vietnam and ways in which furthering research in Vietnam could enrich our knowledge of the linkages between SUDs and HIV and of effective measures to reduce their public health consequences...
December 2013: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25278735/hiv-seek-test-treat-and-retain
#20
Jacques Normand, Julio Montaner, Chi-Tai Fang, Zunyou Wu, Yi-Ming Chen
The "HIV: Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain" session was chaired by Dr. Jacques Normand, the Director of AIDS Research at the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Dr. Yi-Ming Chen served as the discussant. The three presenters (and their presentation topics) were: Dr. Julio Montaner (Treatment as Prevention-The Key to an AIDS-free Generation), Dr. Chi-Tai Fang (Population-level Effect of Free Access to HAART on Reducing HIV Transmission in Taiwan), and Dr. Zunyou Wu (Challenges in Promoting HIV Test & Treat Strategy in China)...
December 2013: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
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