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Frontiers in Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748181/great-challenges-in-organic-chemistry
#1
EDITORIAL
Iwao Ojima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748180/buwchitin-a-ruminal-peptide-with-antimicrobial-potential-against-enterococcus-faecalis
#2
Linda B Oyama, Jean-Adrien Crochet, Joan E Edwards, Susan E Girdwood, Alan R Cookson, Narcis Fernandez-Fuentes, Kai Hilpert, Peter N Golyshin, Olga V Golyshina, Florence Privé, Matthias Hess, Hilario C Mantovani, Christopher J Creevey, Sharon A Huws
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are gaining popularity as alternatives for treatment of bacterial infections and recent advances in omics technologies provide new platforms for AMP discovery. We sought to determine the antibacterial activity of a novel antimicrobial peptide, buwchitin, against Enterococcus faecalis. Buwchitin was identified from a rumen bacterial metagenome library, cloned, expressed and purified. The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide was assessed using a broth microdilution susceptibility assay to determine the peptide's killing kinetics against selected bacterial strains...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748179/structure-activity-relationships-of-insect-defensins
#3
REVIEW
Johannes Koehbach
Insects make up the largest and most diverse group of organisms on earth with several million species to exist in total. Considering the sheer number of insect species and the vast variety of ways they interact with their environment through chemistry, it is clear that they have significant potential as a source of new lead molecules. They have adapted to a range of ecological habitats and exhibit a symbiotic lifestyle with various microbes such as bacteria and fungi. Accordingly, numerous antimicrobial compounds have been identified including for example defensin peptides...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736728/the-influence-of-apical-and-basal-defoliation-on-the-canopy-structure-and-biochemical-composition-of-vitis-vinifera-cv-shiraz-grapes-and-wine
#4
Pangzhen Zhang, Xiwen Wu, Sonja Needs, Di Liu, Sigfredo Fuentes, Kate Howell
Defoliation is a commonly used viticultural technique to balance the ratio between grapevine vegetation and fruit. Defoliation is conducted around the fruit zone to reduce the leaf photosynthetic area, and to increase sunlight exposure of grape bunches. Apical leaf removal is not commonly practiced, and therefore its influence on canopy structure and resultant wine aroma is not well-studied. This study quantified the influences of apical and basal defoliation on canopy structure parameters using canopy cover photography and computer vision algorithms...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730150/from-electrochemical-biosensors-to-biomimetic-sensors-based-on-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-in-environmental-determination-of-heavy-metals
#5
REVIEW
Cosimino Malitesta, Sabrina Di Masi, Elisabetta Mazzotta
Recent work relevant to heavy metal determination by inhibition-enzyme electrochemical biosensors and by selected biomimetic sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers has been reviewed. General features and peculiar aspects have been evidenced. The replace of biological component by artificial receptors promises higher selectivity and stability, while biosensors keep their capability of producing an integrated response directly related to biological toxicity of the samples.
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725644/pesticides-curbing-soil-fertility-effect-of-complexation-of-free-metal-ions
#6
Sukhmanpreet Kaur, Vijay Kumar, Mohit Chawla, Luigi Cavallo, Albert Poater, Niraj Upadhyay
Researchers have suggested that the reason behind infertility is pernicious effect of broad spectrum pesticides on non target, beneficial microorganism of soil. Here, studying the chelating effect of selective organophosphate and carbamate pesticides with essential metal ions, at all possible combinations of three different pH (4 ± 0.05, 7 ± 0.05 and 9 ± 0.05) and three different temperatures (15 ± 0.5°C, 30 ± 0.5°C and 45 ± 0.5°C), shows very fast rate of reaction which further increases with increase of pH and temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713809/a-perspective-on-reagent-diversity-and-non-covalent-binding-of-reactive-carbonyl-species-rcs-and-effector-reagents-in-non-enzymatic-glycation-neg-mechanistic-considerations-and-implications-for-future-research
#7
Kenneth J Rodnick, R W Holman, Pamela S Ropski, Mingdong Huang, Arthur L M Swislocki
This perspective focuses on illustrating the underappreciated connections between reactive carbonyl species (RCS), initial binding in the nonenzymatic glycation (NEG) process, and nonenzymatic covalent protein modification (here termed NECPM). While glucose is the central species involved in NEG, recent studies indicate that the initially-bound glucose species in the NEG of human hemoglobin (HbA) and human serum albumin (HSA) are non-RCS ring-closed isomers. The ring-opened glucose, an RCS structure that reacts in the NEG process, is most likely generated from previously-bound ring-closed isomers undergoing concerted acid/base reactions while bound to protein...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680877/metabolic-products-of-linalool-and-modulation-of-gabaa-receptors
#8
Sinem Milanos, Shaimaa A Elsharif, Dieter Janzen, Andrea Buettner, Carmen Villmann
Terpenoids are major subcomponents in aroma substances which harbor sedative physiological potential. We have demonstrated that various monoterpenoids such as the acyclic linalool enhance GABAergic currents in an allosteric manner in vitro upon overexpression of inhibitory α1β2 GABAA receptors in various expression systems. However, in plants or humans, i.e., following intake via inhalation or ingestion, linalool undergoes metabolic modifications including oxygenation and acetylation, which may affect the modulatory efficacy of the generated linalool derivatives...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680876/anti-cancer-activity-of-maize-bioactive-peptides
#9
REVIEW
Jorge L Díaz-Gómez, Fabiola Castorena-Torres, Ricardo E Preciado-Ortiz, Silverio García-Lara
Cancer is one of the main chronic degenerative diseases worldwide. In recent years, consumption of whole-grain cereals and their derivative food products has been associated with a reduced risk of various types of cancer. The main biomolecules in cereals include proteins, peptides, and amino acids, all of which are present in different quantities within the grain. Some of these peptides possess nutraceutical properties and exert biological effects that promote health and prevent cancer. In this review, we report the current status and advances in knowledge regarding the bioactive properties of maize peptides, such as antioxidant, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, and anti-tumor activities...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674690/racing-on-the-wrong-track
#10
Laszlo Otvos
The preclinical in vitro and in vivo benchmark figures of cationic antimicrobial peptides have to be revisited based on the newly discovered alternative modes of action.
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674689/allosteric-control-of-substrate-specificity-of-the-escherichia-coli-adp-glucose-pyrophosphorylase
#11
Ana C Ebrecht, Ligin Solamen, Benjamin L Hill, Alberto A Iglesias, Kenneth W Olsen, Miguel A Ballicora
The substrate specificity of enzymes is crucial to control the fate of metabolites to different pathways. However, there is growing evidence that many enzymes can catalyze alternative reactions. This promiscuous behavior has important implications in protein evolution and the acquisition of new functions. The question is how the undesirable outcomes of in vivo promiscuity can be prevented. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Escherichia coli is an example of an enzyme that needs to select the correct substrate from a broad spectrum of alternatives...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674688/d-bmap18-antimicrobial-peptide-is-active-in-vitro-resists-to-pulmonary-proteases-but-loses-its-activity-in-a-murine-model-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lung-infection
#12
Mario Mardirossian, Arianna Pompilio, Margherita Degasperi, Giulia Runti, Sabrina Pacor, Giovanni Di Bonaventura, Marco Scocchi
The spread of antibiotic resistant-pathogens is driving the search for new antimicrobial compounds. Pulmonary infections experienced by cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are a dramatic example of this health-care emergency. Antimicrobial peptides could answer the need for new antibiotics but translating them from basic research to the clinic is a challenge. We have previously evaluated the potential of the small membranolytic peptide BMAP-18 to treat CF-related infections, discovering that while this molecule had a good activity in vitro it was not active in vivo because of its rapid degradation by pulmonary proteases...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674687/effect-of-chemical-grafting-parameters-on-the-manufacture-of-functionalized-pvoh-films-having-controlled-water-solubility
#13
Andreas Haas, Daniel Schlemmer, Uwe Grupa, Markus Schmid
This study investigated the chemical grafting of a single-layer poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) film. The effect of the grafting parameters (grafting time, grafting temperature, and concentration of fatty acid chloride) on the hydrophobicity of the film surface and the film solubility were evaluated. The PVOH substrate film (cold-water soluble at 20°C) was manufactured by flat extrusion and had a thickness of 50 μm (±5 μm). The chemical grafting was performed using the transfer method with palmitoyl chloride (C16)...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674686/batch-sedimentation-studies-for-freshwater-green-alga-scenedesmus-abundans-using-combination-of-flocculants
#14
Raghu K Moorthy, M Premalatha, Muthu Arumugam
Microalga is the only feedstock that has the theoretical potential to completely replace the energy requirements derived from fossil fuels. However, commercialization of this potential source for fuel applications is hampered due to many technical challenges with harvesting of biomass being the most energy intensive process among them. The fresh water microalgal species, Scenedesmus abundans, has been widely recognized as a potential feedstock for production of biodiesel (Mandotra et al., 2014). The present work deals with sedimentation of algal biomass using extracted chitosan and natural bentonite clay powder as flocculant...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664157/docking-based-3d-qsar-study-of-tricyclic-guanidine-analogues-of-batzelladine-k-as-anti-malarial-agents
#15
Nafees Ahmed, Sirajudheen Anwar, Thet Thet Htar
The Plasmodium falciparum Lactate Dehydrogenase enzyme (PfLDH) catalyzes inter-conversion of pyruvate to lactate during glycolysis producing the energy required for parasitic growth. The PfLDH has been studied as a potential molecular target for development of anti-malarial agents. In an attempt to find the potent inhibitor of PfLDH, we have used Discovery studio to perform molecular docking in the active binding pocket of PfLDH by CDOCKER, followed by three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies of tricyclic guanidine batzelladine compounds, which were previously synthesized in our laboratory...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664156/ltrs-of-endogenous-retroviruses-as-a-source-of-tbx6-binding-sites
#16
Yukuto Yasuhiko, Yoko Hirabayashi, Ryuichi Ono
Retrotransposons are abundant in mammalian genomes and can modulate the gene expression of surrounding genes by disrupting endogenous binding sites for transcription factors (TFs) or providing novel TFs binding sites within retrotransposon sequences. Here, we show that a (C/T)CACACCT sequence motif in ORR1A, ORR1B, ORR1C, and ORR1D, Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs) of MaLR endogenous retrovirus (ERV), is the direct target of Tbx6, an evolutionary conserved family of T-box TFs. Moreover, by comparing gene expression between control mice (Tbx6 +/-) and Tbx6-deficient mice (Tbx6 -/-), we demonstrate that at least four genes, Twist2, Pitx2, Oscp1, and Nfxl1, are down-regulated with Tbx6 deficiency...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642863/friends-enemies-endogenous-retroviruses-are-major-transcriptional-regulators-of-human-dna
#17
REVIEW
Anton A Buzdin, Vladimir Prassolov, Andrew V Garazha
Endogenous retroviruses are mobile genetic elements hardly distinguishable from infectious, or "exogenous," retroviruses at the time of insertion in the host DNA. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are not rare. They gave rise to multiple families of closely related mobile elements that occupy ~8% of the human genome. Together, they shape genomic regulatory landscape by providing at least ~320,000 human transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located on ~110,000 individual HERV elements. The HERVs host as many as 155,000 mapped DNaseI hypersensitivity sites, which denote loci active in the regulation of gene expression or chromatin structure...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642862/fabrication-of-cmc-g-pam-superporous-polymer-monoliths-via-eco-friendly-pickering-mipes-for-superior-adsorption-of-methyl-violet-and-methylene-blue
#18
Feng Wang, Yongfeng Zhu, Wenbo Wang, Li Zong, Taotao Lu, Aiqin Wang
A series of superporous carboxymethylcellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/palygorskite (CMC-g-PAM/Pal) polymer monoliths presenting interconnected pore structure and excellent adsorption properties were prepared by one-step free-radical grafting polymerization reaction of CMC and acrylamide (AM) in the oil-in-water (O/W) Pickering-medium internal phase emulsions (Pickering-MIPEs) composed of non-toxic edible oil as a dispersion phase and natural Pal nanorods as stabilizers. The effects of Pal dosage, AM dosage, and co-surfactant Tween-20 (T-20) on the pore structures of the monoliths were studied...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620602/caprylate-salts-based-on-amines-as-volatile-corrosion-inhibitors-for-metallic-zinc-theoretical-and-experimental-studies
#19
Marco A G Valente, Deiver A Teixeira, David L Azevedo, Gustavo T Feliciano, Assis V Benedetti, Cecílio S Fugivara
The interaction of volatile corrosion inhibitors (VCI), caprylate salt derivatives from amines, with zinc metallic surfaces is assessed by density functional theory (DFT) computer simulations, electrochemical impedance (EIS) measurements and humid chamber tests. The results obtained by the different methods were compared, and linear correlations were obtained between theoretical and experimental data. The correlations between experimental and theoretical results showed that the molecular size is the determining factor in the inhibition efficiency...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580356/fungal-histidine-phosphotransferase-plays-a-crucial-role-in-photomorphogenesis-and-pathogenesis-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#20
Varsha C Mohanan, Pinal M Chandarana, Bharat B Chattoo, Rajesh N Patkar, Johannes Manjrekar
Two-component signal transduction (TCST) pathways play crucial roles in many cellular functions such as stress responses, biofilm formation, and sporulation. The histidine phosphotransferase (HPt), which is an intermediate phosphotransfer protein in a two-component system, transfers a phosphate group to a phosphorylatable aspartate residue in the target protein(s), and up-regulates stress-activated MAP kinase cascades. Most fungal genomes carry a single copy of the gene coding for HPt, which are potential antifungal targets...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
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