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Frontiers in Chemistry

Hai-Bo Huang, Yu Wang, Feng-Ying Cai, Wen-Bin Jiao, Ning Zhang, Cheng Liu, Hai-Lei Cao, Jian Lü
A family of new composite materials was successfully prepared through the deposition of as-synthesized CdS nanomaterials on lotus-seedpod-derived activated carbon (SAC). The SAC supports derived at different activation temperatures exhibited considerably large surface areas and various microstructures that were of great importance in enhancing photocatalytic performance of CdS@SAC composite materials toward the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible irradiation. The best-performing CdS@SAC-800 showed excellent photocatalytic activity with a rate constant of ca...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Florian Juhlke, Katja Lorber, Maria Wagenstaller, Andrea Buettner
Chlorinated guaiacol derivatives are found in waste water of pulp mills using chlorine in the bleaching process of wood pulp. They can also be detected in fish tissue, possibly causing off-odors. To date, there is no systematic investigation on the odor properties of halogenated guaiacol derivatives. To close this gap, odor thresholds in air and odor qualities of 14 compounds were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Overall, the investigated compounds elicited smells that are characteristic for guaiacol, namely smoky, sweet, vanilla-like, but also medicinal and plaster-like...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Tiancong Zhao, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Yang Xie, Xiaofei Sun, Qin Li, Xiaomin Li
Mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles (MSNs) are one of the most promising materials for bio-related applications due to advantages such as good biocompatibility, tunable mesopores, and large pore volume. However, unlike the inorganic nanocrystals with abundant physical properties, MSNs alone lack functional features. Thus, they are not sufficiently suitable for bio-applications that require special functions. Consequently, MSNs are often functionalized by incorporating inorganic nanocrystals, which provide a wide range of intriguing properties...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Dandan Han, Yancui Yan, Jishi Wei, Biwei Wang, Tongtao Li, Guannan Guo, Dong Yang, Songhai Xie, Angang Dong
Because of their unique physical properties, three-dimensional (3D) graphene has attracted enormous attention over the past years. However, it is still a challenge to precisely control the layer thickness of 3D graphene. Here, we report a novel strategy to rationally adjust the wall thickness of ordered mesoporous graphene (OMG). By taking advantage of ligand exchange capability of colloidal Fe3O4 nanocrystals, we are able to fine-tune the wall thickness of OMG from 2 to 6 layers of graphene. When evaluated as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction upon S and N doping, the 4-layer OMG is found to show better catalytic performance compared with their 2- and 6-layer counterparts, which we attribute to the enhanced exposure of active sites arising from the thin wall thickness and high surface area...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
I-Son Ng, You-Jin Yu, Ying-Chen Yi, Shih-I Tan, Bo-Chuan Huang, Yin-Lung Han
The proteomics strategy was utilized to analyze and identify the gold adsorption proteins from Tepidimonas fonticaldi AT-A2, due to its outstanding performance in gold-binding and recovery. The results showed that three small proteins, including histidine biosynthesis protein (HisIE), iron donor protein (CyaY) and hypothetical protein_65aa, have a higher ability to adsorb gold ions because of the negatively charged domains or metal binding sites. On the other hand, the Salmonella PmrA/PmrB two-component system first replaces the iron (III)-binding motif using the peptide sequence from hypothetical protein_65aa, and this is then used to reveal the sensing and responsiveness to gold metal ions, which is totally different from the performance of traditional gold binding peptide (GBP) on the crystals on the surface of gold (111)...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Florian Diot-Néant, Loïs Migeot, Louis Hollande, Felix A Reano, Sandra Domenek, Florent Allais
Antioxidant norbornene-based monomers bearing biobased sterically hindered phenols (SHP)-NDF (norbornene dihydroferulate) and NDS (norbornene dihydrosinapate)-have been successfully prepared through biocatalysis from naturally occurring ferulic and sinapic acids, respectively, in presence of Candida antarctica Lipase B (Cal-B). The ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of these monomers was investigated according to ruthenium catalyst type (GI) vs. (HGII) and monomer to catalyst molar ratio ([M]/[C])...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Jie Li, Ji Zhang, Yan-Li Zhao, Heng-Yu Huang, Yuan-Zhong Wang
Roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of Longdan (Gentiana rigescens Franch. ex Hemsl) were collected from six geographic origins of Yunnan Province (n = 240) to implement the quality assessment based on contents of gentiopicroside, loganic acid, sweroside and swertiamarin and chemical profile using HPLC-DAD and FTIR method combined with principal component analysis (PCA). The content of gentiopicroside (major iridoid glycoside) was the highest in G. rigescens, regardless of tissue and geographic origin. The level of swertiamarin was the lowest, even unable to be detected in samples from Kunming and Qujing...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Manuel E Del Cogliano, Axel Hollmann, Melina Martinez, Liliana Semorile, Pablo D Ghiringhelli, Paulo C Maffía, Leticia V Bentancor
Shiga toxin (Stx) is the principal virulence factor during Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections. We have previously reported the inactivation of bacteriophage encoding Stx after treatment with chitosan, a linear polysaccharide polymer with cationic properties. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs) are short linear aminoacidic sequences, with a positive net charge, which display bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against a wide range of bacterial species. They are promising novel antibiotics since they have shown bactericidal effects against multiresistant bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Paula Ashe, Hamid Shaterian, Leonid Akhov, Manoj Kulkarni, Gopalan Selvaraj
In Canada, the world's top exporter of high-protein durum, varietal development over its nearly six-decade history has been driven by a quest for yield improvement without compromise on grain protein content and other quality aspects. Pelissier, a landrace selection from Algeria that was introduced into North America more than a century ago and the variety Strongfield that was released in 2004 are notable. Pelissier, known to elaborate more roots and considered as drought tolerant, has been cultivated commercially and thus deemed adapted...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Fawad Mahmood, Muhammad S Jan, Sajjad Ahmad, Umer Rashid, Muhammad Ayaz, Farhat Ullah, Fida Hussain, Ashfaq Ahmad, Arif-Ullah Khan, Muhammad Aasim, Abdul Sadiq
Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) to antimicrobial, antiparasitic and chemotherapeutic agents is a global challenge for the scientific community. Despite of the emergence of MDR pathogens, the development of novel and more effective drugs is slow and scientist even speculate that we are going back the pre-antibiotic era. This work aims to study and evaluate the preliminary antibacterial, anthelmintic and cytotoxic potentials of ethyl 3-oxo-2-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-3-yl)butanoates. Among all of the four compounds, compound 2 has displayed remarkable potency with MIC values of 0...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Shikha Mittal, Mallana Gowdra Mallikarjuna, Atmakuri R Rao, Prashant A Jain, Prasanta K Dash, Nepolean Thirunavukkarasu
Calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play significant role in regulation of plant growth and development in response to various stresses including drought. A set of 32 CDPK genes identified in maize were further used for searching of orthologs in the model plant Arabidopsis (72) and major food crops such as rice (78) and sorghum (91). We comprehensively studied the phylogenetic relationship, annotations, gene duplications, gene structure, divergence time, 3-D protein structures and tissue-specific drought induced expression of CDPK genes in all four species...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Jin Han, Kejian Li, Hanyun Cheng, Liwu Zhang
A green photoelectrochemical (PEC) process with simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production has attracted an increasing attention. The proposed process uses flue gas SO2 to improve H2 production. The improvement of the efficiency of this process is necessary before it can become industrial viable. Herein, we reported a Mo modified BiVO4 photocatalysts for a simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production. And the PEC performance could be significantly improved with doping and flue gas removal. The evolution rate of H2 and removal of SO2 could be enhanced by almost three times after Mo doping as compared with pristine BiVO4...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Muhammad Akram, Watcharee Waratchareeyakul, Joerg Haupenthal, Rolf W Hartmann, Daniela Schuster
Cortisol synthase (CYP11B1) is the main enzyme for the endogenous synthesis of cortisol and its inhibition is a potential way for the treatment of diseases associated with increased cortisol levels, such as Cushing's syndrome, metabolic diseases, and delayed wound healing. Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is the key enzyme for aldosterone biosynthesis and its inhibition is a promising approach for the treatment of congestive heart failure, cardiac fibrosis, and certain forms of hypertension. Both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 are structurally very similar and expressed in the adrenal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Sakdithep Chaiyarit, Visith Thongboonkerd
Crystal aggregation is one of the most crucial steps in kidney stone pathogenesis. However, previous studies of crystal aggregation were rarely done and quantitative analysis of aggregation degree was handicapped by a lack of the standard measurement. We thus performed an in vitro assay to generate aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with various concentrations (25-800 μg/ml) in saturated aggregation buffer. The crystal aggregates were analyzed by microscopic examination, UV-visible spectrophotometry, and GraphPad Prism6 software to define a total of 12 aggregation indices (including number of aggregates, aggregated mass index, optical density, aggregation coefficient, span, number of aggregates at plateau time-point, aggregated area index, aggregated diameter index, aggregated symmetry index, time constant, half-life, and rate constant)...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Oskar Weser, Valera Veryazov
Multiconfigurational methods are applied to study electronic properties and structural changes in the highly flexible metal-organic framework MIL53(Cr). Via calculated bending potentials of angles, that change the most during phase transition, it is verified that the high flexibility of this material is not a question about special electronic properties in the coordination chemistry, but about overall linking of the framework. The complex posseses a demanding electronic structure with delocalized spin density, antifferomagnetic coupling and high multi-state character requiring multiconfigurational methods...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Manoj Kulkarni, Raju Soolanayakanahally, Satoshi Ogawa, Yusaku Uga, Michael G Selvaraj, Sateesh Kagale
Abiotic stresses such as, drought, heat, salinity, and flooding threaten global food security. Crop genetic improvement with increased resilience to abiotic stresses is a critical component of crop breeding strategies. Wheat is an important cereal crop and a staple food source globally. Enhanced drought tolerance in wheat is critical for sustainable food production and global food security. Recent advances in drought tolerance research have uncovered many key genes and transcription regulators governing morpho-physiological traits...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Ramesh P Pandey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Mi Hyeon Cho, Eun-Seok Choi, Sehee Kim, Sung-Ho Goh, Yongdoo Choi
In this study, we synthesized manganese dioxide nanoparticles (MnO2 NPs) stabilized with biocompatible polymers (polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyacrylic acid) and analyzed their effect on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with or without gefitinib resistance in vitro. MnO2 NPs showed glutathione (GSH)-responsive dissolution and subsequent enhancement in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Of note, treatment with MnO2 NPs induced significant cytotoxic effects on NSCLC cells, and additional dose-dependent therapeutic effects were obtained upon X-ray irradiation...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Tammy A Morrish, Jose L Garcia-Pérez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Xiuqin Hu, Disha Wang, Yi Tong, Linjiang Tong, Xia Wang, Lili Zhu, Hua Xie, Shiliang Li, You Yang, Yufang Xu
The synthesis of a series of ribose-modified anilinopyrimidine derivatives was efficiently achieved by utilizing DBU or tBuOLi-promoted coupling of ribosyl alcohols with 2,4,5-trichloropyrimidine as key step. Preliminary biological evaluation of this type of compounds as new EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors for combating EGFR L858R/T790M mutant associated with drug resistance in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer revealed that 3-N-acryloyl-5-O-anilinopyrimidine ribose derivative 1a possessed potent and specific inhibitory activity against EGFR L858R/T790M over WT EGFR...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
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