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Frontiers in Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018899/theoretical-investigation-of-mono-and-di-chloro-substitient-effects-on-the-insulation-and-greenhouse-properties-of-octafluorocyclobutane
#1
Lin Cheng, Zhaoyu Qin, Chaohai Zhang, Huixuan Shi, Kun Zhao, Xiaoyu Xie, Haibo Ma
Octafluorocyclobutane, c-C4F8, and its derivatives are regarded as promising replacements of insulation gaseous SF6, which are currently widely used in electric equipment but suffer greatly from its greenhouse effect. Based on the recent finding that the dielectric and thermodynamics properties of insulating gases are greatly dependent on the molecule's microscopic electronic and vibrational parameters, in this work, we use density functional theory (DFT) to study the molecular structures, electron affinities, and IR-active vibrational frequencies as well as thermodynamic properties for c-C4F8 and a series of mono-, di-substituted c-C4F8 compounds...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995125/probing-the-interaction-between-nanoparticles-and-lipid-membranes-by-quartz-crystal-microbalance-with-dissipation-monitoring
#2
REVIEW
Nariman Yousefi, Nathalie Tufenkji
There is increasing interest in using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) to investigate the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with model surfaces. The high sensitivity, ease of use and the ability to monitor interactions in real-time has made it a popular technique for colloid chemists, biologists, bioengineers, and biophysicists. QCM-D has been recently used to probe the interaction of NPs with supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) as model cell membranes. The interaction of NPs with SLBs is highly influenced by the quality of the lipid bilayers...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921029/nanoscale-structure-and-spectroscopic-probing-of-a%C3%AE-1-40-fibril-bundle-formation
#3
Katarzyna M Psonka-Antonczyk, Per Hammarström, Leif B G Johansson, Mikael Lindgren, Bjørn T Stokke, K Peter R Nilsson, Sofie Nyström
Amyloid plaques composed of fibrillar Amyloid-β (Aβ) are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. However, Aβ fibrils are morphologically heterogeneous. Conformation sensitive luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs) are versatile tools for monitoring such fibril polymorphism in vivo and in vitro. Biophysical methods applied on in vitro generated Aβ fibrils, stained with LCOs with different binding and fluorescence properties, can be used to characterize the Aβ fibrillation in depth, far beyond that possible for in vivo generated amyloid plaques...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917379/current-understanding-of-the-correlation-of-lignin-structure-with-biomass-recalcitrance
#4
REVIEW
Mi Li, Yunqiao Pu, Arthur J Ragauskas
Lignin, a complex aromatic polymer in terrestrial plants, contributes significantly to biomass recalcitrance to microbial and/or enzymatic deconstruction. To reduce biomass recalcitrance, substantial endeavors have been exerted on pretreatment and lignin engineering in the past few decades. Lignin removal and/or alteration of lignin structure have been shown to result in reduced biomass recalcitrance with improved cell wall digestibility. While high lignin content is usually a barrier to a cost-efficient application of bioresources to biofuels, the direct correlation of lignin structure and its concomitant properties with biomass remains unclear due to the complexity of cell wall and lignin structure...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900318/templated-sequence-insertion-polymorphisms-in-the-human-genome
#5
REVIEW
Masahiro Onozawa, Peter D Aplan
Templated Sequence Insertion Polymorphism (TSIP) is a recently described form of polymorphism recognized in the human genome, in which a sequence that is templated from a distant genomic region is inserted into the genome, seemingly at random. TSIPs can be grouped into two classes based on nucleotide sequence features at the insertion junctions; Class 1 TSIPs show features of insertions that are mediated via the LINE-1 ORF2 protein, including (1) target-site duplication (TSD), (2) polyadenylation 10-30 nucleotides downstream of a "cryptic" polyadenylation signal, and (3) preference for insertion at a 5'-TTTT/A-3' sequence...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872839/insight-into-the-exoproteome-of-the-tissue-derived-trypomastigote-form-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#6
Rayner M L Queiroz, Carlos A O Ricart, Mara O Machado, Izabela M D Bastos, Jaime M de Santana, Marcelo V de Sousa, Peter Roepstorff, Sébastien Charneau
The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, one of the major neglected infectious diseases. It has the potential to infect any nucleated mammalian cell. The secreted/excreted protein repertoire released by T. cruzi trypomastigotes is crucial in host-pathogen interactions. In this study, mammalian tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (Y strain) were used to characterize the exoproteome of the infective bloodstream life form. Proteins released into the serum-free culture medium after 3 h of incubation were harvested and digested with trypsin...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812524/the-making-a-murderer-case-a-brief-description-on-how-edta-is-measured-in-blood
#7
Steven R Wilson, Luke Tolley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790611/mass-spectrometry-based-approaches-to-understand-the-molecular-basis-of-memory
#8
REVIEW
Arthur H Pontes, Marcelo V de Sousa
The central nervous system is responsible for an array of cognitive functions such as memory, learning, language, and attention. These processes tend to take place in distinct brain regions; yet, they need to be integrated to give rise to adaptive or meaningful behavior. Since cognitive processes result from underlying cellular and molecular changes, genomics and transcriptomics assays have been applied to human and animal models to understand such events. Nevertheless, genes and RNAs are not the end products of most biological functions...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774447/in-vitro-engineering-of-novel-bioactivity-in-the-natural-enzymes
#9
Vishvanath Tiwari
Enzymes catalyze various biochemical functions with high efficiency and specificity. In vitro design of the enzyme leads to novel bioactivity in this natural biomolecule that give answers of some vital questions like crucial residues in binding with substrate, molecular evolution, cofactor specificity etc. Enzyme engineering technology involves directed evolution, rational designing, semi-rational designing, and structure-based designing using chemical modifications. Similarly, combined computational and in vitro evolution approaches together help in artificial designing of novel bioactivity in the natural enzyme...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668212/metal-cations-in-g-quadruplex-folding-and-stability
#10
REVIEW
Debmalya Bhattacharyya, Gayan Mirihana Arachchilage, Soumitra Basu
This review is focused on the structural and physicochemical aspects of metal cation coordination to G-Quadruplexes (GQ) and their effects on GQ stability and conformation. G-quadruplex structures are non-canonical secondary structures formed by both DNA and RNA. G-quadruplexes regulate a wide range of important biochemical processes. Besides the sequence requirements, the coordination of monovalent cations in the GQ is essential for its formation and determines the stability and polymorphism of GQ structures...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606311/adenosine-a2b-receptor-from-cell-biology-to-human-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Ying Sun, Pingbo Huang
Extracellular adenosine is a ubiquitous signaling molecule that modulates a wide array of biological processes. Recently, significant advances have been made in our understanding of A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR). In this review, we first summarize some of the general characteristics of A2BAR, and then we describe the multiple binding partners of the receptor, such as newly identified α-actinin-1 and p105, and discuss how these associated proteins could modulate A2BAR's functions, including certain seemingly paradoxical functions of the receptor...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597939/core-shell-co-coo-integrated-on-3d-nitrogen-doped-reduced-graphene-oxide-aerogel-as-an-enhanced-electrocatalyst-for-the-oxygen-reduction-reaction
#12
Meng Wang, Yuyang Hou, Robert C T Slade, Jiazhao Wang, Dongqi Shi, David Wexler, Huakun Liu, Jun Chen
Here, we demonstrate that Cobalt/cobalt oxide core-shell nanoparticles integrated on nitrogen-doped (N-doped) three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide aerogel-based architecture (Co/CoO-NGA) were synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method followed by annealing treatment. The unique endurable porous structure could provide sufficient mass transfer channels and ample active sites on Co/CoO-NGA to facilitate the catalytic reaction. The synthesized Co/CoO-NGA was explored as an electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction, showing comparable oxygen reduction performance with excellent methanol resistance and better durability compared with Pt/C...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579301/a-sustainable-and-efficient-synthesis-of-benzyl-phosphonates-using-peg-ki-catalytic-system
#13
Shamrao Disale, Sandip Kale, George Abraham, Sandeep Kahandal, Ashish N Sawarkar, Manoj B Gawande
An efficient and expedient protocol for the synthesis of benzyl phosphonates using KI/K2CO3 as a catalytic system and PEG-400 as benign solvent has been developed. The reaction proceeds smoothly at room temperature achieving excellent selectivity and yield of the corresponding products. The combination of PEG-400, KI, and K2CO3 in this reaction avoids the need of volatile/toxic organic solvents and reactive alkali metals or metal nanoparticles/hydrides. We believe that this benign combination (PEG-400 and KI) could be used for other related organic transformations...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556024/total-synthesis-of-putative-11-epi-lyngbouilloside-aglycon
#14
Amandine Kolleth, Julian Gebauer, Abdelatif ElMarrouni, Raphael Lebeuf, Céline Prévost, Eric Brohan, Stellios Arseniyadis, Janine Cossy
We report here the total synthesis of 11-epi-lyngbouilloside aglycon. Our strategy features a Boeckman-type esterification followed by a RCM to form the 14-membered ring macrolactone and a late-stage side chain introduction via a Wittig olefination. Overall, the final product was obtained in 20 steps and 2% overall yield starting from commercially available 3-methyl-but-3-enol. Most importantly, the strategy employed is versatile enough to eventually allow us to complete the synthesis of the natural product and irrevocably confirm its structure...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536656/fluorescence-based-strategies-to-investigate-the-structure-and-dynamics-of-aptamer-ligand-complexes
#15
REVIEW
Cibran Perez-Gonzalez, Daniel A Lafontaine, J Carlos Penedo
In addition to the helical nature of double-stranded DNA and RNA, single-stranded oligonucleotides can arrange themselves into tridimensional structures containing loops, bulges, internal hairpins and many other motifs. This ability has been used for more than two decades to generate oligonucleotide sequences, so-called aptamers, that can recognize certain metabolites with high affinity and specificity. More recently, this library of artificially-generated nucleic acid aptamers has been expanded by the discovery that naturally occurring RNA sequences control bacterial gene expression in response to cellular concentration of a given metabolite...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493937/nutrient-value-of-leaf-vs-seed
#16
Marvin Edelman, Monica Colt
Major differences stand out between edible leaves and seeds in protein quality, vitamin, and mineral concentrations and omega 6/omega 3 fatty acid ratios. Data for seeds (wheat, rice, corn, soy, lentil, chick pea) are compared with corresponding data for edible green leaves (kale, spinach, broccoli, duckweed). An x/y representation of data for lysine and methionine content highlights the group differences between grains, pulses, leafy vegetables, and animal foods. Leaves come out with flying colors in all these comparisons...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489854/nanochemistry-of-protein-based-delivery-agents
#17
REVIEW
Subin R C K Rajendran, Chibuike C Udenigwe, Rickey Y Yada
The past decade has seen an increased interest in the conversion of food proteins into functional biomaterials, including their use for loading and delivery of physiologically active compounds such as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Proteins possess a competitive advantage over other platforms for the development of nanodelivery systems since they are biocompatible, amphipathic, and widely available. Proteins also have unique molecular structures and diverse functional groups that can be selectively modified to alter encapsulation and release properties...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486575/compensating-for-electrode-polarization-in-dielectric-spectroscopy-studies-of-colloidal-suspensions-theoretical-assessment-of-existing-methods
#18
REVIEW
Claire Chassagne, Emmanuelle Dubois, María L Jiménez, J P M van der Ploeg, Jan van Turnhout
Dielectric spectroscopy can be used to determine the dipole moment of colloidal particles from which important interfacial electrokinetic properties, for instance their zeta potential, can be deduced. Unfortunately, dielectric spectroscopy measurements are hampered by electrode polarization (EP). In this article, we review several procedures to compensate for this effect. First EP in electrolyte solutions is described: the complex conductivity is derived as function of frequency, for two cell geometries (planar and cylindrical) with blocking electrodes...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446908/rna-fluorescence-with-light-up-aptamers
#19
REVIEW
Jonathan Ouellet
Seeing is not only believing; it also includes understanding. Cellular imaging with GFP in live cells has been transformative in many research fields. Modulation of cellular regulation is tightly regulated and innovative imaging technologies contribute to further understand cellular signaling and physiology. New types of genetically encoded biosensors have been developed over the last decade. They are RNA aptamers that bind with their cognate fluorogen ligands and activate their fluorescence. The emergence and the evolution of these RNA aptamers as well as their conversion into a wide spectrum of applications are examined in a global way...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446907/guardian-of-the-human-genome-host-defense-mechanisms-against-line-1-retrotransposition
#20
REVIEW
Yasuo Ariumi
Long interspersed element type 1 (LINE-1, L1) is a mobile genetic element comprising about 17% of the human genome, encoding a newly identified ORF0 with unknown function, ORF1p with RNA-binding activity and ORF2p with endonuclease and reverse transcriptase activities required for L1 retrotransposition. L1 utilizes an endonuclease (EN) to insert L1 cDNA into target DNA, which induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is activated by DSBs and subsequently the ATM-signaling pathway plays a role in regulating L1 retrotransposition...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
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