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New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124964/the-idea-of-patents-vs-the-idea-of-university
#1
Thana Cristina de Campos
It is generally accepted that patents are a driving force for innovation through research and development. But the university's involvement in patenting is problematic as well. In particular, it is in tension with the idea of a university itself. If patents entail a restriction on the accessibility of the scientific knowledge that has been patented, and if the main purpose of universities is to produce and disseminate knowledge to the public, then, there is a tension: when universities patent their research innovations, they are making the scientific knowledge they produce less accessible to the public...
2015: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124963/the-evolution-of-autonomy
#2
Trevor Stammers
There can be little doubt, at least in the Western world, that autonomy is theruling principle in contemporary bioethics. In spite of its 'triumph' however,the dominance of the utilitarian concept of autonomy is being increasinglyquestioned. In this paper, I explore the nature of autonomy, how it came todisplace the Hippocratic tradition in medicine and how different conceptsof autonomy have evolved. I argue that the reduction of autonomy to'the exercise of personal choice' in medicine has led to a 'tyranny of autonomy' which can be inimical to ethical medical practice rather than conducive to it...
2015: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124962/a-systematic-review-on-confidentiality-disclosure-and-stigma-in-the-united-states-lessons-for-hiv-care-in-pregnancy-from-reproductive-genetics
#3
REVIEW
Barbara Wilkinson, Kavita Shah Arora
The fields of HIV care in pregnancy and reproductive genetics have always been 'exceptional' in that patients are highly concerned about the potential for stigma and the corresponding need for privacy and confidentiality. However, the two fields have diverged in how they have addressed these concerns. The systematic review analyzed 61 manuscripts for similarities and differences between the fields of HIV care in pregnancy and reproductive genetics in the United States, with respect to privacy, confidentiality, disclosure, and stigma...
2015: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124961/lessons-in-biopolitics-and-agency-agamben-on-addiction
#4
Anke Snoek, Craig L Fry
The concepts of 'biopolitics' and 'naked life' have become increasingly relevant in the debate on substance dependency due to the growing prominence of neuroscience in defining the nature of addiction and its threat to agency. However, these concepts are not necessarily well understood, and therefore may lead to oversight rather than insight. In this article we review the literature on Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben, whose founding works on both concepts shed a different light on addiction. We argue that the current debate is missing a key insight from Agamben's work: the idea of agency past the subject, of agency past identity...
2015: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124960/transhumanism-a-new-kind-of-promethean-hubris
#5
Agneta Sutton
Asking whether transhumanist hopes of overcoming ageing and cognitive and other shortcomings are realistic, this paper pitches a Christian anthropology against a transhumanist anthropology. It is shown that on critical examination many of the technologies proposed by transhumanists in order to better or extend human life raise questions about dualism and materialism, about our nature as relational beings, and indeed even about what it means to be alive.
2015: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124959/representative-aspects-of-some-synthetic-gametes
#6
Calum MacKellar
With the development of new procedures in the production of synthetic human gametes it has become important to re-examine the manner in which reproductive cells, taking part in the generation of children, can be understood. Though this can be attempted from many different perspectives, the present study will examine the possibility of considering gametes as representing the persons from whom they originated. From this perspective, it is possible to suggest that, in procreation, the entirety of each human sperm cell may represent and reveal the man from whom it was produced and the entirety of each human egg cell may represent and reveal the woman from whom it was produced...
2015: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124958/changing-the-picture-frame
#7
EDITORIAL
Trevor Stammers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25344014/reframing-bioethics-education-for-non-professionals-lessons-from-cognitive-anthropology-and-education-theory
#8
Nathan Emmerich
It is increasingly common for universities to provide cross-curricular education in bioethics as part of contemporary attempts to produce 'global citizens.' In this article I examine three perspectives drawn from research into pedagogy that has been conducted from the perspective of cognitive anthropology and consider its relevance to bioethics education. I focus on: two metaphors of learning, participation and acquisition, identified by Sfard; the psychological notion of moral development; and the distinction between socialization and enculturation...
2014: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25344013/health-care-decision-making-cross-cultural-analysis-of-the-shift-from-the-autonomous-to-the-relational-staff
#9
S Joseph Tham, Marie Catherine Letendre
This paper addresses three factors that have contributed to shifts in decision making in health care. First, the notion of patient autonomy, which has changed due to the rise of patient-centred approaches in contemporary health care and the re-conceptualization of the physician-patient relationship. Second, the understanding of patient autonomy has broadened to better engage patient participation. Third, the need to develop cross-cultural health care ethics. Our paper shows that the shift in the West from the individual to the relational self indicates an important change in the understanding of autonomy through the lens of culture...
2014: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25344012/are-evolving-human-rights-harmless-an-examination-of-english-legislation-prostitution-and-its-effect-on-human-relatedness
#10
Anna Westin
This paper addresses key philosophical and social questions that shape the contemporary discourse on prostitution. The initial section outlines the contemporary challenges facing legislative practice on prostitution in England. This involves analysing moral and legal framework surrounding prostitution that has made the current legislative dilemma surrounding prostitution practice possible. The second part of the paper then outlines the history of the philosophy of human rights from Aquinas to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)...
2014: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25344011/developing-theological-tools-for-a-strategic-engagement-with-human-enhancement
#11
Justin Tomkins
The literature on Human Enhancement may indeed have reached a critical mass yet theological engagement with the subject is still thin. Human Enhancement has already been established as a key topic within research and captivating visions of the future have been allied with a depth of philosophical analysis. Some Transhumanists have pointed to a theological dimension to their position and some who have warned against enhancement might be seen as having done so from a perspective shaped by a Judeo-Christian worldview...
2014: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25344010/changing-the-choice-architecture-of-ageing-live-different-and-catch-old
#12
Deborah Gale
Physical ageing and being old are broadly feared or denied, particularly by the young (Chittister 2008: 53). The future is viewed in terms of vague, looming, disabilities, despite the fact that no one can know their personal, ageing fate. As physical and functional limitations become more apparent over time, expected validation occurs in support of the conventional narrative of decline. It is necessary to understand the traditional negative perceptions about ageing if we are to alter them. At present, they do not match the unfolding realities of what it means to grow old, in the early twenty-first century...
2014: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25344009/an-experimental-public-heterogeneous-groups-defining-embodiment-in-the-early-twenty-first-century
#13
Julia Laki
In this paper, I take a look at certain forms of contemporary art as practices that allow meanings within biomedical science and medical practice to emerge in novel ways. I claim that conceptual art and biological art are two unique spaces within which the understanding of embodiment and disease comes to be shaped actively and reflexively, sometimes on the very level of the materiality of the body, sometimes through the articulation and representation of medical images and technologies. I link these developments to Paul Rabinow's notion of biosociality and argue that the molecularization and geneticization of the medical gaze, conjoined with certain social and cultural shifts, results in the formation of an experimental public of artists, scientists and lay people, all invested in actively shaping the conceptualization of bodies and diseases...
2014: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25344008/editorial-the-21st-century-body-reloaded-symposium-london-november-7-8-2013
#14
EDITORIAL
Matt James
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24979877/claiming-comprehensive-sex-education-is-a-right-does-not-make-it-so-a-close-reading-of-international-law
#15
Melissa Curvino, Meghan Grizzle Fischer
The international community is currently debating whether international law requires States to educate adolescents about their sexuality. Various nongovernmental organizations, United Nations Special Rapporteurs, and treaty-monitoring bodies assert a right to comprehensive sex education, a controversial approach to sex education that arguably encourages adolescents to experiment with their sexuality. This assertion of a right to comprehensive sex education is erroneous and misleading. International human rights are created in two ways: by treaty and by custom...
2014: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24979876/human-organ-markets-and-inherent-human-dignity
#16
Calum MacKellar
It has been suggested that human organs should be bought and sold on a regulated market as any other material property belongingto an individual. This would have the advantage of both addressing the grave shortage of organs available for transplantation and respecting the freedom of individuals to choose to do whatever they want with their body parts. The old arguments against such a market in human organs are, therefore, being brought back into question. The article examines the different arguments both in favour and against the sale of human organs...
2014: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24979875/what-is-a-good-death-an-exploration-of-issues-at-the-end-of-life-through-phenomenological-analysis-of-selected-dramatic-literature
#17
Christine M J Kelly
This study sets out to understand what might constitute a good death in the current UK context. It uses the demographic changes which have taken place in UK society over the period of the twentieth century to offer explanations for our relative unfamiliarity with dying and death. The study draws on two plays written by Nell Dunn as the data source; these are Home Death (2011) and Cancer Tales (2002), which are based on end-of-life experiences. A phenomenological approach is used to analyse this literature, drawing on the works of selected phenomenologists whose work is appropriate in the end-of-life context...
2014: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24979874/defining-dignity-and-its-place-in-human-rights
#18
Lucy Michael
The concept of dignity is widely used in society, particularly in reference to human rights law and bioethics. Several conceptions of dignity are identified, falling broadly within two categories: full inherent dignity (FID) and non-inherent dignity (NID). FID is a quality belonging equally to every being with full moral status, including all members of the human natural kind; it is permanent, unconditional, indivisible and inviolable. Those beings with FID ought to be treated deferentially by others by virtue of their belonging to a noble caste...
2014: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24979873/the-unesco-bioethics-programme-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Adéle Langlois
UNESCO's Bioethics Programme was established in 1993. In twenty years it has adopted three international declarations, on the human genome (1997), human genetic data (2003) and bioethics (2005); produced reports on a wide range of bioethics issues; and developed capacity building and public education programmes in bioethics. Yet UNESCO has sometimes struggled to assert its authority in the wider bioethics world. Some bioethicists have criticized the 2005 declaration and suggested that the World Health Organization might be better placed to advance bioethics...
2014: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24979872/human-rights-and-how-this-concept-applies-broadly-to-bioethical-theory-and-practice
#20
EDITORIAL
Matt James
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
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