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New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517993/your-dna-your-say
#1
Anna Middleton
Genomic and medical data sharing is pivotal if the promise of genomic medicine is to be fully realised. Social scientists working in the genomics arena ask the public 'how is the technology working for you?' Empirical studies on attitudes, values and beliefs are incredibly valuable; they offer a voice from those who are, or will be, directly affected. This is paramount if personalised medicine is to be truly personal. An International attitude study, Your DNA, Your Say, uses film to provide background information and an online survey to gather public views on donating one's own personal DNA and medical data for use by others...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517992/equity-and-value-in-precision-medicine
#2
Muir Gray, Tyra Lagerberg, Viktor Dombrádi
Precision medicine carries huge potential in the treatment of many diseases, particularly those with high-penetrance monogenic underpinnings. However, precision medicine through genomic technologies also has ethical implications. We will define allocative, personal, and technical value ('triple value') in healthcare and how this relates to equity. Equity is here taken to be implicit in the concept of triple value in countries that have publicly funded healthcare systems. It will be argued that precision medicine risks concentrating resources to those that already experience greater access to healthcare and power in society, nationally as well as globally...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517991/self-knowledge-and-risk-in-stratified-medicine
#3
Joshua Hordern
This article considers why and how self-knowledge is important to communication about risk and behaviour change by arguing for four claims. First, it is doubtful that genetic knowledge should properly be called 'self-knowledge' when its ordinary effects on self-motivation and behaviour change seem so slight. Second, temptations towards a reductionist, fatalist, construal of persons' futures through a 'molecular optic' should be resisted. Third, any plausible effort to change people's behaviour must engage with cultural self-knowledge, values and beliefs, catalysed by the communication of genetic risk...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517990/risk-and-benefit-in-personalised-medicine-an-end-user-view
#4
Alastair Kent
Personalised, or stratified, medicine is creating opportunities for the development of targeted therapies for many hitherto unmet clinical needs. For patients and families this is a cause for optimism. But it is unlikely that these novel therapies will provide complete cures. Rather they will address some but not all symptoms of a condition. In such circumstances, early engagement with patients and families will ensure that developments are targeted at those aspects of a condition which really matter, not just those that are easy to count...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517989/economics-of-cancer-medicines-for-whose-benefit
#5
Bishal Gyawali, Richard Sullivan
Although new cancer drugs are continually getting approved and used, the value that these drugs add is very debatable. Because of the skyrocketing cost of the new drugs, each new approval represents a multibillion market. However, unlike other branches of economics, cancer drugs are intricately associated with socio-political issues, emotional overlay, public pressure, industry manipulation and propaganda. In this article, we review the value added by new cancer drugs and examine the socio-political agenda around them with highlights on the increasing gulf between high-income and low-middle income countries regarding the affordability to these drugs...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517988/the-promise-and-the-hype-of-personalised-medicine
#6
Tim Maughan
Personalised medicine is widely considered as the way of the future for medicine. However, progress in cancer, with a few outstanding exceptions, has fallen below expectations because of the challenges of tumour heterogeneity and clonal evolution. In both benign and malignant disease, diseases caused by single genetic alterations are more amenable to precision medicine approaches. However, most common diseases are caused by a complex interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors making personalised medicine far more challenging...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517987/the-human-dimension-putting-the-person-into-personalised-medicine
#7
Rob Horne
Technological advances enabling us to personalise medical interventions at the biological level must be matched by parallel advances in how we support the informed choices essential to patient and public participation. We cannot take participation for granted. To be truly personalised, medicine must take account of the perceptions and capabilities that shape participation. To do this, we need a better understanding of how people perceive personalised medicine and how they judge its value and risks. To realise the promise of 4P medicine we need to personalise at the psychosocial as well as biological dimension, putting the person into personalised medicine...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517986/from-rosalind-franklin-to-barack-obama-data-sharing-challenges-and-solutions-in-genomics-and-personalised-medicine
#8
Mark Lawler, Tim Maughan
The collection, storage and use of genomic and clinical data from patients and healthy individuals is a key component of personalised medicine enterprises such as the Precision Medicine Initiative, the Cancer Moonshot and the 100,000 Genomes Project. In order to maximise the value of this data, it is important to embed a culture within the scientific, medical and patient communities that supports the appropriate sharing of genomic and clinical information. However, this aspiration raises a number of ethical, legal and regulatory challenges that need to be addressed...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517985/personalised-medicine-the-promise-the-hype-and-the-pitfalls
#9
Therese Feiler, Kezia Gaitskell, Tim Maughan, Joshua Hordern
In engaging critically with personalised medicine and mapping pitfalls which mark its progress this project aims to stimulate conversations which deal intelligently with controversies for the sake of consensus. We aim to ask the ethical questions which will lead to the improvement of healthcare and we take an open-minded approach to finding answers to them over time. What is or should be meant by 'personalised medicine' is a major theme of this issue. It is a debate bound up with question of both values in the sense of ethical reflection and value in the sense of economic return...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517984/personalised-medicine-approaches-to-screening-and-prevention
#10
Kezia Gaitskell
One of the promised benefits of 'personalised' medicine is that it will have a positive impact on disease screening and prevention, by enabling more person-specific estimates of risk, and hence more personalised strategies for screening and risk reduction. This article summarises some of the areas in which these approaches are already being implemented, but also outlines some of the potential difficulties and limitations - and challenges the assumption that 'personalised' approaches are necessarily superior for prevention and screening...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517983/personalised-medicine-and-the-economy-of-biotechnological-promise
#11
Steve Sturdy
Rather than seek to distinguish hype from legitimate promise, it may be more helpful to think about personalised medicine as embodying a promissory economy which serves both to mobilize resources for research and - partly at least - to determine the ends to which that research is directed. Personalised medicine is a development of the larger promissory economy of medical biotechnology. As such, it systematically conflates public benefit with the pursuit of commercial and especially pharmaceutical interests...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517982/data-sharing-and-the-idea-of-ownership
#12
Jonathan Montgomery
Ideas about ownership are sometimes used in discussions of data sharing in personalised medicine. Personal health data are thought by many to be 'theirs'. Paradoxically, personalised medicine (at least in the context of genomics) relies on the aggregation of private data into a dataset that is held as a form of knowledge commons. When the notions of private and common property that lie behind this discourse are made explicit we can use thinking about the justifications and jurisprudence of property both to clarify the persuasiveness and limits of such claims, and also how they differ from other principles that are at stake in the interplay between individual and collective goods in the delivery of personalised medicine...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219272/the-glass-cage-who-needs-humans-anyway
#13
Matt James
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219271/challenging-ideas
#14
Trevor Stammers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219270/the-ethics-of-pregnancy-abortion-and-childbirth-exploring-moral-choices-in-childbearing
#15
Trevor Stammers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219269/the-potentiality-of-a-healthy-self-evaluating-progressively-empowered-internalisation-and-diagnosis-through-the-lens-of-existential-epistemology
#16
Anna Westin
In this article I will examine how the language of diagnosis can engage with existential epistemology to develop a concept of Progressively Empowered Internalisation (PEI). This, I will argue, challenges conceptualisations of diagnosis as articulating and maintaining a static self-concept. It enables the individual to synthesise the language of a particular mental experience within the wider engagement of their own active process of self-becoming. I will suggest that this construction of PEI addresses the limitations of stigmatisation and static self-concepts...
November 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219268/the-artificial-world-of-plastination-a-challenge-to-religious-perspectives-on-the-dead-human-body
#17
David Gareth Jones
The public exhibitions of plastinated (preserved) and dissected human cadavers have proved exceedingly popular and also very contentious. However, there has been little in the way of sustained analysis of these exhibitions from a Christian angle. The technique of plastination enables whole bodies to be displayed as though standing and playing a variety of sports, and with 'life-like' facial expressions. In analyzing this phenomenon, the plastination procedure is outlined, and the degree of naturalness of the whole body plastinates assessed...
November 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219267/an-unholy-mess-why-the-sanctity-of-life-principle-should-be-jettisoned
#18
David Albert Jones
The aim of this article is to present an account of an important element of medical ethics and law which is widely cited but is often confused. This element is most frequently referred to as 'the principle of the sanctity of life', and it is often assumed that this language has a religious provenance. However, the phrase is neither rooted in the traditions it purports to represent nor is it used consistently in contemporary discourse. Understood as the name of an established 'principle' the 'sanctity of life' is virtually an invention of the late twentieth century...
November 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219266/does-the-english-law-on-abortion-affront-human-dignity
#19
Charles Foster
The English law on abortion is examined through four lenses manufactured by the principle of dignity. Those lenses are embodiment, relationality, story and a transactional, rather than an atomistic, approach to the ascertaining of the relevant interests. It is contended that this approach gives more nuanced, humane, intellectually satisfactory and pastorally satisfactory answers than those generated by the existing law. It is further argued that only this dignity-based approach is compatible with that mandated by Article 8 of the ECHR...
November 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219265/womb-rentals-and-baby-selling-does-surrogacy-undermine-the-human-dignity-and-rights-of-the-surrogate-mother-and-child
#20
Clara Watson
The question of surrogacy has dominated much of the European human rights agenda over the last two years, at the time writing, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe hopes to adopt a resolution on surrogacy in the coming months. There is, however, danger in taking action at a supranational level to address the European 'surrogacy problem', without first honestly answering the question: does surrogacy undermine the human dignity and rights of the surrogate mother and child? This paper presents the case that surrogacy, by its nature, necessarily undermines the human dignity of both the woman and child born through such arrangements, and thus neither commercial nor altruistic surrogacy can ever be justified...
November 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
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