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New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728474/sperm-donation-and-the-right-to-privacy
#1
Oliver Hallich
Sperm donation is an increasingly common method of assisted reproduction. In the debate on sperm donation, the right to privacy - construed as a right that refers to the limits of the realm of information to which others have access - plays a pivotal role with regard to two questions. The first question is whether the sperm donor's right to privacy implies his right to retain his anonymity, the second is whether the gamete recipients' right to privacy entitles them to withhold information about the circumstances of their conception from their donor-conceived offspring...
July 20, 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707519/obituary
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689478/beyond-a-western-bioethics-in-asia-and-its-implication-on-autonomy
#3
Mark Tan Kiak Min
Despite flourishing as a multidisciplinary subject, the predominant view in bioethics today is based on Anglo-American thought. This has serious implications for a global bioethics that needs to be contextualized to local cultures and circumstances in order to be relevant. Being the largest continent on the earth, Asia is home to a variety of cultures, religions and countries of different economic statuses. While the practice of medicine in the East and West may be similar, its ethical practices do differ. Thus, the Western understanding of autonomy may not be wholly applicable in the Asian setting, especially in the setting of breaking bad news, giving consent, determining best interests and deciding on end-of-life care...
July 8, 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683695/a-gift-or-a-waste-quintavalle-surplus-embryos-and-the-abortion-act-1967
#4
Lisa Cherkassky
The destruction of an embryo must be justified in law. This is to prevent frivolous wastage and to show the respect afforded by the Warnock Report (1984). For example, embryonic destruction during pregnancy is underpinned by the Abortion Act 1967, and embryonic destruction during fertility treatment is regulated by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. However, following the appeal decision in R (Quintavalle) v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (and Secretary of State for Health) [2005] 2 A...
July 6, 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683670/biological-determinism-free-will-and-moral-responsibility-insights-from-genetics-and-neuroscience
#5
Alice Hewitt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 6, 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683668/kinship-identities-in-the-context-of-uk-maternal-spindle-transfer-and-pronuclear-transfer-legislation
#6
Calum MacKellar
In the discussions leading up to the enactment of the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Mitochondrial Donation) Regulations 2015, it was repeatedly emphasised, by many commentators, that maternal spindle transfer (MST) and pronuclear transfer (PNT) did not give rise to children who could be considered as having three or more parents. This was because it was argued that only the genetic material found in the chromosomes should be considered as the determining factor for the formation of parent-child relationships and the resulting kinship identities...
July 6, 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683597/transhumanism-how-far-is-too-far
#7
Joel Thompson
Transhumanism promises us freedom from the biological limitations inherent in our nature. It aims to enhance physical, emotional and cognitive capacities thus opening up new possibilities and horizons of experience. Since many transhumanist aspirations resemble those within the domain of religion, this paper compares Christian ethics to transhumanist ethics with respect to the body and the environment and offers a critique of transhumanism. Three areas of contention are discussed: the modification of our given human nature, the radical extension of our lifespans and our relationship to the natural environment...
July 6, 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671489/fda-in-the-21st-century
#8
Soumyajit Basu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 3, 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661218/on-human-nature
#9
Toni C Saad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799483/ethical-application-of-precision-medicine-to-schizophrenia-management
#10
Steven Daws
A recent effort has been made to better characterize the genetic architecture of schizophrenia, and apply a precision medicine model to its treatment. In pursuing this approach, it is likely that ethical concerns regarding cost-benefit uncertainties, the duty to inform and confidentiality will arise. Due to the complexity of schizophrenia's genetic profile, research efforts must be weighed against the risk to human subjects and the required consumption of valuable healthcare resources. Genetic risk profiles must be judged in conjunction with actionability and must be fully explained to patients and others potentially affected...
July 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799482/all-of-life-is-here
#11
Trevor Stammers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517993/your-dna-your-say
#12
Anna Middleton
Genomic and medical data sharing is pivotal if the promise of genomic medicine is to be fully realised. Social scientists working in the genomics arena ask the public 'how is the technology working for you?' Empirical studies on attitudes, values and beliefs are incredibly valuable; they offer a voice from those who are, or will be, directly affected. This is paramount if personalised medicine is to be truly personal. An International attitude study, Your DNA, Your Say, uses film to provide background information and an online survey to gather public views on donating one's own personal DNA and medical data for use by others...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517992/equity-and-value-in-precision-medicine
#13
Muir Gray, Tyra Lagerberg, Viktor Dombrádi
Precision medicine carries huge potential in the treatment of many diseases, particularly those with high-penetrance monogenic underpinnings. However, precision medicine through genomic technologies also has ethical implications. We will define allocative, personal, and technical value ('triple value') in healthcare and how this relates to equity. Equity is here taken to be implicit in the concept of triple value in countries that have publicly funded healthcare systems. It will be argued that precision medicine risks concentrating resources to those that already experience greater access to healthcare and power in society, nationally as well as globally...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517991/self-knowledge-and-risk-in-stratified-medicine
#14
Joshua Hordern
This article considers why and how self-knowledge is important to communication about risk and behaviour change by arguing for four claims. First, it is doubtful that genetic knowledge should properly be called 'self-knowledge' when its ordinary effects on self-motivation and behaviour change seem so slight. Second, temptations towards a reductionist, fatalist, construal of persons' futures through a 'molecular optic' should be resisted. Third, any plausible effort to change people's behaviour must engage with cultural self-knowledge, values and beliefs, catalysed by the communication of genetic risk...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517990/risk-and-benefit-in-personalised-medicine-an-end-user-view
#15
Alastair Kent
Personalised, or stratified, medicine is creating opportunities for the development of targeted therapies for many hitherto unmet clinical needs. For patients and families this is a cause for optimism. But it is unlikely that these novel therapies will provide complete cures. Rather they will address some but not all symptoms of a condition. In such circumstances, early engagement with patients and families will ensure that developments are targeted at those aspects of a condition which really matter, not just those that are easy to count...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517989/economics-of-cancer-medicines-for-whose-benefit
#16
Bishal Gyawali, Richard Sullivan
Although new cancer drugs are continually getting approved and used, the value that these drugs add is very debatable. Because of the skyrocketing cost of the new drugs, each new approval represents a multibillion market. However, unlike other branches of economics, cancer drugs are intricately associated with socio-political issues, emotional overlay, public pressure, industry manipulation and propaganda. In this article, we review the value added by new cancer drugs and examine the socio-political agenda around them with highlights on the increasing gulf between high-income and low-middle income countries regarding the affordability to these drugs...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517988/the-promise-and-the-hype-of-personalised-medicine
#17
Tim Maughan
Personalised medicine is widely considered as the way of the future for medicine. However, progress in cancer, with a few outstanding exceptions, has fallen below expectations because of the challenges of tumour heterogeneity and clonal evolution. In both benign and malignant disease, diseases caused by single genetic alterations are more amenable to precision medicine approaches. However, most common diseases are caused by a complex interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors making personalised medicine far more challenging...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517987/the-human-dimension-putting-the-person-into-personalised-medicine
#18
Rob Horne
Technological advances enabling us to personalise medical interventions at the biological level must be matched by parallel advances in how we support the informed choices essential to patient and public participation. We cannot take participation for granted. To be truly personalised, medicine must take account of the perceptions and capabilities that shape participation. To do this, we need a better understanding of how people perceive personalised medicine and how they judge its value and risks. To realise the promise of 4P medicine we need to personalise at the psychosocial as well as biological dimension, putting the person into personalised medicine...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517986/from-rosalind-franklin-to-barack-obama-data-sharing-challenges-and-solutions-in-genomics-and-personalised-medicine
#19
Mark Lawler, Tim Maughan
The collection, storage and use of genomic and clinical data from patients and healthy individuals is a key component of personalised medicine enterprises such as the Precision Medicine Initiative, the Cancer Moonshot and the 100,000 Genomes Project. In order to maximise the value of this data, it is important to embed a culture within the scientific, medical and patient communities that supports the appropriate sharing of genomic and clinical information. However, this aspiration raises a number of ethical, legal and regulatory challenges that need to be addressed...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517985/personalised-medicine-the-promise-the-hype-and-the-pitfalls
#20
Therese Feiler, Kezia Gaitskell, Tim Maughan, Joshua Hordern
In engaging critically with personalised medicine and mapping pitfalls which mark its progress this project aims to stimulate conversations which deal intelligently with controversies for the sake of consensus. We aim to ask the ethical questions which will lead to the improvement of healthcare and we take an open-minded approach to finding answers to them over time. What is or should be meant by 'personalised medicine' is a major theme of this issue. It is a debate bound up with question of both values in the sense of ethical reflection and value in the sense of economic return...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
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