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Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice

Warren A Kaplan, Reed F Beall
BACKGROUND: Lack of access to insulin and poor health outcomes are issues for both low and high income countries. This has been accompanied by a shift from relatively inexpensive human insulin to its more expensive analogs, marketed by three to four main global players. Nonetheless, patent-based market exclusivities are beginning to expire there for the first generation insulin analogs. This paper adds a global dimension to information on the U.S. patent landscape for insulin by reviewing the patent status of insulins with emphasis on the situation outside the US and Europe...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Daiki Yasunaga, Yuichi Tasaka, Satoshi Murakami, Akihiro Tanaka, Mamoru Tanaka, Hiroaki Araki
BACKGROUND: Pharmacists in Japan currently play a key role in patient hospital care. Their responsibilities include filling prescriptions, checking a patient's medication history, and providing appropriate information to other health care workers. More importantly, pharmacists' interventions can also result in reductions in adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and, ultimately, in cost savings. This study aimed to determine the economic value of such interventions at a hospital in Japan. METHODS: At a single Japanese hospital, we analyzed 1452 pharmaceutical interventions by pharmacists, including recommending antibiotic dosage regimens, attending ward rounds with multidisciplinary health providers, providing drug information, and reporting ADRs...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Anandhasayanam Aravamuthan, Mohanavalli Arputhavanan, Kannan Subramaniam, Sam Johnson Udaya Chander J
BACKGROUND: Due to the lack of clear, comprehensive, and rational drug policy, the production of pharmaceutical preparations in India is distorted for the most part. Indian markets are flooded with more than 70,000 formulations, compared to approximately 350 formulations listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) Essential Drug List. Studies have indicated that majority of prescriptions in India are of drugs of "doubtful efficacy." To promote rational drug use in developing countries, assessment of drug use patterns with the WHO drug use indicators is becoming increasingly necessary...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Jennifer E Isenor, Jessica L Killen, Beverly A Billard, Shelly A McNeil, Donna MacDougall, Beth A Halperin, Kathryn L Slayter, Susan K Bowles
BACKGROUND: Annual immunization is the most effective way to prevent influenza and its associated complications. However, optimal immunization rates are not being met in Nova Scotia, Canada. Additional providers, such as pharmacists, may improve access and convenience to receive vaccines. Pharmacists began immunizing patients 5 years of age and older within the publicly funded universal influenza vaccination program during the 2013-2014 influenza season. The objective of this study was to evaluate influenza immunization coverage rates before and after pharmacists in Nova Scotia gained authority to immunize as part of the publicly funded universal influenza vaccination program...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Gemma L Buckland Merrett, Gerald Bloom, Annie Wilkinson, Hayley MacGregor
The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant pathogens poses a big challenge to policy-makers, who need to oversee the transformation of health systems that evolved to provide easy access to these drugs into ones that encourage appropriate use of antimicrobials, whilst reducing the risk of resistance. This is a particular challenge for low and middle-income countries with pluralistic health systems where antibiotics are available in a number of different markets. This review paper considers access and use of antibiotics in these countries from a complex adaptive system perspective...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Bvudzai Priscilla Magadzire, Bruno Marchal, Kim Ward
BACKGROUND: The rising demand for chronic disease treatment and the barriers to accessing these medicines have led to the development of novel models for distributing medicines in South Africa's public sector, including distribution away from health centres, known as community-based distribution (CBD). In this article, we provide a typology of CBD models and outline perceived facilitators and barriers to their implementation using an adapted health systems framework with a view to analysing how future policy decisions on CBD could impact existing models and the health system as a whole...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Rasmus Borup, Susanne Kaae, Timo Minssen, Janine Traulsen
BACKGROUND: Many areas of pharmaceutical legislation in the European Union (EU) are harmonised in order to promote the internal market and protect public health. Ideally, harmonisation leads to less fragmented regulation and cross-border complexities. This study, however, focuses on an increasingly harmonised legislative area that is subject to increases in requirements and complexities: the distribution of medicines. This study compared Danish legislation governing the distribution of medicines before and after Denmark joined the EU in order to assess the impact of EU harmonisation, as well as to evaluate whether the drastic increases in requirements mandated by the Falsified Medicines Directive of 2011 correspond to a new approach to governing the pharmaceutical supply chain...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Louise E Curley, Janice Moody, Rukshar Gobarani, Trudi Aspden, Maree Jensen, Maureen McDonald, John Shaw, Janie Sheridan
BACKGROUND: Worldwide the demands on emergency and primary health care services are increasing. General practitioners and accident and emergency departments are often used unnecessarily for the treatment of minor ailments. Community pharmacy is often the first port of call for patients in the provision of advice on minor ailments, advising the patient on treatment or referring the patient to an appropriate health professional when necessary. The potential for community pharmacists to act as providers of triage services has started to be recognised, and community pharmacy triage services (CPTS) are emerging in a number of countries...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Muhammad Azeem, Danial Umer, Abdul Rauf, Arslan Rasool, Muhammad Ahsan, Shane Scahill
BACKGROUND: Medicines are a main therapeutic intervention provided within hospitals and their proper use in the outpatient setting is important for patients and the community. The objective of this study was to evaluate drug use patterns in the outpatient departments (OPDs) of two tertiary care hospitals (Bahawal Victoria Hospital and Civil Hospital) in the Bahawalpur district of the Punjab province of Pakistan by employing the standard World Health Organization/International Network of Rational Use of Drugs (WHO/INRUD) drug use indicators...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Chia-Ying Lee, Xiaohan Chen, Robert J Romanelli, Jodi B Segal
BACKGROUND: The United States (U.S.) Food and Drug Administration, as protectors of public health, encourages generic drug development and use so that patients can access affordable medications. The FDA, however, has limited mechanisms to encourage generic drug manufacturing. MAIN RESULTS: Generic drug manufacturers make decisions regarding development of products based on expected profitability, influenced by market forces, features of the reference listed drug, and manufacturing capabilities, as well as regulatory restrictions...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Kah Seng Lee, Yen Wei Lim, Long Chiau Ming
BACKGROUND: The proposed Pharmacy Bill of Malaysia which served to consolidate and harmonise the existing pharmacy legislation which has been used for more than 60 years. This new Pharmacy Bill contains 17 parts and a total of 170 legislative sections covering laws governing pharmacy practice, medicinal products classification, registration, sale, supply, licensing etc. Our article could serve as a case study on pharmacy jurisprudence and drug regulation as well as the governance for medicines...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Louise E Curley, Maureen McDonald, Trudi Aspden
BACKGROUND: Providing patient-centred care requires pharmacy students to learn how to interact effectively and understand individual differences that can influence patients' health. The School of Pharmacy at The University of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ), developed a virtual teaching platform, called NZ Pharmville, which consisted of twenty-one community-based patients who are members of six families; each family had a video vignette associated with it. Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) students, enrolled in the third year pharmacy practice course, were able to view these recorded vignettes as part of their weekly pre-laboratory work for the course...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Kebede Beyene, Trudi Aspden, Janie Sheridan
BACKGROUND: Prescription medicine sharing has been defined as the lending of medicines (giving prescription medicines to someone else) or borrowing of medicines (being given and using a medicine prescribed for another person). This qualitative study explored the views of patients, to elicit information regarding factors influencing medicine sharing behaviours, their experiences of the consequences of prescription medicine sharing, and their risk assessment strategies when deciding to share...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Xavier Nsabagasani, Japer Ogwal-Okeng, Ebba Holme Hansen, Anthony Mbonye, Herbert Muyinda, Freddie Ssengooba
BACKGROUND: The Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses is the main approach for treating children in more than 100 low income countries worldwide. In 2007, the World Health Assembly urged countries to integrate 'better medicines for children' into their essential medicines lists and treatment guidelines. WHO regularly provides generic algorithms for IMCI and publishes the Model Essential Medicines List with child-friendly medicines based on new evidence for member countries to adopt...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Birna Trap, Denis Okidi Ladwar, Martin Olowo Oteba, Martha Embrey, Mohammed Khalid, Anita Katharina Wagner
BACKGROUND: Uganda introduced a multipronged intervention, the supervision, performance assessment, and recognition strategy (SPARS), to improve medicines management (MM) in public and not-for-profit health facilities. This paper, the first in a series, describes the SPARS intervention and reports on the MM situation in Uganda before SPARS (baseline). METHODS: To build MM capacity at health facilities, health workers were trained as MM supervisors to visit health facilities, assess MM performance, and use the findings to provide support and standardize MM practices...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Susanne Kaae, Sofia Kälvemark Sporrong, Janine Morgall Traulsen, Helle Wallach Kildemoes, Lotte Stig Nørgaard, Arianit Jakupi, Denis Raka, Emre Umut Gürpinar, Ali Alkan, Iris Hoxha, Admir Malaj, Lourdes Arevalo Cantarero
BACKGROUND: In 2014, a qualitative multi-country research project was launched to study the reasons behind the high use of antibiotics in regions of Southeast Europe by using previously untrained national interviewers (who were engaged in other antibiotic microbial resistance-related investigations) to conduct qualitative interviews with local patients, physicians and pharmacists. Little knowledge exists about how to implement qualitative multi-country research collaborations involving previously untrained local data collectors...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Zubin Shroff, Maryam Bigdeli, Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar, Anita Wagner, Abdul Ghaffar, David H Peters
This editorial introduces a series of case studies that together highlight the use of health market interventions to improve access to medicines in low-and-middle income countries (LMICs). It underscores the added value of using a systems approach for a holistic understanding of how these interventions interact with the rest of the health system and the intended and unintended consequences that result. It goes on to summarize key findings from each of the studies and concludes with lessons for decision-makers on the design and implementation of market based interventions in LMIC health systems...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Birna Trap, Kate Kikule, Catherine Vialle-Valentin, Richard Musoke, Grace Otto Lajul, Kim Hoppenworth, Dorthe Konradsen
BACKGROUND: Since its inception, the Uganda National Drug Authority (NDA) has regularly inspected private sector pharmacies to monitor adherence to Good Pharmacy Practices (GPP). This study reports findings from the first public facility inspections following an intervention (SPARS: Supervision, Performance Assessment, and Recognition Strategy) to build GPP and medicines management capacity in the public sector. METHODS: The study includes 455 public facilities: 417 facilities were inspected after at least four SPARS visits by trained managerial district staff (SPARS group), 38 before any exposure to SPARS...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Charles Newman, Vamadevan S Ajay, Ravi Srinivas, Sandeep Bhalla, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Amitava Banerjee
BACKGROUND: India shoulders the greatest global burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Drugs are the bedrock of treatment and prevention of CVD. India's pharmaceutical industry is the third largest, by volume, globally, but access to CVD drugs in India is poor. There is a lack of qualitative data from government and pharmaceutical sectors regarding CVD drug development and access in India. METHODS: By purposive sampling, we recruited either Indian government officials, or pharmaceutical company executives...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Adam R Houston, Reed F Beall, Amir Attaran
Exorbitant price increases for critical off-patent medicines have received considerable media attention in recent months, leading to an investigation by the U.S. Senate. However, much of this attention has focused upon the companies that initiated the price increases, all of whom had recently acquired the drugs in question. Overlooked are upstream interventions with the originators of these drugs to prevent generics trolling in the first place. Using the particular example of Eli Lilly and Company's efforts to divest itself of cycloserine, a flawed process that paved the way for the recent price hike by Rodelis Therapeutics, this article highlights the responsibilities of drug originators, and safeguards to ensure similar rights transfers do not affect ongoing affordable access...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
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