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Journal of Immunology Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445759/impact-of-the-polymorphism-rs9264942-near-the-hla-c-gene-on-hiv-1-dna-reservoirs-in-asymptomatic-chronically-infected-patients-initiating-antiviral-therapy
#1
Laura Herráiz-Nicuesa, Diana Carolina Hernández-Flórez, Lara Valor, Sonia García-Consuegra, Juan Paulo Navarro-Valdivieso, Eduardo Fernández-Cruz, Carmen Rodríguez-Sainz
Several genome-wide association studies have identified a polymorphism located 35 kb upstream of the coding region of HLA-C gene ( rs9264942 ; termed -35 C/T) as a host factor significantly associated with the control of HIV-1 viremia in untreated patients. The potential association of this host genetic polymorphism with the viral reservoirs has never been investigated, nor the association with the viral control in response to the treatment. In this study, we assess the influence of the polymorphism -35 C/T on the outcome of virus burden in 183 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals who initiated antiviral treatment (study STIR-2102), analyzing HIV-1 RNA viremia and HIV-1 DNA reservoirs...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445758/macrophage-polarization-in-cerebral-aneurysm-perspectives-and-potential-targets
#2
REVIEW
Lingmin Shao, Xingping Qin, Jia Liu, Zhihong Jian, Xiaoxing Xiong, Renzhong Liu
Cerebral aneurysms (CAs) have become a health burden not only because their rupture is life threatening, but for a series of devastating complications left in survivors. It is well accepted that sustained chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathology of cerebral aneurysms. In particular, macrophages have been identified as critical effector cells orchestrating inflammation in CAs. In recent years, dysregulated M1/M2 polarization has been proposed to participate in the progression of CAs. Although the pathological mechanisms of M1/M2 imbalance in CAs remain largely unknown, recent advances have been made in the understanding of the molecular basis and other immune cells involving in this sophisticated network...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445757/alteration-of-immune-mechanisms-by-human-microbiota-and-development-and-prevention-of-human-diseases
#3
EDITORIAL
Mitesh Dwivedi, Ansarullah, Ilian Radichev, E Helen Kemp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445756/modulation-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-tam-phenotype-by-platelet-activating-factor-paf-receptor
#4
Ildefonso Alves da Silva Junior, Simone Cardozo Stone, Renata Marques Rossetti, Sonia Jancar, Ana Paula Lepique
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several types of tumors. The biological effects of PAF are mediated by the PAF receptor (PAFR), which can be expressed by tumor cells and host cells that infiltrate the tumor microenvironment. In the present study, we investigated the role of PAFR expressed by leukocytes that infiltrate two types of tumors, one that expresses PAFR (TC-1 carcinoma) and another that does not express the receptor (B16F10 melanoma) implanted in mice that express the receptor or not (PAFR KO)...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445755/immunomodulatory-effect-of-flavonoids-of-blueberry-vaccinium-corymbosum-l-leaves-via-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BA-b-signal-pathway-in-lps-stimulated-raw-264-7-cells
#5
Dazhi Shi, Mengyi Xu, Mengyue Ren, Enshan Pan, Chaohua Luo, Wei Zhang, Qingfa Tang
Objective: This study aimed to explore the immunoregulatory effect of flavonoids of blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) leaves (FBL). Methods: The flavonoids of blueberry leaves were prepared with 70% ethanol and were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-Tof-MS). The immunoregulatory effect and possible regulatory mechanisms of FBL were investigated in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445754/fundamentals-and-methods-for-t-and-b-cell-epitope-prediction
#6
REVIEW
Jose L Sanchez-Trincado, Marta Gomez-Perosanz, Pedro A Reche
Adaptive immunity is mediated by T- and B-cells, which are immune cells capable of developing pathogen-specific memory that confers immunological protection. Memory and effector functions of B- and T-cells are predicated on the recognition through specialized receptors of specific targets (antigens) in pathogens. More specifically, B- and T-cells recognize portions within their cognate antigens known as epitopes. There is great interest in identifying epitopes in antigens for a number of practical reasons, including understanding disease etiology, immune monitoring, developing diagnosis assays, and designing epitope-based vaccines...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445753/treatments-for-severe-cutaneous-adverse-reactions
#7
REVIEW
Yung-Tsu Cho, Chia-Yu Chu
Severe cutaneous adverse reaction (SCAR) is life-threatening. It consists of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and generalized bullous fixed drug eruptions (GBFDE). In the past years, emerging studies have provided better understandings regarding the pathogenesis of these diseases. These diseases have unique presentations and distinct pathomechanisms. Therefore, theoretically, the options of treatments might be different among various SCARs...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430466/regulatory-t-cells-and-their-prognostic-relevance-in-hematologic-malignancies
#8
REVIEW
Giovanni D'Arena, Candida Vitale, Marta Coscia, Agostino Festa, Nicola Matteo Dario Di Minno, Vincenzo De Feo, Michele Caraglia, Gioacchino Calapai, Luca Laurenti, Pellegrino Musto, Giovanni Di Minno, Daniela Fenoglio
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have a fundamental function in monitoring the immune homeostasis in healthy individuals. In cancer and, in particular, in hematological malignancies, Tregs exert a major immunosuppressive activity, thus playing a critical role in tumor cell growth, proliferation, and survival. Here, we summarize published data on the prognostic significance of Tregs in hematological malignancies and show that they are highly conflicting. The heterogeneity of the experimental approaches that were used explains-at least in part-the discordant results reported by different groups that have investigated the role of Tregs in cancer...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423418/synergistic-effects-of-cabozantinib-and-egfr-specific-car-nk-92-cells-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#9
Qing Zhang, Kang Tian, Jinjing Xu, Haixu Zhang, Liantao Li, Qiang Fu, Dafei Chai, Huizhong Li, Junnian Zheng
The chimeric antigen receptor-modified immune effector cell (CAR-T and CAR-NK) therapies are newly developed adoptive treatments of cancers. However, their therapeutic efficacy against solid tumors is limited. Combining CAR-T or CAR-NK cells with chemotherapeutic drugs to treat solid tumor may be a promising strategy. We developed an epidermal growth factor- (EGFR-) specific third-generation CAR. NK-92 cells were modified with the CAR by lentivirus infection. The specific killing ability of the CAR-modified NK-92 cells (CAR-NK-92) against renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines was confirmed in vitro...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423417/reduced-sb7-h3-expression-in-the-peripheral-blood-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients
#10
Jing Sun, Huijun Lai, Dong Shen, Pingping Wu, Jie Yang, Zhongwen Sun, Yundi Guo
Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of costimulatory molecules play important roles in immune-regulatory networks. B7-H3, a member of the B7 family, has been found with aberrant expression in tumors and infectious disease. However, the significance of sB7-H3 expression in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has not been investigated. Using the peripheral blood of 78 SLE patients, we established a comprehensive database containing clinical data and relevant laboratory tests. We found that sB7-H3 expression in SLE patients was significantly lower compared with the healthy individuals...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410971/the-role-of-microglia-and-macrophages-in-cns-homeostasis-autoimmunity-and-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Jie Yin, Katherine L Valin, Michael L Dixon, Jianmei W Leavenworth
Macrophages are major cell types of the immune system, and they comprise both tissue-resident populations and circulating monocyte-derived subsets. Here, we discuss microglia, the resident macrophage within the central nervous system (CNS), and CNS-infiltrating macrophages. Under steady state, microglia play important roles in the regulation of CNS homeostasis through the removal of damaged or unnecessary neurons and synapses. In the face of inflammatory or pathological insults, microglia and CNS-infiltrating macrophages not only constitute the first line of defense against pathogens by regulating components of innate immunity, but they also regulate the adaptive arms of immune responses...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410970/the-role-of-nk-cells-in-pig-to-human-xenotransplantation
#12
REVIEW
Gisella Puga Yung, Mårten K J Schneider, Jörg D Seebach
Recruitment of human NK cells to porcine tissues has been demonstrated in pig organs perfused ex vivo with human blood in the early 1990s. Subsequently, the molecular mechanisms leading to adhesion and cytotoxicity in human NK cell-porcine endothelial cell (pEC) interactions have been elucidated in vitro to identify targets for therapeutic interventions. Specific molecular strategies to overcome human anti-pig NK cell responses include (1) blocking of the molecular events leading to recruitment (chemotaxis, adhesion, and transmigration), (2) expression of human MHC class I molecules on pECs that inhibit NK cells, and (3) elimination or blocking of pig ligands for activating human NK receptors...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410969/elevated-serum-level-of-hmgb1-in-patients-with-the-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#13
Valeria Manganelli, Antonella Capozzi, Simona Truglia, Cristiano Alessandri, Emanuela Lococo, Tina Garofalo, Caterina De Carolis, Fabrizio Conti, Guido Valesini, Maurizio Sorice, Agostina Longo, Roberta Misasi
Pregnancy problems are common in patients with rheumatic disease; indeed, autoimmune disorders and autoantibodies can affect pregnancy progress and lead to maternal complications. Recent studies have highlighted a close association between HMGB1, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. Thus, in this investigation, we analyzed serum levels of HMGB1, an alarmin which plays a pivotal role in inducing and enhancing immune cell function. Sera from 30 patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (11 primary and 19 secondary APS), 35 subjects with pregnancy morbidity, and 30 healthy women were analysed for HMGB1 and its putative receptor RAGE (sRAGE) by Western blot and for TNF-α by ELISA...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404373/new-biomarkers-of-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-in-infectious-diseases
#14
EDITORIAL
Sergey Morzunov, Varough Deyde, Levon Abrahamyan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392143/antibodies-against-pneumococcal-capsular-polysaccharides-and-natural-anti-galactosyl-alpha-gal-in-patients-with-humoral-immunodeficiencies
#15
P Kralickova, J Kuhnova, O Soucek, P Vodarek, P Zak, M Simkovic, M Motyckova, L Smolej, E Mala, C Andrys, J Krejsek, V Thon
Humoral deficiencies represent a broad group of disorders. The aim of the study was to compare the levels of antibodies against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (anti-PCP) and natural anti-galactosyl (anti-Gal) antibodies in (1) patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), (2) patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), and (3) a healthy population and to explore their diagnostic and prognostic potential. Serum immunoglobulin levels and levels of anti-Gal IgG, IgA, and IgM and anti-PCP IgG and IgG2 were determined in 59 CLL patients, 30 CVID patients, and 67 healthy controls...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392142/hydroxychloroquine-use-in-lupus-patients-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-longer-pregnancy-duration-in-preterm-births
#16
S J Kroese, M J H de Hair, M Limper, A T Lely, J M van Laar, R H W M Derksen, R D E Fritsch-Stork
Objective: To investigate the effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: In SLE pregnancies of a single Dutch center (2000-2015), lupus activity and flares before and during pregnancy and postpartum were assessed using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI)/SLEPDAI (SLEDAI adjusted for pregnancy). The association between HCQ use and pregnancy outcomes (early spontaneous abortion, fetal death, and preterm and term live birth) was analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE) accounting for the occurrence of multiple pregnancies per patient...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392141/comparison-between-the-hla-b%C3%A2-58%C3%A2-%C3%A2-01-allele-and-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-chromosome-6-for-prediction-of-allopurinol-induced-severe-cutaneous-adverse-reactions
#17
Niwat Saksit, Nontaya Nakkam, Parinya Konyoung, Usanee Khunarkornsiri, Wongwiwat Tassaneeyakul, Pansu Chumworathayi, Sirimas Kanjanawart, Chonlaphat Sukasem, Alisara Sangviroon, Oranuch Pattanacheewapull, Wichittra Tassaneeyakul
Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs) are life-threatening reactions. The strong association between the HLA-B∗58 : 01 allele and allopurinol-induced SCARs is well recognized. Screening for HLA-B∗58 : 01 allele before prescribing allopurinol in some populations has been recommended. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chromosome 6 have been found to be tightly linked with the HLA allele, and these SNPs have been proposed as surrogate markers of the HLA-B∗58 : 01 allele...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387733/natural-immunomodulators
#18
EDITORIAL
D Ortuño-Sahagún, K Zänker, A K S Rawat, S V Kaveri, P Hegde
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387732/metabolic-plasticity-in-dendritic-cell-responses-implications-in-allergic-asthma
#19
REVIEW
Amarjit Mishra
Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized in antigen presentation and play a pivotal role in the initiation, progression, and perpetuation of adaptive immune responses. Emerging immune pathways are being recognized increasingly for DCs and their subsets that differentially regulate T lymphocyte function based on the type and interactions with the antigen. However, these interactions not only alter the signaling process and DC function but also render metabolic plasticity. The current review focuses on the metabolic cues of DCs that coordinate DC activation and differentiation and discuss whether targeting these fundamental cellular processes have implications to control airway inflammation and adaptive immunity...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379802/inflammatory-cytokine-signaling-during-development-of-pancreatic-and-prostate-cancers
#20
REVIEW
Geou-Yarh Liou
Inflammation is essential for many diseases including cancer. Activation and recruitment of immune cells during inflammation result in a cytokine- and chemokine-enriched cell environment, which affects cancer development. Since each type of cancer has its unique tumor environment, effects of cytokines from different sources such as tumor-infiltrating immune cells, stromal cells, endothelial cells, and cancer cells on cancer development can be quite complex. In this review, how immune cells contribute to tumorigenesis of pancreatic and prostate cancers through their secreted cytokines is discussed...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
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