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Public Health Action

M Obopile, G Segoea, K Waniwa, D S Ntebela, K Moakofhi, M Motlaleng, T Mosweunyane, J K Edwards, J Namboze, W Butt, M Manzi, K C Takarinda, P Owiti
Setting: Larviciding has potential as a component of integrated vector management for the reduction of malaria transmission in Botswana by complementing long-lasting insecticide nets and indoor residual sprays. Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of local Anopheles to commonly used larvicides. Design: This field test of the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israliensis vs. Anopheles was performed by measuring larval density before treatment and 24 h and 48 h after treatment in seven sites of Bobirwa district, eastern Botswana, in 2012 and 2013...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
D R Mumbengegwi, H Sturrock, M Hsiang, K Roberts, I Kleinschmidt, M Nghipumbwa, P Uusiku, J Smith, A Bennet, W Kizito, K Takarinda, S Ade, R Gosling
Setting: A comparison of routine Namibia National Malaria Programme data (reported) vs. household survey data (administrative) on indoor residual spraying (IRS) in western Zambezi region, Namibia, for the 2014-2015 malaria season. Objectives: To determine 1) IRS coverage (administrative and reported), 2) its effect on malaria incidence, and 3) reasons for non-uptake of IRS in western Zambezi region, Namibia, for the 2014-2015 malaria season. Design: This was a descriptive study. Results: IRS coverage in western Zambezi region was low, ranging from 42...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
F Mbokazi, M Coetzee, B Brooke, J Govere, A Reid, P Owiti, R Kosgei, S Zhou, R Magagula, G Kok, J Namboze, H Tweya, A Mabuza
Background: The malaria vector Anopheles merus occurs in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. As its contribution to malaria transmission in South Africa has yet to be ascertained, an intensification of surveillance is necessary to provide baseline information on this species. The aim of this study was therefore to map An. merus breeding sites in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province and to assess qualitative trends in the distribution and relative abundance of this species over a 9-year period...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
K Moakofhi, J K Edwards, M Motlaleng, J Namboze, W Butt, M Obopile, T Mosweunyane, M Manzi, K C Takarinda, P Owiti
Background: Malaria elimination requires infection detection using quality assured diagnostics and appropriate treatment regimens. Although Botswana is moving towards malaria elimination, reports of unconfirmed cases may jeopardise this effort. This study aimed to determine the proportion of cases treated for malaria that were confirmed by rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) and/or microscopy. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study using routine national data from the integrated disease surveillance and case-based surveillance systems from 2008 to 2014...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
K Makadzange, N Dlamini, Z Zulu, S Dlamini, S Kunene, W Sikhondze, P Owiti, E Geoffroy, R Zachariah, T K Mengestu
Settings: Swaziland is striving to achieve sustainable malaria elimination. Three preventive interventions are vital for reaching this goal: 1) effective household utilisation of long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs), 2) indoor residual spraying (IRS), and 3) provision of chemoprophylaxis for those travelling to malaria-endemic areas. Objectives: To assess the uptake of preventive intervention among confirmed malaria cases. Design: A longitudinal study using nation-wide programme data from 2010 to 2015. Data on malaria cases from health facilities were sourced from the Malaria Surveillance Database System...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
M Motlaleng, J Edwards, J Namboze, W Butt, K Moakofhi, M Obopile, M Manzi, K C Takarinda, R Zachariah, P Owiti, N Oumer, T Mosweunyane
Background: Reliable information reporting systems ensure that all malaria cases are tested, treated and tracked to avoid further transmission. Botswana aimed to eliminate malaria by 2018, and surveillance is key. This study focused on assessing the uptake of the new malaria case-based surveillance (CBS) system introduced in 2012, which captures information on malaria cases reported in the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study based on routine data focusing on Ngami, Chobe and Okavango, three high-risk districts in Botswana...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
M H Nghipumbwa, S Ade, W Kizito, K C Takarinda, P Uusiku, D R Mumbegegwi
Setting: Kavango, a 'moderate' transmission risk region located in north-eastern Namibia, borders Angola, a country with higher malaria transmission levels. Objective: To determine 1) the trends in malaria incidence between 2010 and 2014 in Kavango, 2) the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of confirmed cases in 2014, and 3) associated risk factors of cases classified as imported. Design: This was a retrospective study of malaria case investigation forms conducted in all 52 public health facilities in 2014...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
Z Zulu, S Kunene, N Mkhonta, P Owiti, W Sikhondze, M Mhlanga, Z Simelane, E Geoffroy, R Zachariah
Background: To be able to eliminate malaria, accurate, timely reporting and tracking of all confirmed malaria cases is crucial. Swaziland, a country in the process of eliminating malaria, has three parallel health information systems. Design: This was a cross-sectional study using country-wide programme data from 2010 to 2015. Methods: The Malaria Surveillance Database System (MSDS) is a comprehensive malaria database, the Immediate Disease Notification System (IDNS) is meant to provide early warning and trigger case investigations to prevent onward malaria transmission and potential epidemics, and the Health Management Information Systems (HMIS) reports on all morbidity at health facility level...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
N Dlamini, Z Zulu, S Kunene, E Geoffroy, N Ntshalintshali, P Owiti, W Sikhondze, K Makadzange, R Zachariah
Background: Swaziland is one of the southern African countries that aim to eliminate malaria by 2020. In 2010, the country introduced an Immediate Disease Notification System (IDNS) for immediate reporting of notifiable diseases, including malaria. Health facilities are to report malaria cases within 24 h through a toll-free telephone number (977), triggering an alert for case investigation at the patient's household within 48 h. We assessed the completeness of reporting in the IDNS, the subsequent case investigation, and whether it was done within the stipulated timelines...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
S V Dlamini, R J Kosgei, N Mkhonta, Z Zulu, K Makadzange, S Zhou, P Owiti, W Sikhondze, J Namboze, A Reid, S Kunene
Objective: To assess adherence to malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines (2010 and 2014) in all health care facilities in Swaziland between 2011 and 2015. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving all health care facilities that diagnosed and managed malaria cases in Swaziland. Patients' age, sex, diagnosis method and type of treatment were analysed. Results: Of 1981 records for severe and uncomplicated malaria analysed, 56% of cases were uncomplicated and 14% had severe malaria. The type of malaria was not recorded for 30% of cases...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
Maxine Whittaker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
S Chadha, A Trivedi, S B Nagaraja, K Sagili
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
S Basu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
S B Nagaraja, S Satyanarayana, A K Bansal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
J R Zelnick, B Seepamore, A Daftary, K R Amico, X Bhengu, G Friedland, N Padayatchi, K Naidoo, M R O'Donnell
KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is the epicenter of an epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, characterized by low rates of medication adherence and retention in care. Social workers may have a unique role to play in improving DR-TB-HIV outcomes. We designed, implemented and evaluated a model-based pilot training course on patient-centered care, treatment literacy in DR-TB and HIV coinfection, patient support group facilitation, and self-care. Ten social workers participated in a 1-day training course...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
J Ousley, K P Soe, N T T Kyaw, R Anicete, P E Mon, H Lwin, T Win, S Cristofani, A Telnov, M Fernandez, I Ciglenecki
Setting: A southern Myanmar district providing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in one of the last countries to formally recommend it as part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care. Objective: To assess coverage and adherence and the feasibility of IPT scale-up in a routine care setting in Myanmar. Design: A retrospective analysis of people living with HIV (PLHIV) screened for tuberculosis (TB) and enrolled in IPT over a 3-year period (July 2011-June 2014) using clinical databases. Results: Among 3377 patients under HIV care and screened for TB, 2740 (81...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
A Latif, A Ghafoor, A Wali, R Fatima, Mahboob Ul-Haq, A Yaqoob, Z Abdullah, H Najmi, N M Khan
Settings: All hospitals managing drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) according to national guidelines in Pakistan. Objectives: To assess the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) and factors associated with unfavourable outcomes in DR-TB. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on a retrospective record review of patients enrolled on DR-TB treatment from 2010 to 2014 in Pakistan. DR-TB data reported to Pakistan's National TB Control Programme on a monthly basis were used for the study. Result: Among 5811 patients enrolled on second-line drugs, 8...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
N S Shah, J Westenhouse, P Lowenthal, G Schecter, L True, S Mase, P M Barry, J Flood
Background: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend expert consultation for multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases. In 2002, the California MDR-TB Service was created to provide expert MDR-TB consultations. We describe the characteristics, treatment outcomes and management of patients referred to the Service. Methods: Surveillance data were used for descriptive analysis of cases, with consultation during July 2002-December 2012. Clinical consultation data and modified World Health Organization indicators were used to assess the care and management of cases, with consultation from January 2009 to December 2012...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
M Gidado, N Nwokoye, P Nwadike, P Ajiboye, R Eneogu, S Useni, J Onazi, A Lawanson, E Elom, A Tubi, J Kuye
Setting: Nigeria, a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country. Objective: To study the rate, distribution and causes of unsuccessful Xpert® MTB/RIF test outcomes, with the aim of identifying key areas that need to be strengthened for optimal performance of the assay. Design: This was a retrospective analysis of data uploaded between January and December 2015 from Xpert facilities to the central server using GXAlert. Result: Of 52 219 test results uploaded from 176 Xpert machines, 22.5% were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 10...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
Ignacio Monedero-Recuero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
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