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Public Health Action

N Guillerm, S Dar Berger, K Bissell, A M V Kumar, A Ramsay, A J Reid, R Zachariah, A D Harries
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Public Health Action
B N Sharath, S Shastri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Public Health Action
H Fatima, T F Qadir, S Ahmed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Public Health Action
R K Osman, K Mortimer, G Bjune, A I El Sony
Background: Chronic respiratory disease (CRD) causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Although the global CRD epidemic collides with the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in many low- and middle-income country settings, the risk of TB-associated CRD is not well described in countries with a high burden of TB. Methods: We recruited 136 patients with a history of sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) from the TB clinic at Omdurman Teaching Hospital in Khartoum, Sudan, and 136 age- and sex-matched community controls, between 28 July 2013 and 30 December 2013...
September 2016: Public Health Action
S Shirodkar, L Anande, A Dalal, C Desai, G Corrêa, M Das, C Laxmeshwar, H Mansoor, D Remartinez, M Trelles, P Isaakidis
Setting: While surgery for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is considered an important adjunct for specific cases, including drug-resistant tuberculosis, operational evidence on its feasibility and effectiveness is limited. Objective: To describe surgical outcomes and programmatic challenges of providing surgery for PTB in Mumbai, India. Design: A descriptive study of routinely collected data of surgical interventions for PTB from 2010 to 2014 in two Mumbai hospitals, one public, one private. Results: Of 85 patients, 5 (6%) died and 17 (20%) had complications, with wound infection being the most frequent...
September 2016: Public Health Action
R Cariem, V Cox, V de Azevedo, J Hughes, E Mohr, L Triviño Durán, N Ndjeka, J Furin
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a serious public health problem, but the new drugs bedaquiline (BDQ) and delamanid offer hope to improve outcomes and minimise toxicity. In Khayelitsha, South Africa, patients are routinely started on BDQ in the out-patient setting. This report from the field describes BDQ use in the out-patient setting at the Nolungile Clinic. The clinic staff overall report a positive experience using the drug. Challenges have been based largely on the logistics of drug supply and delivery...
September 2016: Public Health Action
V Kuznetsov, K Bissell
Setting: Many tuberculosis services are implementing new diagnostics to accelerate treatment initiation for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Successful implementation and uptake are likely to depend on many factors. Objective: To describe the perceptions of the Arkhangelsk health services staff in Northern Russia on the process of introducing the line-probe assay and to determine what facilitates the process of uptake into practice. Design: Process evaluation; semi-structured, in-depth interviews with key informants from civil and penitentiary health services; content analysis...
September 2016: Public Health Action
Y Lin, C-Y Chiang, I D Rusen, S G Hinderaker, A Roldan, E Heldal, D A Enarson, L-X Zhang
Setting: The first phase of the Fund for Innovative DOTS Expansion through Local Initiatives to Stop TB (FIDELIS) projects in China started in 2003. Objective: To determine whether the FIDELIS projects contributed to the increased case detection rate for new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in China. Methods: We compared the case notification rates (CNRs) in the intervention year with those of the previous year in the FIDELIS areas, then compared the difference between the CNRs of the intervention year and the previous year in the FIDELIS areas with those in the non-FI-DELIS areas within the province...
September 2016: Public Health Action
S K Sah, S K Sahu, B Lamichhane, G K Bhatta, K B Bhandari, P Owiti, S S Majumdar
Setting: The three government tertiary care hospitals providing care for people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in Kathmandu, Nepal. Objectives: To assess 1) the screening cascades for intensified case finding for tuberculosis (TB), 2) isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), including demographic and clinical factors associated with treatment interruption, and 3) TB infection control (IC) in the health facilities. Design: A cross-sectional study of new PLHIV enrolled from January 2012 to December 2014...
September 2016: Public Health Action
K C Takarinda, A D Harries, C Sandy, T Mutasa-Apollo, C Zishiri
Setting: Zimbabwe has a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) driven tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, with antiretroviral therapy (ART) scaled up in the public sector since 2004. Objective: To determine whether national ART scale-up was associated with annual national TB case notification rates (CNR), stratified by disease type and category, between 2000 and 2013. Design: This was a retrospective study using aggregate data from global reports. Results: The number of people living with HIV and retained on ART from 2004 to 2013 increased from 8400 to 665 299, with ART coverage increasing from <0...
September 2016: Public Health Action
V Lipke, C Emerson, C McCarthy, M Briggs-Hagen, J Farley, A R Verani, P L Riley
Background: Many low- and middle-income countries struggle to implement, monitor and evaluate the efficacy of infection control (IC) measures within health care facilities. This hampers their ability to prevent nosocomial infections, identify emerging pathogens and rapidly alert officials to possible outbreaks. The lack of dedicated and trained IC practitioners (ICPs) is a serious deficit in the health care workforce, and is worsened by the lack of institutions that offer IC training. Discussion: While no single individual can entirely eliminate the risk of nosocomial transmission, there is literature to support the value of designated IC persons...
September 2016: Public Health Action
Nathan Ford, Haileyesus Getahun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Public Health Action
M Das, P Isaakidis, R Van den Bergh, A M V Kumar, B N Sharath, H Mansoor, P Saranchuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2016: Public Health Action
R R Bhardwaj, J E Oeltmann, C Ravichandra, V K Chadda, M Das, A M V Kumar
To find 'missing' tuberculosis (TB) cases, in November 2014 we trained private practitioners (PPs) and Ayurvedic practitioners (APs; Indian system of medicine) in Bilaspur district, India, to identify patients with presumptive TB and refer them to sputum microscopy centres. To reinforce this training, we sent weekly text message reminders during January-March 2015. All 50 APs and 23 of 29 PPs participated. The number of patients with presumptive TB referred by the PPs and APs increased from 38 (January-March 2014) to 104 (January-March 2015), and the number of smear-positive TB patients diagnosed increased from 5 to 16, a 220% increase...
June 21, 2016: Public Health Action
D Pedrazzoli, R M Houben, N Grede, S de Pee, D Boccia
Poverty, food insecurity and poor nutrition in the population are important contributors to the burden of tuberculosis (TB). For poor and food-insecure individuals, accessing and successfully completing anti-tuberculosis treatment over an extended period of time is challenging. Food and nutritional support as an incentive and enabler is employed by national TB control programmes (NTPs) worldwide as a means to encourage treatment initiation and adherence and to improve the nutritional status of patients with TB...
June 21, 2016: Public Health Action
D Szkwarko, T Mercer, S Kimani, P Braitstein, N Buziba, E J Carter
BACKGROUND: Street-connected youth and young adults (SCY) suffer a myriad of health problems. In Kenya, SCY are at high risk for tuberculosis (TB) due to their congregate living situations. TB screening is not routinely implemented in SCY and there has been no published literature on the burden of TB in SCY in western Kenya. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: In 2011, the AMPATH TB Program, an experienced TB screening program, partnered with the Tumaini Center, a trusted street youth organization, to conduct intensified case finding (ICF) for pulmonary TB among SCY...
June 21, 2016: Public Health Action
S Khanal, S Baral, P Shrestha, M Puri, S Kandel, B Lamichanne, H Elsey, M Brouwer, S Goel, P Chinnakali
SETTING: Twenty-two districts of Nepal, where intensified case-finding (ICF) activities for tuberculosis (TB) were implemented among risk groups under the TB REACH initiative in collaboration with the National TB Programme from July 2013 to November 2015. OBJECTIVES: To assess the yield of TB screening using an algorithm with smear microscopy followed by Xpert(®) MTB/RIF. DESIGN: A descriptive study using routinely collected data. RESULTS: Of 145 679 individuals screened, 28 574 (19...
June 21, 2016: Public Health Action
S C Auld, B K Moore, R P Kyle, B Eng, K Nong, E S Pevzner, K K Eam, M T Eang, W P Killam
SETTING: National Tuberculosis (TB) Program sites in northwest Cambodia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of Xpert(®) MTB/RIF at point of care (POC) as compared to non-POC sites on the diagnostic evaluation of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) with TB symptoms and patients with possible multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. DESIGN: Observational cohort of patients undergoing routine diagnostic evaluation for TB following the rollout of Xpert...
June 21, 2016: Public Health Action
K Charambira, S Ade, A D Harries, R T Ncube, C Zishiri, C Sandy, H Mutunzi, K Takarinda, P Owiti, P Mafaune, P Chonzi
SETTING: In Zimbabwe, there are concerns about the management of tuberculosis (TB) patients with rifampicin (RMP) resistance diagnosed using Xpert(®) MTB/RIF. OBJECTIVE: To assess linkages between diagnosis and treatment for these patients in Harare and Manicaland provinces in 2014. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. RESULTS: Of 20 329 Xpert assays conducted, 90% were successful, 11% detected Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 4...
June 21, 2016: Public Health Action
V Mfungwe, M Ota, K Koyama, G K V Samungole, Y Takemura, S Hirao, Q Mwamba
SETTING: Lusaka, Zambia. OBJECTIVE: To assess the actual treatment outcomes of 'transfer out' (TO) cases at a diagnostic centre in Lusaka, in the third and fourth quarters of 2012, and to see the impact of this cross-check in treatment success rates (TSR) in 2013 and early 2014. DESIGN AND METHOD: In this retrospective cohort study, treatment outcomes for new bacteriologically positive tuberculosis (TB) cases referred from the diagnostic centre were reviewed and compared with those at the receiving treatment units...
June 21, 2016: Public Health Action
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