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Public Health Action

S Chadha, A Trivedi, S B Nagaraja, K Sagili
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
S Basu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
S B Nagaraja, S Satyanarayana, A K Bansal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
J R Zelnick, B Seepamore, A Daftary, K R Amico, X Bhengu, G Friedland, N Padayatchi, K Naidoo, M R O'Donnell
KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is the epicenter of an epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, characterized by low rates of medication adherence and retention in care. Social workers may have a unique role to play in improving DR-TB-HIV outcomes. We designed, implemented and evaluated a model-based pilot training course on patient-centered care, treatment literacy in DR-TB and HIV coinfection, patient support group facilitation, and self-care. Ten social workers participated in a 1-day training course...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
J Ousley, K P Soe, N T T Kyaw, R Anicete, P E Mon, H Lwin, T Win, S Cristofani, A Telnov, M Fernandez, I Ciglenecki
Setting: A southern Myanmar district providing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in one of the last countries to formally recommend it as part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care. Objective: To assess coverage and adherence and the feasibility of IPT scale-up in a routine care setting in Myanmar. Design: A retrospective analysis of people living with HIV (PLHIV) screened for tuberculosis (TB) and enrolled in IPT over a 3-year period (July 2011-June 2014) using clinical databases. Results: Among 3377 patients under HIV care and screened for TB, 2740 (81...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
A Latif, A Ghafoor, A Wali, R Fatima, Mahboob Ul-Haq, A Yaqoob, Z Abdullah, H Najmi, N M Khan
Settings: All hospitals managing drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) according to national guidelines in Pakistan. Objectives: To assess the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) and factors associated with unfavourable outcomes in DR-TB. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on a retrospective record review of patients enrolled on DR-TB treatment from 2010 to 2014 in Pakistan. DR-TB data reported to Pakistan's National TB Control Programme on a monthly basis were used for the study. Result: Among 5811 patients enrolled on second-line drugs, 8...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
N S Shah, J Westenhouse, P Lowenthal, G Schecter, L True, S Mase, P M Barry, J Flood
Background: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend expert consultation for multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases. In 2002, the California MDR-TB Service was created to provide expert MDR-TB consultations. We describe the characteristics, treatment outcomes and management of patients referred to the Service. Methods: Surveillance data were used for descriptive analysis of cases, with consultation during July 2002-December 2012. Clinical consultation data and modified World Health Organization indicators were used to assess the care and management of cases, with consultation from January 2009 to December 2012...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
M Gidado, N Nwokoye, P Nwadike, P Ajiboye, R Eneogu, S Useni, J Onazi, A Lawanson, E Elom, A Tubi, J Kuye
Setting: Nigeria, a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country. Objective: To study the rate, distribution and causes of unsuccessful Xpert® MTB/RIF test outcomes, with the aim of identifying key areas that need to be strengthened for optimal performance of the assay. Design: This was a retrospective analysis of data uploaded between January and December 2015 from Xpert facilities to the central server using GXAlert. Result: Of 52 219 test results uploaded from 176 Xpert machines, 22.5% were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 10...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
Ignacio Monedero-Recuero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
M J Cummings, E Goldberg, S Mwaka, O Kabajaasi, E Vittinghoff, A Katamba, A Cattamanchi, N Kenya-Mugisha, J L Davis, S T Jacob
Setting: Four in-patient health facilities in western Uganda. Objective: To determine the impact of an innovative multi-modal quality improvement program on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status assessment and the impact of HIV status on severe illness conditions and mortality. Design: This was a staggered, pre-post quasi-experimental study designed to assess a multi-modal intervention (collaborative improvement meetings, audit and feedback, clinical mentoring) for improving quality of care following formal training in the management of severe illness in low-income settings...
December 21, 2017: Public Health Action
A Querri, A Ohkado, S Yoshimatsu, L Coprada, E Lopez, A Medina, A Garfin, J Bermejo, F Tang, A Shimouchi
Setting: The Research Institute of Tuberculosis/Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association Philippines is a local non-governmental organisation (NGO) established in 2008 to improve access to tuberculosis (TB) services. Community health volunteers (CHVs) from NGO referring facilities were engaged to assist in local TB control activities. Objective: To describe the activities of the CHVs and the barriers experienced by patients with presumptive TB in seeking health care to treatment as documented on a master list, and to identify the CHVs' challenges in community TB care implementation...
December 21, 2017: Public Health Action
S-A Meehan, L Rossouw, R Sloot, R Burger, N Beyers
Objective: To compare the availability, affordability and acceptability of two non-governmental organisation (NGO) led human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing service (HTS) modalities (mobile and stand-alone) with HTS at a public primary health care facility. Methods: Adult participants who self-referred for HIV testing were enrolled as they exited the HTS modalities. Data collection using an electronic questionnaire took place between November 2014 and February 2015. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess differences in the participants' demographic characteristics and the availability, affordability and acceptability of HTS between modalities...
December 21, 2017: Public Health Action
S-A Meehan, H R Draper, R Burger, N Beyers
Drivers of and barriers to testing are not well understood for those who have never been tested previously and now self-initiate at a community-based human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) testing service (CB-HTS). This descriptive study enrolled 229 first-time testers. Participants completed an electronic questionnaire. The majority reported fear and (non) accessibility of HTS as barriers to testing (40% and 24%, respectively). Wanting 'to know my status' and the immediate opportunity to test were reported as drivers of testing (41% and 35%, respectively)...
December 21, 2017: Public Health Action
S Waikar, A Pathak, V Ghule, A Kapoor, K Sagili, E R Babu, S Chadha
Setting: Sputum smear microscopy, the primary diagnostic tool used for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in India's Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP), has low sensitivity, resulting in a significant number of TB cases reported as sputum-negative. As the revised guidelines pose challenges in implementation, sputum-negative presumptive TB (SNPT) patients are subjected to 2 weeks of antibiotics, followed by chest X-ray (CXR), resulting in significant loss to care among these cases. Objective: To determine whether reducing delays in CXR would yield additional TB cases and reduce initial loss to follow-up for diagnosis among SNPT cases...
December 21, 2017: Public Health Action
L H Thai, L M Nhat, N Shah, S Lyss, M Ackers
Setting: Since 2011, tuberculosis (TB) clinics in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Viet Nam, have been entering data from a paper-based TB treatment register into an electronic database known as VITIMES (Viet Nam TB Information Management Electronic System), which is currently used in parallel with the paper system. Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity, completeness and agreement of data in VITIMES with that of paper-based registers among TB patients co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) being treated for TB in HCMC...
December 21, 2017: Public Health Action
M M Malotle, J M Spiegel, A Yassi, D Ngubeni, L M O'Hara, P A Adu, E A Bryce, N Mlangeni, G S M Gemell, M Zungu
Setting: A provincial tertiary hospital in Gauteng province, South Africa, with a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) patients and high risk of TB exposure among health care workers (HCWs). Objective: To determine HCWs' adherence to recommended TB infection prevention and control practices, TB training and access to health services and HCW TB rates. Design: Interviews with 285 HCWs using a structured questionnaire as part of a large, international mixed-methods study. Results: Despite 10 HCWs (including seven support HCWs) acquiring clinical TB during their period of employment, 62...
December 21, 2017: Public Health Action
W Ng'ambi, S Gugsa, H Tweya, B Girma, H Kanyerere, I Dambe, Y Babaye, J Mpunga, S Phiri
Setting: Public health facilities providing tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services in Malawi. Objectives: Using routinely collected health service delivery data to describe trends in HIV ascertainment and use of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay to diagnose TB among HIV-positive presumptive TB cases. Design: This was an implementation study of presumptive TB cases who sought care from 21 facilities between April 2014 and June 2016. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise patient, facility and service level characteristics...
December 21, 2017: Public Health Action
Y Lin, D A Enarson, J Du, R A Dlodlo, C-Y Chiang, I D Rusen
Setting: Three projects of the Fund for Innovative DOTS Expansion through Local Initiatives to Stop TB. Objectives: To assess unfavourable treatment outcomes (UTOs), including failure, died, loss to follow-up (LTFU), transferred out and unknown outcome, and to identify risk factors associated with UTOs. Design: This was a cross-sectional study using routine programme data. Results: Of 30 277 new smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients, 4261 (14.1%) had UTOs: 2048 (6.8%) LTFU, 1418 (4.7%) transferred out, 390 (1...
December 21, 2017: Public Health Action
M Mayan, T Robinson, R Gokiert, M Tremblay, S Abonyi, R Long
Setting: The Prairie provinces of Canada. Objective: To understand how Indigenous peoples with infectious pulmonary tuberculosis living in different community settings in the Prairie provinces of Canada experience respiratory isolation. Design: Using an exploratory qualitative approach, we interviewed participants living in urban centres, non-remote reserve settings and remote and isolated reserve settings. Results: Through qualitative content analysis of 48 interviews, we determined that participants experienced feelings of confinement regardless of the community setting in which they lived...
December 21, 2017: Public Health Action
Isabela Barbosa, Anna Versfeld, Khalid Tinasti, Assel Terlikbayeva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2017: Public Health Action
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