Read by QxMD icon Read

Public Health Action

W J Connors, S A Hussen, D P Holland, O Mohamed, K L Andes, N D Goswami
Setting: Persons experiencing homelessness (PEH) represent a population at high risk for tuberculosis (TB). While quantitative studies have characterized some important features of this key group, less has been captured directly from PEH about how they experience TB illness itself and the prevention and control measures implemented in response to an outbreak. This qualitative study aimed to explore PEH's TB disease experiences in the context of a large TB outbreak involving homeless shelters in Atlanta, Georgia, USA...
September 21, 2017: Public Health Action
J T Denholm, K Bissell, K Viney, A M Durand, H L Cash, C Roseveare, O E Merilles, A D Harries, S Biribo
There has been a range of developments in recent years to stimulate increasing public health research activity throughout the Pacific. Development of local capacity for ethics committee review and oversight is, however, frequently underdeveloped. This is reflected in the number of Pacific Island nations where ethics committees have not been established or where only informal processes exist for ethics review and oversight. This is problematic for the optimal development of relevant and culturally appropriate research, and building up local ethics committees should be part of continued research development in the Pacific...
March 21, 2017: Public Health Action
Dermot Maher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Public Health Action
Nevin Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Public Health Action
Vijayaprasad Gopichandran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Public Health Action
N B Hoa, N V Nhung, A M V Kumar, A D Harries
In April 2009, an operational research fellow was placed within the Viet Nam National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP). Over the 6 years from 2010 to 2015, the OR fellow co-authored 21 tuberculosis research papers (as principal author in 15 [71%]). This constituted 23% of the 91 tuberculosis papers published in Viet Nam during this period. Of the 21 published papers, 16 (76%) contributed to changes in policy (n = 8) and practice (n = 8), and these in turn improved programme performance. Many papers also contributed important evidence for better programme planning...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
D Joshi, S C Baral, S Giri, A M V Kumar
Setting: Eight village development committees of Mugu District, a remote mountainous district of Nepal that has poor maternal health indicators. Objectives: 1) To assess the proportion of mothers who delivered in health facilities (institutional delivery); 2) among mothers who delivered at home, to understand their reasons for doing so; and 3) among mothers who delivered in health facilities, to understand their challenges. Design: Cross-sectional study involving semi-structured interviews with mothers conducted in 2015...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
G Tauma, A D Harries, O E A Merilles, R Tekoaua, B Teriboriki
Setting: Tungaru Central Hospital Blood Bank Laboratory, Nawerewere, Tarawa, Kiribati. Objective: To determine characteristics, deferrals and reasons for deferral amongst blood donors from 2011 to 2016. Design: A cross-sectional study using routinely collected data. Results: From January 2011 to March 2016, 8531 potential blood donors were registered. For each full year, the proportion of voluntary non-remunerated blood donors (VNRBD) was below 10%, although it increased to 13% in 2015. The overall proportion of blood donors deferred increased each year over the 5-year period, from 44% to 57%, with similar increases in deferrals in VNRBD and family replacement donors (FRD)...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
V Hung, S T Nguyen, V T T Tieu, T T T Nguyen, T H Duong, S Lyss, J E Oeltmann
Setting: Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Viet Nam. Objective: To evaluate a new integrated service model for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) care. Design: In HCMC, co-located services, including voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT), HIV treatment at out-patient clinics (OPC), and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for persons who inject drugs, have operated under different administrative structures. In the context of decreasing international financial support, integration of these services into one administrative structure with reduced staff occurred in seven districts in HCMC between October 2013 and June 2014...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
O B Ogarkov, A Ebers, S Zhdanova, E Moiseeva, M E Koshcheyev, E Zorkaltseva, S Shugaeva, S Vitko, G Lyles, E R Houpt, S K Heysell
A bundle of initiatives to integrate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) services was assessed for the impact on antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at a TB referral hospital in Irkutsk, Russian Federation, from February 2014 to December 2015. The ART initiation rates in 166 ART-naïve patients undergoing anti-tuberculosis treatment (34.1% with multidrug or extensively drug-resistant TB) increased significantly from 14 (17%) pre-intervention to 44 (54%) post-intervention (P < 0.001)...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
H Kanyerere, B Girma, J Mpunga, K Tayler-Smith, A D Harries, A Jahn, F M Chimbwandira
Setting: For 30 years, Malawi has experienced a dual epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) that has recently begun to be attenuated by the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Objective: To report on the correlation between ART scale-up and annual national TB case notification rates (CNR) in Malawi, stratified by HIV-positive and HIV-negative status, from 2005 to 2015. Design: A retrospective descriptive ecological study using aggregate data from national reports...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
H D Shewade, S Govindarajan, P Thekkur, C Palanivel, M Muthaiah, A M V Kumar, V Gupta, B N Sharath, J P Tripathy, K Vivekananda, G Roy
Setting: A mixed-methods operational research (OR) study was conducted to examine the diagnosis and treatment pathway of patients with presumptive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) during 2012-2013 under the national TB programme in Puducherry, India. High pre-diagnosis and pre-treatment attrition and the reasons for these were identified. The recommendations from this OR were implemented and we planned to assess systematically whether there were any improvements. Objectives: Among patients with presumptive MDR-TB (July-December 2014), 1) to determine pre-diagnosis and pre-treatment attrition, 2) to determine factors associated with pre-diagnosis attrition, 3) to determine the turnaround time (TAT) from eligibility to testing and from diagnosis to treatment initiation, and 4) to compare these findings with those of the previous study (2012-2013)...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
E Lopez, S Yoshimatsu, A Querri, L Coprada, J Bermejo, M R Paulino, A Medina, A M C Garfin, A Ohkado
Setting: Socio-economically underprivileged urban areas in the Philippines. Objectives: To identify gaps in the referral pathway of presumptive drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) patients from initial consultation until initiation of treatment. Design: A retrospective study in which a masterlist of presumptive multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients registered in 18 DOTS facilities in Tondo, Manila and Payatas, Quezon City, from October 2012 to September 2013, was analysed and reviewed. Results: Among 378 presumptive DR-TB patients identified and listed in the masterlist, 97% (368/378) were referred, of whom 90% (333/368) were screened at an MDR-TB treatment centre...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
D J Deka, B Choudhury, P Talukdar, T Q Lo, B Das, S A Nair, P K Moonan, A M V Kumar
Setting: Nine district-level microscopy centres in Assam and Tripura, India. Objective: Same-day sputum microscopy is now recommended for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. We compared this method against the conventional 2-day approach in routine programmatic settings. Methods: During October-December 2012, all adult presumptive TB patients were requested to provide three sputum samples (one at the initial visit, the second 1 h after the first sample, and the third the next morning) for examination by Ziehl-Neelsen smear microscopy...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
U Egere, A Sillah, T Togun, S Kandeh, F Cole, A Jallow, A Able-Thomas, M Hoelscher, N Heinrich, P C Hill, B Kampmann
Setting: Greater Banjul area of The Gambia. Objectives: To evaluate uptake, adherence and completion of treatment among tuberculosis (TB) exposed children in The Gambia when isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT) is delivered at home Design: Child (age <5 years) contacts of adults with smear-positive TB were prospectively enrolled. Following symptom screening, tuberculin skin testing and clinical evaluation where indicated, those without disease were placed on daily isoniazid, provided monthly at home. Adherence was assessed by pill counts and IsoScreen(™) urine test...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
L Coprada, S Yoshimatsu, A Querri, E Lopez, P Agujo, M R Paulino, A Medina, A M C Garfin, A Ohkado
Setting: Socio-economically underprivileged areas in the Philippines. Objective: To review the implementation of tuberculosis (TB) contact investigations in the urban poor areas of Manila and Quezon City. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study based on a review of data from household contact registries in local government unit (LGU) and non-government organisation (NGO) facilities during January-December 2012 in Manila and Quezon City. Free discussion sessions were also conducted among health-care workers...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
T Volkmann, D Okelloh, J Agaya, K Cain, B Ooko, T Malika, D Burton
Leveraging an existing community health strategy, a contact tracing intervention was piloted under routine programmatic conditions at three facilities in Kisumu County, Kenya. Data collected during a 6-month period were compared to existing programmatic data. After implementation of the intervention, we found enhanced programmatic contact tracing practices, noting an increase in the proportions of index cases traced, symptomatic contacts referred, referred contacts presenting to a facility for tuberculosis screening, and eligible contacts started on isoniazid preventive therapy...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
D Skinner, M Claassens
Setting: Early testing and treatment initiation are crucial for controlling the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, especially in high-burden countries such as South Africa. Objective: To explore reasons why patients opted to test for TB and the context in which they were tested. Design: This qualitative study was nested in a larger study evaluating patients who did not initiate anti-tuberculosis treatment after diagnosis. In-depth interviews were conducted with 41 patients across five provinces of South Africa. Results: While most patients presented for testing because of their symptoms, unfortunately many waited until their symptoms were severe and thus remained infectious for longer...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
J A Downs, J S Mathad, L K Reif, M L McNairy, C Celum, C Boutin-Foster, M M Deschamps, A Gupta, A Hokororo, I T Katz, L Konopasek, R Nelson, C Riviere, L H Glimcher, D W Fitzgerald
Leadership positions in global health are greatly skewed toward men; the imbalance is more pronounced in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The under-representation of women in leadership is a threat to gender equality, and also impacts the improvement of women's health outcomes globally. In this perspectives piece, we assert that the promotion and retention of women in global health leadership has a ripple effect that can achieve improvement in global health outcomes. We present pragmatic, actionable solutions to promote and retain female global health leaders in this field...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
Jintana Ngamvithayapong-Yanai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"