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Public Health Action

J P Tripathy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: Public Health Action
M Bhargava, A Bhargava
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: Public Health Action
S Natrajan, A R Singh, H D Shewade, M Verma, S Bali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: Public Health Action
D Szkwarko, P Owiti, N Buziba, C Bigelow, C B Eaton, E J Carter
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of childhood mortality. Isoniazid preventive therapy significantly reduces progression to TB disease. The World Health Organization recommends that high TB burden countries conduct child contact management (CCM) to identify exposed child contacts aged <5 years for screening and appropriate treatment. An active, clinic-based CCM strategy incorporating transport/screening reimbursement, monitoring and evaluation tools, and health care worker education was implemented in western Kenya...
June 21, 2018: Public Health Action
H Najmi, H Ahmed, G M Halepota, R Fatima, M Ul Haq, A Yaqoob, A Latif, W Ahmad, A Khursheed
Setting: Karachi, Pakistan. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of a community-based integrated approach in changing women's behaviour regarding contraceptive use. Design: The Sukh Initiative is a multipronged approach with door-to-door services using community health workers to provide quality family planning/reproductive health services at both public and private facilities and a 24/7 family planning helpline service that provides youth skill-based education. Methods: Retrospective pre- and post-intervention data using samples of 5140 and 3810 women, respectively...
June 21, 2018: Public Health Action
O J Gadabu, A Ben-Smith, G P Douglas, K Chirwa-Nasasara, R C Manjomo, A D Harries, I Dambula, S Kang'oma, T Chiumia, F B Chinsinga
Setting: Eighty-three villages without electricity in Mtema Traditional Authority, Lilongwe District, Malawi. Objectives: To describe 1) the expansion of the electronic village register (EVR) to 83 villages in Mtema Traditional Authority, 2) the challenges encountered and changes made to render the system robust and user-friendly, 3) the value propositions developed to increase the system's desirability, and 4) the results of the village register. Design: Descriptive study. Results: After the deployment of the EVR in one village in 2013, the system was extended to 83 villages with modifications to render it more robust and user-friendly...
June 21, 2018: Public Health Action
E Ochom, A J Meyer, M Armstrong-Hough, S Kizito, I Ayakaka, P Turimumahoro, J M Ggita, A Katamba, J L Davis
Setting: Community health workers (CHWs) increasingly deliver community-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counselling and testing (HCT) services. Less is known about how this strategy performs when integrated with household tuberculosis (TB) contact investigations. Objective: We conducted a prospective mixed-methods study to evaluate the feasibility and quality of CHW-facilitated, home-based HCT among household TB contacts. Design: CHWs visited households of consenting TB patients to screen household contacts for TB and HIV...
June 21, 2018: Public Health Action
C Timire, K C Takarinda, C Sandy, C Zishiri, A M V Kumar, A D Harries
Setting: Retreatment tuberculosis (TB) patients in Zimbabwe are investigated using microscopy, Xpert® MTB/RIF and culture + drug susceptibility testing (CDST). TB CARE I, a sputum transport service using motorcycles, was introduced to transport specimens between peripheral health facilities and laboratories, including National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). Objectives: To compare access to CDST and treatment outcomes among retreatment TB patients in facilities with and those without TB CARE I support. Design: This was a retrospective cohort study...
June 21, 2018: Public Health Action
H D Shewade, K S Shringarpure, M Parmar, N Patel, S Kuriya, S Shihora, N Ninama, N Gosai, R Khokhariya, C Popat, H Thanki, B Modi, P Dave, R K Baxi, A M V Kumar
Setting: Gujarat, a state in west India. Background: Although treatment initiation has been improving among patients diagnosed with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in programme settings, it has still not reached 100%. Objectives: To determine pre-treatment attrition (not initiated on treatment within 6 months of diagnosis), delay in treatment initiation (>7 days from diagnosis) and associated factors among MDR-TB patients diagnosed in 2014 in five selected districts served by two genotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) facilities and a drug-resistant TB centre in Gujarat...
June 21, 2018: Public Health Action
H A Gupte, R Zachariah, K D Sagili, V Thawal, L Chaudhuri, H Verma, A Dongre, A Malekar, N A Rigotti
Setting and objectives: Tobacco use compromises tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes. Tobacco cessation is beneficial to TB patients at the individual level and from the perspective of a larger spectrum of non-communicable diseases associated with tobacco use. We assessed feasibility, effectiveness and provider perceptions on integrating brief tobacco cessation advice into routine TB care by DOTS providers from 27 TB treatment centres run by three non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in urban India. Design: A mixed-methods study (triangulation design) involving analysis of programme data and semi-structured interviews (quantitative) and thematic analysis of focus group discussions of TB treatment providers (qualitative) regarding brief advice and cessation support provided to self-reported tobacco users from August 2015 to July 2017...
June 21, 2018: Public Health Action
E Whitehouse, J Lai, J E Golub, J E Farley
Smoking is a significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality, particularly among patients with tuberculosis (TB). Although smoking cessation is recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, there has been no published evaluation of smoking cessation interventions among people with TB. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the evidence on interventions and suggest practice, research and policy implications. A systematic review of the literature identified 14 peer-reviewed studies describing 13 smoking cessation interventions between 2007 and 2017...
June 21, 2018: Public Health Action
A D Harries, M Khogali, A M V Kumar, S Satyanarayana, K C Takarinda, A Karpati, P Olliaro, R Zachariah
Good quality, timely data are the cornerstone of health systems, but in many countries these data are not used for evidence-informed decision making and/or for improving public health. The SORT IT (Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative) model has, over 8 years, trained health workers in low- and middle-income countries to use data to answer important public health questions by taking research projects through to completion and publication in national or international journals. The D2P (data to policy) training initiative is relatively new, and it teaches health workers how to apply 'decision analysis' and develop policy briefs for policy makers: this includes description of a problem and the available evidence, quantitative comparisons of policy options that take into account predicted health and economic impacts, and political and feasibility assessments...
June 21, 2018: Public Health Action
Adrienne E Shapiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: Public Health Action
Tara Singh Bam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: Public Health Action
M Obopile, G Segoea, K Waniwa, D S Ntebela, K Moakofhi, M Motlaleng, T Mosweunyane, J K Edwards, J Namboze, W Butt, M Manzi, K C Takarinda, P Owiti
Setting: Larviciding has potential as a component of integrated vector management for the reduction of malaria transmission in Botswana by complementing long-lasting insecticide nets and indoor residual sprays. Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of local Anopheles to commonly used larvicides. Design: This field test of the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israliensis vs. Anopheles was performed by measuring larval density before treatment and 24 h and 48 h after treatment in seven sites of Bobirwa district, eastern Botswana, in 2012 and 2013...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
D R Mumbengegwi, H Sturrock, M Hsiang, K Roberts, I Kleinschmidt, M Nghipumbwa, P Uusiku, J Smith, A Bennet, W Kizito, K Takarinda, S Ade, R Gosling
Setting: A comparison of routine Namibia National Malaria Programme data (reported) vs. household survey data (administrative) on indoor residual spraying (IRS) in western Zambezi region, Namibia, for the 2014-2015 malaria season. Objectives: To determine 1) IRS coverage (administrative and reported), 2) its effect on malaria incidence, and 3) reasons for non-uptake of IRS in western Zambezi region, Namibia, for the 2014-2015 malaria season. Design: This was a descriptive study. Results: IRS coverage in western Zambezi region was low, ranging from 42...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
F Mbokazi, M Coetzee, B Brooke, J Govere, A Reid, P Owiti, R Kosgei, S Zhou, R Magagula, G Kok, J Namboze, H Tweya, A Mabuza
Background: The malaria vector Anopheles merus occurs in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. As its contribution to malaria transmission in South Africa has yet to be ascertained, an intensification of surveillance is necessary to provide baseline information on this species. The aim of this study was therefore to map An. merus breeding sites in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province and to assess qualitative trends in the distribution and relative abundance of this species over a 9-year period...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
K Moakofhi, J K Edwards, M Motlaleng, J Namboze, W Butt, M Obopile, T Mosweunyane, M Manzi, K C Takarinda, P Owiti
Background: Malaria elimination requires infection detection using quality assured diagnostics and appropriate treatment regimens. Although Botswana is moving towards malaria elimination, reports of unconfirmed cases may jeopardise this effort. This study aimed to determine the proportion of cases treated for malaria that were confirmed by rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) and/or microscopy. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study using routine national data from the integrated disease surveillance and case-based surveillance systems from 2008 to 2014...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
K Makadzange, N Dlamini, Z Zulu, S Dlamini, S Kunene, W Sikhondze, P Owiti, E Geoffroy, R Zachariah, T K Mengestu
Settings: Swaziland is striving to achieve sustainable malaria elimination. Three preventive interventions are vital for reaching this goal: 1) effective household utilisation of long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs), 2) indoor residual spraying (IRS), and 3) provision of chemoprophylaxis for those travelling to malaria-endemic areas. Objectives: To assess the uptake of preventive intervention among confirmed malaria cases. Design: A longitudinal study using nation-wide programme data from 2010 to 2015. Data on malaria cases from health facilities were sourced from the Malaria Surveillance Database System...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
M Motlaleng, J Edwards, J Namboze, W Butt, K Moakofhi, M Obopile, M Manzi, K C Takarinda, R Zachariah, P Owiti, N Oumer, T Mosweunyane
Background: Reliable information reporting systems ensure that all malaria cases are tested, treated and tracked to avoid further transmission. Botswana aimed to eliminate malaria by 2018, and surveillance is key. This study focused on assessing the uptake of the new malaria case-based surveillance (CBS) system introduced in 2012, which captures information on malaria cases reported in the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study based on routine data focusing on Ngami, Chobe and Okavango, three high-risk districts in Botswana...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
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