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Current Transplantation Reports

Jason M Gauthier, Ramsey R Hachem, Daniel Kreisel
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) encompasses a range of pathologies that cause a transplanted lung to not achieve or maintain normal function. CLAD manifests as airflow restriction and/or obstruction and is predominantly a result of chronic rejection. Three distinct phenotypes of chronic rejection are now recognized: bronchiolitis obliterans, neutrophilic reversible allograft dysfunction, and restrictive allograft syndrome. Recent investigations have revealed that each phenotype has a unique pathology and histopathological findings, suggesting that treatment regimens should be tailored to the underlying etiology...
September 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
Ryan D Sochol, Navin R Gupta, Joseph V Bonventre
The advancement of "kidney-on-a-chip" platforms - submillimeter-scale fluidic systems designed to recapitulate renal functions in vitro - directly impacts a wide range of biomedical fields, including drug screening, cell and tissue engineering, toxicity testing, and disease modelling. To fabricate kidney-on-a-chip technologies, researchers have primarily adapted traditional micromachining techniques that are rooted in the integrated circuit industry; hence the term, "chip." A significant challenge, however, is that such methods are inherently monolithic, which limits one's ability to accurately recreate the geometric and architectural complexity of the kidney in vivo...
March 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
Amy D Waterman, Mark L Robbins, John D Peipert
A promising strategy for increasing living donor kidney transplant (LDKT) rates is improving education about living donation for both prospective kidney transplant recipients and living donors to help overcome the proven knowledge, psychological, and socioeconomic barriers to LDKT. A recent Consensus Conference on Best Practices in Live Kidney Donation recommended that comprehensive LDKT education be made available to patients at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, in considering how to implement this recommendation across different healthcare learning environments, the current lack of available guidance regarding how to design, deliver, and measure the efficacy of LDKT education programs is notable...
March 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
Tomas Castro-Dopico, Menna R Clatworthy
In the current era, one of the major factors limiting graft survival is chronic antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), whilst patient survival is impacted by the effects of immunosuppression on susceptibility to infection, malignancy and atherosclerosis. IgG antibodies play a role in all of these processes, and many of their cellular effects are mediated by Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs). These surface receptors are expressed by most immune cells, including B cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells and macrophages...
2016: Current Transplantation Reports
Dominic A Boardman, Jacinta Jacob, Lesley A Smyth, Giovanna Lombardi, Robert I Lechler
Direct allorecognition is the process by which donor-derived major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide complexes, typically presented by donor-derived 'passenger' dendritic cells, are recognised directly by recipient T cells. In this review, we discuss the two principle theories which have been proposed to explain why individuals possess a high-precursor frequency of T cells with direct allospecificity and how self-restricted T cells recognise allogeneic MHC-peptide complexes. These theories, both of which are supported by functional and structural data, suggest that T cells recognising allogeneic MHC-peptide complexes focus either on the allopeptides bound to the allo-MHC molecules or the allo-MHC molecules themselves...
2016: Current Transplantation Reports
Bettina Wilm, Riccardo Tamburrini, Giuseppe Orlando, Patricia Murray
Worldwide, increasing numbers of patients are developing end-stage renal disease, and at present, the only treatment options are dialysis or kidney transplantation. Dialysis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, poor life quality and high economic costs. Transplantation is by far the better option, but there are insufficient numbers of donor kidneys available. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore alternative approaches. In this review, we discuss how this problem could potentially be addressed by using autologous cells and appropriate scaffolds to develop 'bioengineered' kidneys for transplantation...
2016: Current Transplantation Reports
Colin R Lenihan, Bryan D Myers, Jane C Tan
One third of the kidney transplants performed in the USA come from living kidney donors. The long-term outcome of healthy individuals who donate kidneys is mostly excellent, although recent studies have suggested that living donation is associated with a small absolute increase in the risk of end stage renal failure. Much of our understanding about the progression of kidney disease comes from experimental models of nephron loss. For this reason, living kidney donation has long been of great interest to renal physiologists...
2016: Current Transplantation Reports
Hrishikesh S Kulkarni, Bradford C Bemiss, Ramsey R Hachem
There has been increasing awareness of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) as an important cause of graft failure after lung transplantation in recent years. However, the diagnostic criteria for pulmonary AMR are not well defined. All four tenets of AMR in kidney and heart transplantation, graft dysfunction, complement component deposition, circulating donor-specific antibodies (DSA), and histopathologic changes consistent with AMR, are infrequently present in lung transplantation. Nonetheless, the lung transplant community has made important progress recognizing cases of AMR and developing a definition...
December 2015: Current Transplantation Reports
Jennifer R Ferrer, Attasit Chokechanachaisakul, Jason A Wertheim
The current standard of care for end stage liver disease is orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Through improvement in surgical techniques, immunosuppression, and general medical care, liver transplantation has become an effective treatment over the course of the last half-century. Unfortunately, due to the limited availability of donor organs, there is a finite limit to the number of patients who will benefit from this therapy. This review will discuss current research in experimental cellular therapies for acute, chronic, and metabolic liver failure that may be appropriate when liver transplantation is not an immediate option...
June 1, 2015: Current Transplantation Reports
Alexandra James, Roslyn B Mannon
A solid organ transplant is life-saving therapy that engenders the use of immunosuppressive medications for the lifetime of the transplanted organ and its recipient. Conventional therapy includes both induction therapy (a biologic that is infused peri-operatively) followed by maintenance therapy. The cost of these medications is a constant concern and the advent of generics has brought this cost down modestly. For those lacking long term insurance coverage, this may be a significant out of pocket expense that is not affordable...
June 1, 2015: Current Transplantation Reports
Cecilia Cabello-Kindelan, Shane Mackey, Allison L Bayer
There is a clear need to develop strategies to induce tolerance without the need of chronic immunosuppression in transplant recipient and in patients with autoimmunity. Adoptive T regulatory cell (Treg) therapy offers the potential of long-lasting protection. However, based on results of clinical trials so far with ex vivo expanded autologous Tregs in type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, it seems unlikely that single immunotherapy with Treg infusion without immunomodulation regimens that promote stable donor Treg engraftment and persistence would afford truly significant clinical benefit...
June 1, 2015: Current Transplantation Reports
Mahboobe Ghaedi, Laura E Niklason, Jordana Williams
Considerable progress has been made in the field of in vitro development of alveolar epithelium from induced pluripotent stem cells. Patient specific derived alveolar cells could potentially populate tissue engineered lungs, provide a cell source for drug testing or function as a model for research into lung diseases. Induced to pluripotency through a variety of techniques, stem cells can be differentiated to alveolar epithelium through exposure to a variety of different culture conditions and growth media...
March 1, 2015: Current Transplantation Reports
Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari
RATIONALE: Much recent interest in lung bioengineering by pulmonary investigators, industry and the organ transplant field has seen a rapid growth of bioreactor development ranging from the microfluidic scale to the human-sized whole lung systems. A comprehension of the findings from these models is needed to provide the basis for further bioreactor development. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to comprehensively review the current state of bioreactor development for the lung...
March 2015: Current Transplantation Reports
Vichin Puri, James Eason
In 2014, simultaneous liver kidney transplants (SLK) accounted for 8.2 % of all liver transplants performed in the USA. Prior to introduction of the model of end stage liver disease (MELD) system, SLK accounted for 2.5 % in 2001 and only 1.7 % in 1990. Transplant centers have struggled to balance the moral and ethical aspects of SLK in the setting of organ scarcity with an algorithm that best qualifies patients for such treatment options. Few centers have even ventured into DCD territory for SLK. Advancement in immunosuppression protocols and treatment of HCV and HIV have impacted SLK over the years...
2015: Current Transplantation Reports
Jordi Ochando, Patricia Conde, Vincenzo Bronte
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are cells of myeloid origin with enhanced suppressive function. They are negative regulators of the immune responses and comprise a heterogeneous mixture of immunosuppressive cells of monocytic (M-MDSC) and granulocytic (G-MDSC) origin. A more recent nomenclature proposes the term "suppressive monocyte derived cells" (suppressive MCs) to define CSF1/CSF2-dependent mouse suppressor cells that develop from common monocyte progenitors (cMoPs) after birth. Here, we review the literature about monocytic-derived cells with demonstrated suppressor function in vitro and in vivo within the context of solid organ transplantation...
2015: Current Transplantation Reports
A Schlegel, P Kron, P Dutkowski
Dynamic preservation strategies such as hypothermic machine perfusion are increasingly discussed to improve liver graft quality before transplantation. This review summarizes current knowledge of this perfusion technique for liver preservation. We discuss optimization of perfusion conditions and current strategies to assess graft quality during cold perfusion. Next, we provide an overview of possible pathways of protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Finally, we report on recent clinical applications of human hypothermic machine liver perfusion...
2015: Current Transplantation Reports
R R Redfield, D B Kaufman, J S Odorico
Despite significant improvement in pancreas allograft survival, rejection of the pancreas remains a major clinical problem. In addition to cellular rejection of the pancreas, antibody-mediated rejection of the pancreas is now a well-described entity. The 2011 Banff update established comprehensive guidelines for the diagnosis of acute and chronic AMR. The pancreas biopsy is critical in order to accurately diagnose and treat pancreas rejection. Other modes of monitoring pancreas rejection we feel are neither sensitive nor specific enough...
2015: Current Transplantation Reports
Ivo Tzvetanov, Giuseppe D'Amico, Enrico Benedetti
Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. While open surgery remains the gold standard, minimally invasive surgery has recently been introduced for the recipient undergoing kidney transplantation. Our team has employed the robotic surgical system to perform renal transplantation in obese recipients to minimize the risk of surgical site infections, with good results in terms of complications and graft and patient survival. However, others groups have performed kidney transplantation robotically in nonobese patients using different techniques...
2015: Current Transplantation Reports
David S Goldberg, Kim M Olthoff
Since MELD-based allocation was implemented in 2002, a system of exception points has been in place in order to award increased waitlist priority to those patients whose severity of illness or risk of complications are not captured by the MELD score. These exceptions, categorized as standardized and non-standardized, have been used with increasing frequency over time. Several challenges to the exception point system have emerged, including lack of standardization in the criteria used to approve such exceptions, geographic variability in the use and approval of such exceptions, and limited evidence base to support certain exceptions...
December 1, 2014: Current Transplantation Reports
Charles A Su, Robert L Fairchild
Following infections and environmental exposures, memory T cells are generated that provide long-term protective immunity. Compared to their naïve T cell counterparts, memory T cells possess unique characteristics that endow them with the ability to quickly and robustly respond to foreign antigens. While such memory T cells are beneficial in protecting their hosts from recurrent infection, memory cells reactive to donor antigens pose a major barrier to successful transplantation and tolerance induction. Significant progress has been made over the past several decades contributing to our understanding of memory T cell generation, their distinct biology, and their detrimental impact in clinical and animal models of transplantation...
September 1, 2014: Current Transplantation Reports
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