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Current Transplantation Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546901/macrophages-as-effectors-of-acute-and-chronic-allograft-injury
#1
Yianzhu Liu, Malgorzata Kloc, Xian C Li
Organ transplants give a second chance of life to patients with end-stage organ failure. However, the immuno-logical barriers prove to be very challenging to overcome and graft rejection remains a major hurdle to long-term transplant survival. For decades, adaptive immunity has been the focus of studies, primarily based on the belief that T cells are necessary and sufficient for rejection. With better-developed immunosuppressive drugs and protocols that effectively control adaptive cells, innate immune cells have emerged as key effector cells in triggering graft injury and have therefore attracted much recent attention...
December 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529840/adoptive-cell-therapy-with-tregs-to-improve-transplant-outcomes-the-promise-and-the-stumbling-blocks
#2
Mohamed B Ezzelarab, Angus W Thomson
The contribution of regulatory T cells (Treg) to the induction and maintenance of tolerance is well-recognized in rodents and may contribute to long-term human organ allograft survival. The therapeutic efficacy of adoptively-transferred Treg in promoting tolerance to organ allografts is well-recognized in mouse models. Early phase 1/2 clinical studies of Treg therapy have been conducted in patients with type-1 (autoimmune) diabetes and refractory Crohn's disease, and for inhibition of graft-versus-host disease following bone marrow transplantation with proven safety...
December 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473952/liver-allocation-policies-for-patients-affected-by-hcc-in-europe
#3
Luciano De Carlis, Stefano Di Sandro, Leonardo Centonze, Andrea Lauterio, Vincenzo Buscemi, Riccardo De Carlis, Fabio Ferla, Raffaella Sguinzi, Stefano Okolicsanyi, Luca Belli, Mario Strazzabosco
The main goal of organ allocation systems is to guarantee an equal access to the limited resource of liver grafts for every patients on the waiting list, balancing between the ethical principles of equity, utility, benefit, need, and fairness. The European heath care scenario is very complex, as it is essentially decentralized and each Nation and Regions inside the nation, operate on a significant degree of autonomy. Furthermore the epidemiology of liver diseases and HCC, which is different among European countries, clearly inpacts on indications and priorities...
December 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451515/islet-cell-transplant-update-on-current-clinical-trials
#4
Christian Schuetz, James F Markmann
In the last 15 years clinical islet transplantation has made the leap from experimental procedure to standard of care for a highly selective group of patients. Due to a risk-benefit calculation involving the required systemic immunosuppression the procedure is only considered in patients with type 1 diabetes, complicated by severe hypoglycemia or end stage renal disease. In this review we summarize current outcomes of the procedure and take a look at ongoing and future improvements and refinements of beta cell therapy...
September 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090432/update-on-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction
#5
Jason M Gauthier, Ramsey R Hachem, Daniel Kreisel
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) encompasses a range of pathologies that cause a transplanted lung to not achieve or maintain normal function. CLAD manifests as airflow restriction and/or obstruction and is predominantly a result of chronic rejection. Three distinct phenotypes of chronic rejection are now recognized: bronchiolitis obliterans, neutrophilic reversible allograft dysfunction, and restrictive allograft syndrome. Recent investigations have revealed that each phenotype has a unique pathology and histopathological findings, suggesting that treatment regimens should be tailored to the underlying etiology...
September 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090431/a-role-for-3d-printing-in-kidney-on-a-chip-platforms
#6
Ryan D Sochol, Navin R Gupta, Joseph V Bonventre
The advancement of "kidney-on-a-chip" platforms - submillimeter-scale fluidic systems designed to recapitulate renal functions in vitro - directly impacts a wide range of biomedical fields, including drug screening, cell and tissue engineering, toxicity testing, and disease modelling. To fabricate kidney-on-a-chip technologies, researchers have primarily adapted traditional micromachining techniques that are rooted in the integrated circuit industry; hence the term, "chip." A significant challenge, however, is that such methods are inherently monolithic, which limits one's ability to accurately recreate the geometric and architectural complexity of the kidney in vivo...
March 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347475/educating-prospective-kidney-transplant-recipients-and-living-donors-about-living-donation-practical-and-theoretical-recommendations-for-increasing-living-donation-rates
#7
Amy D Waterman, Mark L Robbins, John D Peipert
A promising strategy for increasing living donor kidney transplant (LDKT) rates is improving education about living donation for both prospective kidney transplant recipients and living donors to help overcome the proven knowledge, psychological, and socioeconomic barriers to LDKT. A recent Consensus Conference on Best Practices in Live Kidney Donation recommended that comprehensive LDKT education be made available to patients at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, in considering how to implement this recommendation across different healthcare learning environments, the current lack of available guidance regarding how to design, deliver, and measure the efficacy of LDKT education programs is notable...
March 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909648/fc%C3%AE-receptors-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#8
REVIEW
Tomas Castro-Dopico, Menna R Clatworthy
In the current era, one of the major factors limiting graft survival is chronic antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), whilst patient survival is impacted by the effects of immunosuppression on susceptibility to infection, malignancy and atherosclerosis. IgG antibodies play a role in all of these processes, and many of their cellular effects are mediated by Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs). These surface receptors are expressed by most immune cells, including B cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells and macrophages...
2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909647/what-is-direct-allorecognition
#9
REVIEW
Dominic A Boardman, Jacinta Jacob, Lesley A Smyth, Giovanna Lombardi, Robert I Lechler
Direct allorecognition is the process by which donor-derived major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide complexes, typically presented by donor-derived 'passenger' dendritic cells, are recognised directly by recipient T cells. In this review, we discuss the two principle theories which have been proposed to explain why individuals possess a high-precursor frequency of T cells with direct allospecificity and how self-restricted T cells recognise allogeneic MHC-peptide complexes. These theories, both of which are supported by functional and structural data, suggest that T cells recognising allogeneic MHC-peptide complexes focus either on the allopeptides bound to the allo-MHC molecules or the allo-MHC molecules themselves...
2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547698/autologous-cells-for-kidney-bioengineering
#10
REVIEW
Bettina Wilm, Riccardo Tamburrini, Giuseppe Orlando, Patricia Murray
Worldwide, increasing numbers of patients are developing end-stage renal disease, and at present, the only treatment options are dialysis or kidney transplantation. Dialysis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, poor life quality and high economic costs. Transplantation is by far the better option, but there are insufficient numbers of donor kidneys available. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore alternative approaches. In this review, we discuss how this problem could potentially be addressed by using autologous cells and appropriate scaffolds to develop 'bioengineered' kidneys for transplantation...
2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004159/glomerular-function-and-structure-in-living-donors-lessons-from-single-nephron-studies
#11
Colin R Lenihan, Bryan D Myers, Jane C Tan
One third of the kidney transplants performed in the USA come from living kidney donors. The long-term outcome of healthy individuals who donate kidneys is mostly excellent, although recent studies have suggested that living donation is associated with a small absolute increase in the risk of end stage renal failure. Much of our understanding about the progression of kidney disease comes from experimental models of nephron loss. For this reason, living kidney donation has long been of great interest to renal physiologists...
2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896040/antibody-mediated-rejection-in-lung-transplantation
#12
Hrishikesh S Kulkarni, Bradford C Bemiss, Ramsey R Hachem
There has been increasing awareness of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) as an important cause of graft failure after lung transplantation in recent years. However, the diagnostic criteria for pulmonary AMR are not well defined. All four tenets of AMR in kidney and heart transplantation, graft dysfunction, complement component deposition, circulating donor-specific antibodies (DSA), and histopathologic changes consistent with AMR, are infrequently present in lung transplantation. Nonetheless, the lung transplant community has made important progress recognizing cases of AMR and developing a definition...
December 2015: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344919/antibodies-to-hla-molecules-mimic-agonistic-stimulation-to-trigger-vascular-cell-changes-and-induce-allograft-injury
#13
Nicole M Valenzuela, Elaine F Reed
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-induced signaling in endothelial and smooth muscle cells causes dramatic cytoskeletal rearrangement, increased survival, motility, proliferation, adhesion molecule and chemokine expression, and adhesion of leukocytes. These mechanisms are directly related to endothelial activation, neointimal proliferation, and intragraft accumulation of leukocytes during antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and chronic rejection. Clustering of HLA by ligands in trans, such as in antigen-presenting cells at the immune synapse, triggers physiological functions analogous to HLA antibody-induced signaling in vascular cells...
September 2015: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26317066/new-tools-in-experimental-cellular-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-liver-diseases
#14
Jennifer R Ferrer, Attasit Chokechanachaisakul, Jason A Wertheim
The current standard of care for end stage liver disease is orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Through improvement in surgical techniques, immunosuppression, and general medical care, liver transplantation has become an effective treatment over the course of the last half-century. Unfortunately, due to the limited availability of donor organs, there is a finite limit to the number of patients who will benefit from this therapy. This review will discuss current research in experimental cellular therapies for acute, chronic, and metabolic liver failure that may be appropriate when liver transplantation is not an immediate option...
June 1, 2015: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26236578/the-cost-of-transplant-immunosuppressant-therapy-is-this-sustainable
#15
Alexandra James, Roslyn B Mannon
A solid organ transplant is life-saving therapy that engenders the use of immunosuppressive medications for the lifetime of the transplanted organ and its recipient. Conventional therapy includes both induction therapy (a biologic that is infused peri-operatively) followed by maintenance therapy. The cost of these medications is a constant concern and the advent of generics has brought this cost down modestly. For those lacking long term insurance coverage, this may be a significant out of pocket expense that is not affordable...
June 1, 2015: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25938011/adoptive-t-regulatory-cell-therapy-for-tolerance-induction
#16
Cecilia Cabello-Kindelan, Shane Mackey, Allison L Bayer
There is a clear need to develop strategies to induce tolerance without the need of chronic immunosuppression in transplant recipient and in patients with autoimmunity. Adoptive T regulatory cell (Treg) therapy offers the potential of long-lasting protection. However, based on results of clinical trials so far with ex vivo expanded autologous Tregs in type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, it seems unlikely that single immunotherapy with Treg infusion without immunomodulation regimens that promote stable donor Treg engraftment and persistence would afford truly significant clinical benefit...
June 1, 2015: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26052480/development-of-lung-epithelium-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
Mahboobe Ghaedi, Laura E Niklason, Jordana Williams
Considerable progress has been made in the field of in vitro development of alveolar epithelium from induced pluripotent stem cells. Patient specific derived alveolar cells could potentially populate tissue engineered lungs, provide a cell source for drug testing or function as a model for research into lung diseases. Induced to pluripotency through a variety of techniques, stem cells can be differentiated to alveolar epithelium through exposure to a variety of different culture conditions and growth media...
March 1, 2015: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25729638/bioreactor-development-for-lung-tissue-engineering
#18
Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari
RATIONALE: Much recent interest in lung bioengineering by pulmonary investigators, industry and the organ transplant field has seen a rapid growth of bioreactor development ranging from the microfluidic scale to the human-sized whole lung systems. A comprehension of the findings from these models is needed to provide the basis for further bioreactor development. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to comprehensively review the current state of bioreactor development for the lung...
March 2015: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26523249/simultaneous-liver-kidney-transplantation
#19
REVIEW
Vichin Puri, James Eason
In 2014, simultaneous liver kidney transplants (SLK) accounted for 8.2 % of all liver transplants performed in the USA. Prior to introduction of the model of end stage liver disease (MELD) system, SLK accounted for 2.5 % in 2001 and only 1.7 % in 1990. Transplant centers have struggled to balance the moral and ethical aspects of SLK in the setting of organ scarcity with an algorithm that best qualifies patients for such treatment options. Few centers have even ventured into DCD territory for SLK. Advancement in immunosuppression protocols and treatment of HCV and HIV have impacted SLK over the years...
2015: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26301174/monocyte-derived-suppressor-cells-in-transplantation
#20
Jordi Ochando, Patricia Conde, Vincenzo Bronte
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are cells of myeloid origin with enhanced suppressive function. They are negative regulators of the immune responses and comprise a heterogeneous mixture of immunosuppressive cells of monocytic (M-MDSC) and granulocytic (G-MDSC) origin. A more recent nomenclature proposes the term "suppressive monocyte derived cells" (suppressive MCs) to define CSF1/CSF2-dependent mouse suppressor cells that develop from common monocyte progenitors (cMoPs) after birth. Here, we review the literature about monocytic-derived cells with demonstrated suppressor function in vitro and in vivo within the context of solid organ transplantation...
2015: Current Transplantation Reports
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