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Vinod Kumar Singh, Kaushal Kishore Rajak
Detection of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) nucleic acid in archival formalin fixed tissue samples and their use for phylogenetic analysis was investigated. Ten samples were examined for the presence of CSFV nucleic acid by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of 5'UTR and E2 gene. RT-PCR was found positive for 5'UTR fragment in eight samples while only one tissue samples showed amplification for E2 gene target fragment. For molecular epidemiology of the disease, 5'UTR PCR product of sample from Darbhanga (Bihar), was cloned and sequenced...
March 2017: Virusdisease
Shyma K Latheef, K Dhama, Hari Abdul Samad, Mohd Yaqoob Wani, M Asok Kumar, M Palanivelu, Yashpal Singh Malik, S D Singh, Rajendra Singh
Chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) is an economically important and a highly immunosuppressive virus affecting poultry industry worldwide. In this study we assessed the immunomodulatory effects of four herbal preparations namely Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Azadirachta indica and E Care Se Herbal in resisting the viral multiplication and immunosuppression inflicted by CIAV in chicks. Day-old chicks (n = 90) were randomly and equally divided into six groups (Groups A-F). Groups A-D were administered with purified extracts of W...
March 2017: Virusdisease
Jira Chansaenroj, Chompoonut Auphimai, Jiratchaya Puenpa, John Mauleekoonphairoj, Nasamon Wanlapakorn, Viboonsuk Vuthitanachot, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Yong Poovorawan
Coxsackievirus (CV) is a member of the genus Enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae. CV infection can cause herpangina, a disease characterized by multiple ulcers on the tonsils and soft palate affecting mostly young children. CV strains are categorized by serotypes. Unfortunately, serotypes responsible for infections in patients are often undetermined. This knowledge gap partly contributes to the ineffective prevention and control of CV-associated herpangina in Southeast Asia. To characterize the viral etiology of children presented with herpangina, 295 throat swabs were tested for human enterovirus infection...
March 2017: Virusdisease
M J Contreras-Luna, L A Ramírez-Martínez, R E Sarmiento Silva, C Cruz Lazo, A Pérez Torres, J I Sánchez-Betancourt
This is a first report in Mexico of the presence of antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza-3 virus in Mexican sheep in different productive stages. We determine the association of serological positivity with age and production system, and obtain molecular evidence of infection by both virus. RSV prevalence in adult sheep was 47% (49/105) at the tropic and 64% (63/99) at the uplands. A significant difference in RSV seropositivity between animals from the tropic and the uplands was observed (P < 0...
March 2017: Virusdisease
Mohammad Hajizadeh, Nemat Sokhandan-Bashir
To investigate the genetic variation and molecular evolution of potato virus X (PVX), 87 coat protein (CP) gene sequences were retrieved from GenBank and analyzed. Of the PVX isolates studied, one recombinant isolate (X3) was detected from South America population of the virus. The other isolates belonged to two lineages, Eurasia and America, with the significant FST value (0.60). Non-synonymous nucleotide diversity to synonymous nucleotide diversity (ω = dN/dS) was less than 1 indicating that the CP gene has been under negative selection or neutral evolution...
March 2017: Virusdisease
Sachin Ashok Bhor, Chika Tateda, Tomofumi Mochizuki, Ken-Taro Sekine, Takashi Yaeno, Naoto Yamaoka, Masamichi Nishiguchi, Kappei Kobayashi
Chlorosis is one of the most common symptoms of plant diseases, including those caused by viruses and viroids. Recently, a study has shown that Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) exploits host RNA silencing machinery to modulate the virus disease symptoms through the silencing of chloroplast-targeted heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90C). To understand the molecular mechanisms of chlorosis in this viroid disease, we established an experimental system suitable for studying the mechanism underlying the chlorosis induced by the RNA silencing of Hsp90C in transgenic tobacco...
March 2017: Virusdisease
Sachin Ashok Bhor, Chika Tateda, Tomofumi Mochizuki, Ken-Taro Sekine, Takashi Yaeno, Naoto Yamaoka, Masamichi Nishiguchi, Kappei Kobayashi
Recent studies with Y satellite RNA (Y-sat) of cucumber mosaic virus have demonstrated that Y-sat modifies the disease symptoms in specific host plants through the silencing of the magnesium protoporphyrin chelatase I subunit (CHLI), which is directed by the Y-sat derived siRNA. Along with the development of peculiar yellow phenotypes, a drastic decrease in CHLI-transcripts and a higher accumulation of Y-sat derived siRNA were observed. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the Y-sat-induced chlorosis, especially whether or not the reduced expression of CHLI causes the chlorosis simply through the reduced production of chlorophyll or it triggers some other mechanisms leading to the chlorosis, we have established a new experimental system with an inducible silencing mechanism...
March 2017: Virusdisease
Ashika T Raghavendra, Sushil K Jalali, Rakshit Ojha, Timalapur M Shivalingaswamy, Raj Bhatnagar
The whole genome of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) from India, HearNPV-L1, was sequenced and analyzed, with a view to look for genes and/or nucleotide sequences that might be involved in the differences and virulence among other HearNPVs sequenced from other countries like SP1A (Spain), NNg1 (Kenya) and G4 (China). The entire nucleotide sequence of the HearNPV-L1 genome was 136,740 bp in length having GC content of 39.19% and contained 113 ORFs that could encode polypeptides with more than 50 amino acids (GenBank accession number KT013224)...
March 2017: Virusdisease
Cleetus Cherupanakkal, Vijayakumar Ramachadrappa, Tamilarasu Kadhiravan, Narayanan Parameswaran, Subhash Chandra Parija, Agieshkumar Balakrishna Pillai, Soundravally Rajendiran
The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of dengue infection is not completely known. A recent study reveals the involvement of oxidative stress responsive molecules in the generation of host immune responses to dengue virus in vitro. Objective of the present study was to analyse the changes in the expression of oxidant-antioxidant genes Nox-2 (NADPH oxidase) and Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2) in patients with dengue during the early phase of infection compared to other febrile illness (OFI) cases and healthy controls using Real-time qPCR assay...
March 2017: Virusdisease
Nariman Shahhosseini, Sadegh Chinikar, Elnaz Shams, Norbert Nowotny, Anthony R Fooks
An on-going surveillance program on Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Iran has been launched since 2000. An outbreak of CCHF occurred in northern Iran between June and July 2015. Three cases were involved in this outbreak. One patient died after admission to hospital, and the others were treated successfully. Phylogenetic analysis showed that three sequences obtained from Iranian patients grouped within clade IV (Asia-1), clade V (Europe) and clade VI (Greece). The partial sequence of the strain Noshahr59 (KT588642) showed the highest similarity with other strains isolated from Russia, Kosovo and Turkey (Clade V, Europe)...
March 2017: Virusdisease
Farah Deeba, Md Zubbair Malik, Irshad Husain Naqvi, Md Shakir Hussain Haider, Zoya Shafat, Priyanka Sinha, Romana Ishrat, Anwar Ahmed, Shama Parveen
Chikungunya fever is an arboviral infection caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and is transmitted by Aedes mosquito. The envelope protein (E2) of Chikungunya virus is involved in attachment of virion with the host cell. The present study was conceptualized to determine the structure of E2 protein of CHIKV and to identify the potential viral entry inhibitors. The secondary and tertiary structure of E2 protein was determined using bioinformatics tools. The mutational analysis of the E2 protein suggested that mutations may stabilize or de-stabilize the structure which may affect the structure-function relationship...
March 2017: Virusdisease
Sameer Arbat, Mitesh Dave, Vinit Niranjane, Irfan Rahman, Ashok Arbat
Recently, India reported an increase in swine flu (influenza A H1N1) activity. There are limited studies on epidemiology of swine flu in Indian context. This study aims to analyze clinical and epidemiological profile of suspected swine flu cases in central India. 171 cases were included in a hospital based, observational, descriptive study conducted from December 2014 to April 2015. Demographics, clinical presentation and outcome of positive and negative cases were compared. Data was analyzed using STATA software...
March 2017: Virusdisease
Minglin Wu, Haiyang Li, He Jiang, Guanjun Hou, Jixiang He, Yangyang Jiang, Honglian Chen
A highly virulent grass carp reovirus (GCRV) strain, named GCRV-AH528, was recently purified from a diseased grass carp with hemorrhage disease in Anhui, China. GCRV-AH528 S9 segment was 1320 nucleotides in length and encoded a 418 amino acid VP6 protein. BLAST search showed that the VP6 protein owned a conserved domain belonging to the reoviral σ2 family. Phylogenetic analysis of VP6 presented that GCRV-AH528 belonged to GCRV genotype II, which was more closely related to Orthoreovirus than GCRV genotype I and genotype III...
March 2017: Virusdisease
Madina Saparbaevna Alexyuk, Aizhan Sabirzhanovna Turmagambetova, Pavel Gennadievich Alexyuk, Andrey Pavlinovich Bogoyavlenskiy, Vladimir Eleazarovich Berezin
Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and can be found in a variety of environments. A high prevalence of viruses in marine and freshwater systems was initially reported by Spencer in 1955, but the ecological significance of viruses is insufficiently known even until the present day. Viruses are known to play a key role in the biology of freshwater bacteria: controlling the bacterial abundance, composition of species, and acting as intermediaries in the transfer of genes between bacterial populations...
March 2017: Virusdisease
Sana Tabanda Saeed, Abdul Samad
Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are responsible for extreme yield reduction in a number of economically important crops including medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs). Emergence of new variants of viruses due to recombination and mutations in the genomes, modern cropping systems, introduction of susceptible plant varieties, global trade in agricultural products, and changes in climatic conditions are responsible for aggravating the begomovirus problems during the last two decades. This review summaries the current research work on begomoviruses affecting MAPs and provides various traditional and advanced strategies for the management of begomoviruses and vector in MAPs...
March 2017: Virusdisease
Pankaj Sharma, Veena Mittal, Mala Chhabra, Roop Kumari, Priyanka Singh, Srinivas Venkatesh
Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) has been associated with severe dengue outbreaks in many countries including India. Its predominance was recorded nearly after a decade in the capital city, Delhi in 2013. The present study characterizes DENV-2 circulated during 2013-2014. Analysis based on envelope (E) gene showed the presence of two clades (I and II) of DENV-2, within the Cosmopolitan genotype. Analysis of time of most recent common ancestor revealed the existence of clade I for more than a decade (95 % HPD 13-16 years) however, clade II showed comparatively recent emergence (95 % HPD 5-13 years)...
December 2016: Virusdisease
B P Madhu, K P Singh, M Saminathan, R Singh, N Shivasharanappa, A K Sharma, Yashpal S Malik, K Dhama, V Manjunatha
Rabies virus (RABV) stimulates nitric oxide (NO) production, which either triggers T cell differentiation or suppresses T cell function depending on its concentration. Herein, we assessed the potential role of NO in regulation of immune responses during RABV infection in mice model. The experimental animals were divided into four groups and 100LD50 of challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of RABV was inoculated intracerebrally on day 0 and subsequently aminoguanidine (AG; inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) was injected intraperitoneally twice a day, up to 6 days...
December 2016: Virusdisease
Vasudevan Gowthaman, Shambu Dayal Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Palani Srinivasan, Sellappan Saravanan, Thippichettypalayam Ramasamy Gopala Krishna Murthy, Kuppanan Sukumar, Basavaraj Mathapati, Camille Lebarbenchon, Yashpal Singh Malik, Muthannan Andavar Ramakrishnan
Avian influenza is a highly infectious and dynamically evolving disease of birds causing high morbidity and mortality. It is caused by avian influenza virus (AIV) that belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae. Two types of AIV have been described based on their pathogenicity viz. highly pathogenic avian influenza virus that causes severe disease with high mortality and low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAI) that generally causes asymptomatic infection or a mild disease. The H9N2 subtype is the widely circulated LPAI type in the world...
December 2016: Virusdisease
Seetha Dayakar, Heera R Pillai, Vineetha P Thulasi, Radhakrishnan R Nair
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) are ubiquitous respiratory viral pathogens. They belong to the family Paramyxoviridae (subfamily Pneumovirinae) and is responsible for acute respiratory tract infections in children, elderly and immunocompromised patients. We designed and tested a multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) as a cost-effective alternative to real-time PCR and cell culture based detection for HMPV and HRSV. The newly developed PCR was used to screen nasal/throat swab samples from 356 patients with suspected acute respiratory infection attending the Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India...
December 2016: Virusdisease
Abolghasem Asadi-Saghandi, Ali Shams, Gilda Eslami, Seyed Ali Mirghanizadeh, Ebrahim Eskandari-Nasab
Natural killer group 2D (NKG2D), as an activating receptor, plays pivotal role in viral infectious diseases. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NKG2D gene have characterized that the rs1049174G/C SNP of NKG2D is in the spotlight of notice because of its role in activating of human T cells. This study aimed to investigate rs1049174G/C genetic polymorphism in Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) patients. The study compromised 107 CHC patients with genotype 1a and 1b. All recruited patients were under treatment with Peginterferon Alfa-2a/Ribavirin according to standard protocol...
December 2016: Virusdisease
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