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Rafia Parveen, Iqra Farooq, Showkat Ahangar, Salik Nazki, Zahoor Dar, Tanveer Dar, Shayaib Kamil, Pervaiz Dar
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is responsible for significant economic losses to the poultry industry across the world. The enormous genetic diversity of IBV poses difficulty in diagnosing and controlling the virus. To understand the nature of IBV prevalent in the Kashmir Himalayas, we characterized two field strains, isolated from non-immunized broiler chickens, by sequence and phylogenetic analysis of S1 subunit of the spike glycoprotein. The analysis revealed both the isolates are identical to each other, with nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities of 99...
December 2017: Virusdisease
Hau Van Pham, Tuan N A Hoang, Hao T Duong, Lan T Phan, Uyen T N Phan, Nguyen X Ho, Cuong Q Hoang
The Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) outbreaks occurred throughout Daklak province, Vietnam in 2011. This study reviewed all 744 medical records of HFMD patients admitted to Daklak Hospital in 2011 to describe the clinical characteristics of HFMD patients and determined factors associated with severe illness. Among 744 patients, 63 (8.5%) cases were severe. Most (695, 93.4%) of the cases were 3 years old or younger, and 464 (62.4%) were boys. The number of cases peaked between August and November. Most (726, 97...
December 2017: Virusdisease
K Nagendran, S Mohankumar, P Mohammed Faisal, B Bagewadi, G Karthikeyan
During 2012-2014, mosaic disease on chayote in the farmers field of Kodaikanal region (high altitude zone) of Tamil Nadu was observed. The disease was characterized with severe mosaic, cupping and enation on leaves with reduced fruit size. Disease was found to causes an yield loss of more than 60% with the maximum disease incidence of 100% for the past 5 years consecutively. Preliminary serological and molecular screening indicated the association of begomovirus with the disease. Complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of DNA A revealed the identity of the virus as tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV)...
December 2017: Virusdisease
Mohd Abdullah, Ayesha Tazeen, Malik Hisamuddin, Irshad H Naqvi, Hirday N Verma, Anwar Ahmed, Shama Parveen
Arthropod-borne infections like malaria, dengue and chikungunya fever are transmitted by mosquitoes. The present report describes an unusual case of mixed infection with malaria, dengue and chikungunya viruses in a 21 year old male patient from New Delhi, India during monsoon season of 2016. The malarial fever was diagnosed by thin slide microscopy and antigen test. Chikungunya virus IgM was detected in the sample by the card test. Dengue and chikungunya viruses were further confirmed by RT-PCR for CprM and E1 gene respectively...
December 2017: Virusdisease
Dipinte Gupta, Rajiv Ranjan
Promoters are specific sequence of nucleotides present upstream of gene coding region involved in initiation and regulation of transcription. Multiple cis-acting element forms the architecture of promoter to which trans-acting nucleic binding factors bind and regulates its activity. Since 1980 genome of pararetrovirus, are being exploited for developing efficient promoters. Among all of them Cauliflower mosaic virus is the most widely used promoter for gene expression. The basic rational behind the strength of promoter lies in the sequence of cis elements and the spacer nucleotide elements between them, thereby strength of these promoter fragments can be regulated by altering these nucleotide sequences...
December 2017: Virusdisease
Feng-Xue Wang, Yong Yang, Xing Liu, Min-Hui He, Ying Liu, Na Sun, Hong-Wei Zhu, Jing-Qiang Ren, Hua Wu, Yong-Jun Wen
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid protein (NP) is the immunodominant region of PRRSV viral proteins. Non-structural protein 2 (Nsp2) and its hypervariable region play an essential role in the differential diagnosis of PRRSV. Western blot and immunofluorescence assay (IFA) analyses found that 2 out of 18 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognized the NP and that 5 of 11 MAbs recognized Nsp2-120aa. IFA data demonstrated that 2 MAbs raised against the NP have a positive reaction to PRRSV; either HP-PRRSV, classic PRRSV or the vaccine strain at 1:100 dilution...
December 2017: Virusdisease
Amit Kumar Singh, Ng Tombisana Meetei, Brijesh Kumar Singh, Nirmal Mandal
Khasi mandarin is one of the most remunerative crop in North Eastern Hills region of India playing a very critical role in the socio-economic upliftment of the people. The orchards of this region were found to express the typical symptoms of citrus tristeza virus (CTV). An extensive survey of the Khasi mandarin orchard for six North Eastern states of India namely Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Assam, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, was carried out to establish the identity of these viruses using ELISA and PCR/RT-PCR techniques...
December 2017: Virusdisease
Poonam Roshan, Aditya Kulshreshtha, Vipin Hallan
Tomato leaf curl palampur virus (ToLCPalV) is a bipartite begomovirus with genome organization typical of old world begomoviruses. It infects commercially important crops and weeds in the Asian subcontinent. Apart from other proteins, the DNA-A of the virus encodes AV2 and AC4 proteins of approximately 13.73 and 6.7 kDa, respectively. In case of other begomoviruses, previous studies have shown the role of AV2 and AC4 proteins in virus movement, pathogenesis and suppression of gene silencing. However, the ToLCPalV proteins are significantly variable in comparison to closest relative and hence there is a need to work out their functions...
December 2017: Virusdisease
Nirmal Kaundal, Purva Sarkate, Charu Prakash, Narayan Rishi
With the eradication of poliovirus, the focus has now shifted to environmental surveillance of poliovirus to determine the circulating polioviruses in an area. L20B and RD cell lines are used for isolation of polioviruses. It is imperative to study the efficacy of these cell line in isolating polioviruses from environmental samples. The present study was carried out to determine the sensitivity and specificity of L20B cell line for isolation of polioviruses from environmental samples. L20B and RD cell lines are used for isolation of polioviruses...
December 2017: Virusdisease
P Sivasankar, K Riji John, M Rosalind George, P Mageshkumar, M Mohamed Manzoor, M J Prince Jeyaseelan
A viral agent implicated in the mortality of marine ornamental "Similar Damselfish" ( Pomacentrus similis Allen, 1991) was isolated and characterized. The virus grew well in marine and freshwater fish cell lines from seabass and snakehead. The virus was sensitive to chloroform, acidic pH (3.0) and heat treatment at 56 °C. Biochemical characterisation indicated that the virus had double stranded DNA genome. Transmission electron microscopic analysis of ultrathin sections of infected cell pellets showed iridovirus-like icosahedral virus particles of 120-130 nm...
December 2017: Virusdisease
K Saravanan, P Puneeth Kumar, J Praveenraj, Arunjyoti Baruah, T Sivaramakrishnan, T Sathish Kumar, S Pramod Kumar, R Kiruba Sankar, S Dam Roy
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most prevalent, widespread and devastating pathogen associated with shrimp population. The present study was aimed at screening the wild caught shrimps from Andaman and Nicobar Islands (ANI) for WSSV infection. Shrimp samples of different penaeid species including Penaeus monodon, Penaeus indicus, Penaeus merguiensis and Metapenaeus monoceros collected from nine different landing centers across the coast of ANI were screened for WSSV infection. Presence of white spots, a typical clinical sign of white spot disease was observed on the exoskeleton of WSSV infected shrimp samples...
December 2017: Virusdisease
Iqra Almas, Samia Afzal, Muhammad Idrees, Muhammad Usman Ashraf, Iram Amin, Muhammad Shahid, Khadija Zahid, Sadia Zahid
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with one of the major health problem in world that ultimate results in the liver cirrhosis and leads to carcinoma of hepatocellular components round the world. More than 185 million people were found to be infected with HCV. MicroRNAs are small oligonucleotide RNA having 18-22 nucleotides. Circulating mi-RNAs regulate the replication of HCV and HCV-induced liver fibrosis and HCC. By comparing the expression profiles of mi-RNAs of normal individuals with HCV infected patients, aberrant changes in expression of different mi-RNAs have been observed so it can be predicted that these mi-RNAs are associated with and play a central role in the hepatitis C infection and diseases associated with it...
December 2017: Virusdisease
Mageshbabu Ramamurthy, Sathish Sankar, Rajesh Kannangai, Balaji Nandagopal, Gopalan Sridharan
This review is focused at exploring the strengths of modern technology driven data compiled in the areas of virus gene sequencing, virus protein structures and their implication to viral diagnosis and therapy. The information for virome analysis (viromics) is generated by the study of viral genomes (entire nucleotide sequence) and viral genes (coding for protein). Presently, the study of viral infectious diseases in terms of etiopathogenesis and development of newer therapeutics is undergoing rapid changes...
December 2017: Virusdisease
Murat Şevik
Orf virus (ORFV) is the etiological agent of contagious pustular dermatitis and can cause skin disease in sheep and goats. In this study, two outbreaks of ORFV infection in goats in the Central Anatolian region of Turkey were investigated. Samples were collected from 1- to 4-month-old kids (n = 9) in two different flocks in the Aksaray and Konya Provinces during the months of March and May 2016. The presence of ORFV in suspected samples was confirmed by PCR using primers specific to envelope gene (B2L). The analysis of the B2L gene sequences revealed that the nucleotide homology between the two isolates in the present study was 100%, whereas the similarity with Parapoxvirus isolates from different regions ranged from 83...
September 2017: Virusdisease
Nadeera Sirisena, Faseeha Noordeen, LakKumar Fernando
The objectives of the study were to compare the DENV NS1 and nucleic acid positivity in dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) patients and to evaluate the usefulness of these parameters in severe dengue. Blood samples were collected from 91 patients with DF or DHF (fever days 3-9) from Gampaha and Negombo General Hospitals, Sri Lanka and tested for DENV NS1 antigen and nucleic acid. On fever day 3, 67% of the DF and 33% of the DHF patients had DENV nucleic acid whereas 50% of the DF and 67% of the DHF patients had NS1...
September 2017: Virusdisease
Avinash R Deoshatwar, Vijay P Bondre, Babasaheb V Tandale
Chickenpox and measles, both vaccine preventable febrile rash illnesses, present in a comparatively severe form among young adults/adults than among children. Immunity levels against chickenpox are not known in India and those against measles have been found variable across the country. Places where students or adults/young adults from various parts of the country come together pose a peculiar challenge in preventive policy making regarding these diseases. In this article, we present findings from parallel outbreaks of the two diseases in a graduate/postgraduate institute in the city of Pune...
September 2017: Virusdisease
S Bhuvaneswari, K G Tirumurugaan, P Venkatesan, P Manesh Kumar, K Kumanan
Newcastle disease (ND) is a major risk to the poultry industry which results in severe economic loss throughout the world even with vaccination. The vaccine viruses that are used in many countries include the LaSota and other live viruses that were isolated in the early and late 1950s. Reports from several laboratories including ours indicate a greater variance of the circulating strains and recent classification indicates the existence of XVIII different genotypes of NDV strains. The efficiency of the LaSota vaccination in inducing protective immunity to different heterologous strains has been a question and its efficacy upon exposure to a virulent genotype IV strain has not been reported after 1989 world-wide except for India...
September 2017: Virusdisease
Dhaval H Vagheshwari, Bharat B Bhanderi, Rafyuddin A Mathakiya, Mayurdhvaj K Jhala
The present study was undertaken with an aim of characterization of rabies virus (genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae under the order Mononegavirales) by sequencing of partial nucleoprotein (N) gene of rabies virus and phylogenetic analysis to know the genotype and lineage of rabies virus present in Gujarat state of India. A total of 32 samples (18 brain samples and 14 saliva samples) were aseptically collected from live and dead animals (viz. dog, buffalo, cow, goat, donkey and hyena) for rabies virus detection...
September 2017: Virusdisease
Yanbing Niu, Xiaojing Pang, Yuanyuan Cheng, Defu Wang, Shang Guo, Yong Liu
With continued expansion of Cucurbita pepo L. cultivation, viral diseases affecting the crop have become more serious in recent years, causing enormous losses in yield and quality. A virus sample was obtained from Wenshui in Shanxi province, China. Double-stranded RNA technology and sequence-independent amplification (SIA) were used to identify the virus that induced C. pepo L. mosaic disease. SIA and sequencing results showed the presence of watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in diseased C. pepo L. leaves. The complete sequence of WMV from the Shanxi isolate (i...
September 2017: Virusdisease
K A Revathy, A I Bhat
The complete genome of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from black pepper was sequenced and compared with CMV isolates from subgroups I and II reported worldwide. Percent identity and phylogenetic analyses clearly indicated that the CMV isolate from black pepper (BP) belongs to subgroup IB. Sequence analyses also showed the presence of a rare deletion of nine nucleotides in the putative methyltransferase domain of 1a gene which was observed only in two more isolates of CMV among one hundred 1a gene sequences of CMV for which sequence information is available in the database...
September 2017: Virusdisease
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