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R Aravintharaj, C G Balaji, K Nagendran, R Priyanka, G Karthikeyan
Lily samples collected from commercial cut flower growing field at Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India were serologically tested through direct antigen coating-ELISA and dot immuno binding assay for the infection of potyvirus through potyvirus group specific polyclonal antibody. The RT-PCR using potyvirus universal degenerate primers (PNIbF1/PCPR1) showed the presence of a potyvirus and the sequencing results showed the association of lily mottle virus (LMoV). Further LMoV was confirmed by RT-PCR amplification using newly designed primer pair covering entire coat protein gene and sequence results showed 100% nucleotide identity with the LMoV reported from South Korean...
June 2017: Virusdisease
Seungmo Lim, Davaajargal Igori, Dasom Baek, In-Sook Cho, Gug-Seoun Choi, Jae Sun Moon
We report the detection of cherry virus A (CVA) in a Prunus mume sample using Illumina HiSeq 2500 paired-end RNA sequencing. CVA isolate OC shared highest sequence identity with CVA isolate J, which was recently identified in P. armeniaca in Japan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CVA infecting P. mume in Korea and the first complete genome sequence of CVA isolated from P. mume in the world.
June 2017: Virusdisease
Mehmet Ali Sevik
Field surveys conducted during 2015-2016 to determine the natural occurrence and distribution of the viruses in broccoli in Samsun, Turkey revealed that samples tested in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were infected with CMV but none of the other viruses tested. This is the first report of CMV infection of broccoli in Turkey-Samsun.
June 2017: Virusdisease
K P Deeshma, A I Bhat
Some badnaviruses are known to occur as endogenous viruses integrated into their host genome. In the present study, Piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV), a badnavirus infecting black pepper was shown to occur as endogenous virus based on the PCR, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, ELISA and Southern hybridization tests. Black pepper plants that tested positive in PCR for PYMoV gave negative reaction in RT-PCR indicating that they harbour endogenous PYMoV (ePYMoV) sequences. The RT-PCR (-ve) plants tested negative in ELISA and also in PCR using outword primers to amplify the full circular genome...
June 2017: Virusdisease
Sahil Kulkarni, Sandeepan Mukherjee, Krishna Mohan Padmanabha Das, Kaushiki Prabhudesai, Nupur Deshpande, Sushant Karnik, Abhay S Chowdhary, Usha Padmanabhan
Acute encephalitis caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) represents a growing epidemic and is a cause for concern in Southeast Asia. JEV is transmitted to humans through the bite of the Culicine mosquito species. The virus genome comprising of an RNA strand also encodes the envelope protein (E) which surrounds the virus. The E protein aids in fusion of virus with the cellular membrane of the host cell with the help of three structurally distinct domains (DI, DII, DIII) that are connected by flexible hinge regions...
June 2017: Virusdisease
Annette Angel, Bennet Angel, Karuna Yadav, Neha Sharma, Vinod Joshi, Indu Thanvi, Sharad Thanvi
Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a public health problem with 390 million cases reported in world annually. In Rajasthan, DF with DHF is being reported for about two decades. For undertaking interventions into disease transmission, locating origin of transmission is very important. Present paper reports retrospective analysis of the hospital reported cases of dengue during the year 2013-2014 undertaken in Barmer, Rajasthan. To address task of investigating outbreak, detailed analysis of the data on serological test results (Mac-ELISA assay of NS1, IgG and IgM) performed by local hospital, Balotra was made...
June 2017: Virusdisease
Manjula Singh, Deepshi Thakral, Hemanta Kumar Kar, Narayan Rishi, Prafulla Kumar Sharma, Dipendra Kumar Mitra
Anogenital warts are primarily caused by Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type 6 and 11, which belong to the taxonomic family Papillomaviridae, genus alpha-papillomavirus and species 10. The presentation of the warts is varied and most of the patients have high recurrence rate of wart lesions. Studies had shown that an effective cellular immune response is required for the control of HPV infection. Here, we report distinct clinico-immunological profile of two patients presenting with venereal warts caused by HPV genotypes 6 and 11...
June 2017: Virusdisease
Maged Gomaa Hemida, Mohammed A Al-Hammadi, Abdul Hafeed S Daleb, Cecilio R Gonsalves
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is one of the major respiratory viral threats for chickens. Despite the intensive application of IBV vaccines, several outbreaks have been reported worldwide. Here, we report several IBV outbreaks in thirteen poultry farms in Eastern Saudi Arabia (ESA) from 2013 to 2014. The main goals of the current study were as follows: (1) isolation and molecular characterization of the currently circulating strains in ESA (Al-Hasa, Dammam, and Buqayq) and (2) evaluation of the immune status of these birds to IBV...
June 2017: Virusdisease
Dongying Du, Pantao Zhang, Xiangdong Li, Hui Tian, Yi Cheng, Dongbei Sheng, Xueying Han, Yihong Shan, Xuefeng Li, Yue Yuan, Haiyang Zhang, Jingjing Xue, Wujie Liu, Kegong Tian
Inclusion body hepatitis and hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome caused by high-pathogenic fowl adenovirus serotype 4 has recently plagued Chinese poultry industry and caused huge economic losses since 2013. So far, there is no commercial vaccine available to control this disease. In this study, we reported the development of both embryo-adapted and cell-culture derived inactivated FAdV-4 vaccines and evaluated their efficacies in chicken. Compared to embryo-adapted vaccine, cell-culture derived vaccine induced significantly earlier and higher serological response measured by AGP and ELISA...
June 2017: Virusdisease
Vinod Kumar Singh, Kaushal Kishor Rajak, Ravi Kumar, Sachin D Raut, Arpit Saxena, Dhanavellu Muthuchelvan, Raj Kumar Singh, Awadh Bihari Pandey
Classical swine fever (CSF) is one of the most important viral diseases of pigs with high economic impact. The causative agent, Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a member of genus Pestivirus in family Flaviviredae and is structurally and antigenically related to other members of the genus. The identification of virus strains and genotypes can conveniently be used to trace the origin and patterns of virus spread, which contribut substantially in control strategies. In the present study, we have partially sequenced and analysed the 5' untranslated region (UTR) and E2 regions of CSFV clinical samples (n = 24) from various parts of the country...
June 2017: Virusdisease
Zienab Mosaad, Abdelsatar Arafa, Hussein A Hussein, Mohamed A Shalaby
The low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 subtype has become the most prevalent and widespread in many Asian and Middle Eastern countries. It causes an enzootic situation in commercial poultry and known as a potential facilitator virus that can be transmitted to human from birds. The neuraminidase (NA) gene plays an important role the release and spread of the virus from infected cells and throughout the bird. The complete nucleotide sequences of the NA gene of seven H9N2 viruses collected from apparent healthy chicken and quail flocks in Egypt during 2014-2015, were amplified and sequenced...
June 2017: Virusdisease
Atul B Patil, Vijayendra S Dalvi, Akhilesh A Mishra, Bal Krishna, Abdul Azeez
The banana is one of the world's most important livelihood crops. Banana plants are principally infected by four virus species, Banana bunchy top virus (genus Babuvirus), Cucumber mosaic virus (genus Cucumovirus), Banana streak virus (genus Badnavirus) and Banana bract mosaic virus (genus Potyvirus). The objective of this study is to understand the codon usage pattern and phylogeny of coat protein gene in different banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) isolates. The BBrMV Coat Protein (CP) gene was amplified from BBrMV infected banana plant samples collected from different districts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, India...
June 2017: Virusdisease
Chandrakant V Patil, S V Ramdas, U Premchand, K S Shankarappa
Ridge gourd is an important vegetable crop and is affected by several biotic and abiotic factors. Among the different biotic factors, ridge gourd yellow mosaic disease (RgYMD) is new emerging threat for the production of ridge gourd. The incidence of the RgYMD varied from 30 to 100% in southern India with highest disease incidence of 100% observed in Belagavi district of Karnataka state. The infected plants showed chlorosis, mosaic, cupping of leaves, blistering, reduction in leaf size and stunted growth. The varieties/hybrids grown in the farmer's fields were found to be susceptible to the disease...
June 2017: Virusdisease
Nirmal Kaundal, Purva Sarkate, Charu Prakash, Narayan Rishi
Environmental surveillance of polioviruses has been used as an important tool in monitoring circulation of wild polioviruses and/or Vaccine derived polioviruses in sewage samples. It is important to distinguish Sabin like isolates from non-Sabin like; ELISA & dual stage real time RT-PCR have been used for the same. Current study was carried out on sewage isolates to compare ELISA & RT-PCR with sequencing to distinguish Sabin like from non-Sabin like. Out of 468 sewage specimens, 91 (19.44%) were non-polio enteroviruses positive and 377 (80...
June 2017: Virusdisease
Manjula Singh, Deepshi Thakral, Narayan Rishi, Hemanta Kumar Kar, Dipendra Kumar Mitra
Ano-genital warts are considered one of the commonest and highly infectious sexually transmitted infections. These warts are primarily caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) of the family Papillomaviridae, genus alpha-papillomavirus, species 10 and types 6 and 11. However the high recurrence rate of warts is a matter of serious concern to the patients and a challenge for the treating physician. The conventional treatment options are targeted only to the local site of warts. There is no systemic treatment modality as there is limited understanding of the disease immune-pathogenesis...
June 2017: Virusdisease
Shraddha Mehta, Soumen Roy, Abhay Chowdhary
Even in the twenty-first century, rabies remains one of the most dreaded diseases in many parts of the world. An effective chemotherapeutic still remains elusive. The present study was aimed at in vitro evaluation of crude extracts of Allamanda cathartica and Cynodon dactylon for their potential anti-rabies activity based on the principle of immunofluorescence. The extracts were tested for cytotoxicity and screened for the presence of phytochemicals. While A. cathartica extracts were found to be non-toxic, the CC50 of C...
June 2017: Virusdisease
Vinod Kumar Singh, Kaushal Kishore Rajak
Detection of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) nucleic acid in archival formalin fixed tissue samples and their use for phylogenetic analysis was investigated. Ten samples were examined for the presence of CSFV nucleic acid by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of 5'UTR and E2 gene. RT-PCR was found positive for 5'UTR fragment in eight samples while only one tissue samples showed amplification for E2 gene target fragment. For molecular epidemiology of the disease, 5'UTR PCR product of sample from Darbhanga (Bihar), was cloned and sequenced...
March 2017: Virusdisease
Shyma K Latheef, K Dhama, Hari Abdul Samad, Mohd Yaqoob Wani, M Asok Kumar, M Palanivelu, Yashpal Singh Malik, S D Singh, Rajendra Singh
Chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) is an economically important and a highly immunosuppressive virus affecting poultry industry worldwide. In this study we assessed the immunomodulatory effects of four herbal preparations namely Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Azadirachta indica and E Care Se Herbal in resisting the viral multiplication and immunosuppression inflicted by CIAV in chicks. Day-old chicks (n = 90) were randomly and equally divided into six groups (Groups A-F). Groups A-D were administered with purified extracts of W...
March 2017: Virusdisease
Jira Chansaenroj, Chompoonut Auphimai, Jiratchaya Puenpa, John Mauleekoonphairoj, Nasamon Wanlapakorn, Viboonsuk Vuthitanachot, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Yong Poovorawan
Coxsackievirus (CV) is a member of the genus Enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae. CV infection can cause herpangina, a disease characterized by multiple ulcers on the tonsils and soft palate affecting mostly young children. CV strains are categorized by serotypes. Unfortunately, serotypes responsible for infections in patients are often undetermined. This knowledge gap partly contributes to the ineffective prevention and control of CV-associated herpangina in Southeast Asia. To characterize the viral etiology of children presented with herpangina, 295 throat swabs were tested for human enterovirus infection...
March 2017: Virusdisease
M J Contreras-Luna, L A Ramírez-Martínez, R E Sarmiento Silva, C Cruz Lazo, A Pérez Torres, J I Sánchez-Betancourt
This is a first report in Mexico of the presence of antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza-3 virus in Mexican sheep in different productive stages. We determine the association of serological positivity with age and production system, and obtain molecular evidence of infection by both virus. RSV prevalence in adult sheep was 47% (49/105) at the tropic and 64% (63/99) at the uplands. A significant difference in RSV seropositivity between animals from the tropic and the uplands was observed (P < 0...
March 2017: Virusdisease
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