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Seyed Sajjad Hasheminasab, Ali Mahmoodi, Parvin Mahmoodi, Hossein Maghsood
Ecthyma contagiosum is caused by the orf virus, a member of the genus Parapoxvirus in the family Poxviridae. Humans acquire the infection from contact with infected or recently vaccinated animals in conjunction with skin trauma. In this study, we report two cases of orf infection in two women who had contact with animals. Diagnosis was based, apart from the clinical signs, on histological examination, virus isolation using fetal bovine esophagus cells, electron microscopy and PCR.
June 2016: Virusdisease
Manish Kumar, Akshay Katiyar, Madhupriya, G P Rao
Symptoms of little leaf, leaf chlorosis and leaf malformations with mosaic mottling symptoms were observed in two brinjal varieties (Pusa Shyamla and Pusa Purple Cluster) in fields of IARI, New Delhi, India during 2014-2015. Electron microscopy, PCR and sequence analysis first time provided evidence of association of Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii with potato virus X and potato virus Y in brinjal in India.
June 2016: Virusdisease
P A Desingu, S D Singh, K Dhama, K Karthik, O R Vinodh Kumar, Y S Malik
The study details characterization of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from commercial poultry flocks (chicken) and wild birds (crane) of India during the time period from 1989 to 2013. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the NDV isolates belongs to class II, genotype XIIIa and a chicken isolate (108/BAREILLY/AD-IVRI/91) was of genotype VI, where it showed diversity of 3 % from the other viruses belonging to same genotype. Another chicken isolate (75/RAMPUR/AD-IVRI/89) grouped in genotype III and showed 4 % diversity with viruses of genotype III...
June 2016: Virusdisease
Anil Kumar Sharma, Gnanavel Venkatesan, Karikalan Mathesh, Hira Ram, Muthanan Andavar Ramakrishnan, Awadh Bihari Pandey
A carcass of male free ranging adult blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) was presented for necropsy examination exhibiting thick confluent nodular skin lesions around the mouth and the dry scaly crusts/fissures on the skin of abdomen, thigh and shoulder with subcutaneous haemorrhages. The skin sample around mouth was found positive for orf virus (ORFV) identified by counterimmunoelectrophoresis and PCR. Histopathology of the mouth skin revealed the hyperkeratinization, epidermal sloughing and epithelial hyperplasia showing acanthosis with rete ridges and few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in keratinocytes...
June 2016: Virusdisease
Rasoul Rasoulpour, Alireza Afsharifar, Keramat Izadpanah
Melon seedlings showing systemic chlorotic spots and mosaic symptoms were collected in central part of Iran, and a virus was isolated from diseased plants by mechanical inoculation. The virus systemically infected the most inoculated test plants by inducing mosaic symptoms, while, in the members of Fabaceae family and Chenopodium quinoa induced local lesions. Agar gel diffusion test using a polyclonal antiserum against a squash Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolate showed the presence of CMV in the mechanically inoculated plants (designated CMV-Me)...
June 2016: Virusdisease
Anshul Sharma, Saurabh Kulshrestha
Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), an important cash crop for the farmers of Himachal Pradesh was found to be affected with tospovirus like disease. An extensive survey was conducted in the bell pepper grown areas in the five districts of Himachal Pradesh to identify and characterize the causative agent. Hence, 60 symptomatic bell pepper plants exhibiting characteristics symptoms were collected from Solan, Sirmaur, Hamirpur, Kangra and Bilaspur districts. Out of 60 samples, 53 samples were found to be positive by DAS-ELISA with tospovirus group specific antiserum...
June 2016: Virusdisease
V G Ramachandran, Shukla Das, Priyamvada Roy, Vivek Hada, Narendra Singh Mogha
Chikungunya fever is an important reemerging arbovirus illness, which is transmitted by the same vector as of dengue virus. Many cases of concurrent infections with multiple dengue virus serotypes have been reported in many countries. Also, concurrent infection with Chikungunya virus and dengue virus has been reported in the past in Delhi. Therefore, this study was done to detect Chikungunya IgM antibodies in suspected dengue fever patients. In this study, 1666 serum samples suspected of dengue fever and collected during the outbreak period (August 2010-December 2010) were tested for dengue IgM antibodies, of which 736 tested negative...
June 2016: Virusdisease
Nahed Abdel-Haq, Muhammad Amjad, Eric McGrath, Hossein Salimnia, Marilynn Fairfax, Basim I Asmar
After a sharp drop of rotavirus (RV) infections at Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, USA in 2010 season, we noted an increase in the number of cases during the 2011 season including some RV vaccine (RVV) recipients. This study was conducted to determine the circulating genotypes during 2011 season and whether the increase in RV diarrhea was caused by replacement genotypes. G and P genotypes were determined by RT PCR and nucleotide sequencing of selected strains was performed. The vaccination rate among study patients was 24 %...
June 2016: Virusdisease
Gholamhosein Pourghanbari, Hasan Nili, Afagh Moattari, Ali Mohammadi, Aida Iraji
Lemon balm derivatives are going to acquire a novelty as natural and potent remedy for treatment of viral infections since the influenza viruses are developing resistance to the current antivirals widely. Oseltamivir, Melissa officinalis essential oil (MOEO) and their synergistic efficacy against avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H9N2 were evaluated in vitro in MDCK cells at different time exposure by using TCID50, HA, Real Time PCR and HI assay. The results showed that MOEO could inhibit replication of AVI through the different virus replication phase (P ≤ 0...
June 2016: Virusdisease
Amrutlal K Patel, Vinod C Pandey, Joy K Pal
Recurrent outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) have become a burning problem to the poultry industry worldwide. Here, we performed genetic analysis of IBD virus (IBDV) field isolates from recent outbreaks in various poultry farms in India. The sequence analysis of IBDV VP2 hypervariable region revealed amino acid pattern similar to that of very virulent (222A, 242I, 253Q, 256I, 272I, 279D, 284A, 294I, 299S and 330S) and intermediate plus virulent (222A, 242I, 253Q, 256I, 272T, 279N, 284A, 294I, 299S and 330S) type whereas analysis of VP1 revealed presence of sequence similar to that of very virulent (61I, 145T) and unique (61I, 141I, 143D, 145S) type in field isolates...
June 2016: Virusdisease
W A R T Wickramaarachchi, K S Shankarappa, K T Rangaswamy, M N Maruthi, R G A S Rajapakse, Saptarshi Ghosh
Bunchy top disease of banana caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus family Nanoviridae) is one of the most important constraints in production of banana in the different parts of the world. Six genomic DNA components of BBTV isolate from Kandy, Sri Lanka (BBTV-K) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers using total DNA extracted from banana tissues showing typical symptoms of bunchy top disease. The amplicons were of expected size of 1.0-1.1 kb, which were cloned and sequenced...
June 2016: Virusdisease
Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, Muhammad Yasir, Sherif Ali El-Kafrawy, Ayman T Abbas, Magdi Ali Ahmed Mousa, Ahmed A Bakhashwain
Tomato is an important vegetable crop and its production is adversely affected by leaf curl disease caused by begomovirus. Leaf curl disease is a serious concern for tomato crops caused by begomovirus in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tomato leaf curl disease has been shown to be mainly caused either by tomato leaf curl Sudan virus or tomato yellow leaf curl virus as well as tomato leaf curl Oman virus. Many tomato plants infected with monopartite begomoviruses were also found to harbor a symptom enhancing betasatellites...
June 2016: Virusdisease
Arunachalam Ramaiah, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami
The current outbreak of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) lasted longer than the previous outbreaks and there is as yet no proven treatment or vaccine available. Understanding host immune pressure and associated EBOV immune evasion that drive the evolution of EBOV is vital for diagnosis as well as designing a highly effective vaccine. The aim of this study was to deduce adaptive selection pressure acting on each amino acid sites of EBOV responsible for the recent 2014 outbreak. Multiple statistical methods employed in the study include SLAC, FEL, REL, IFEL, FUBAR and MEME...
June 2016: Virusdisease
Arti Bharmoria, Vipin Behari Vaish, Ashish Chaurasia, A K Tahlan
The present study offers the status of ongoing surveillance influenza at National Influenza Surveillance Centre (NISC), Central Research Institute (CRI), Kasauli for the emergence and consistency of influenza strains for current as well as over a period of three decades in Solan, Himachal Pradesh. From 1980 to 2015, various clinical centers of Himachal reported counts of influenza-like illness (fever including cough or sore throat). During these years, the respiratory specimens of 6581 patients showing influenza-like illness were collected...
June 2016: Virusdisease
J Joseph Sahaya Rajan, P Ezhil Praveena, T Bhuvaneswari, K P Jithendran
Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy otherwise known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN) is a neuropathological condition affecting more than 50 fish species worldwide, mostly marine. Different PCR protocols with specific primers were reported from many countries for confirmation of VNN in fishes. In the present study, two pairs of primers were designed and evaluated for the diagnosis of clinical and subclinical cases of infections from field. These primers designated as BARL-F1/BARL-R1 amplified a 902 bp product in the variable region (T4) of the coat protein gene by first step PCR...
June 2016: Virusdisease
Damiano Pizzol, Giovanni Putoto, Kajal D Chhaganlal
Human Papillomavirus is agent of the most common sexually transmitted disease which is able to infect mucosal and cutaneous membranes of the anogenital region, upper aerodigestive tract, and other head and neck mucosal regions. Although mainly HPV infection can be asymptomatic and transient, it may persist and give rise to various lesions such as warts, condyloma dysplasia and cancers depending on low or high risk type of HPV infection. Moreover, growing recent evidence suggests a role of this virus in male and female fertility...
June 2016: Virusdisease
Shailendra K Saxena, Asif Elahi, Srinivasulu Gadugu, Anil K Prasad
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a new emerging threat around the globe which might be responsible for microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome in the infants. Recently, ZIKV outbreak has caused a public health crisis in Brazil after being linked to a sharp increase in birth defects. ZIKV is ssRNA virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae. It is mainly transmitted by mosquito bite specifically Aedes species and disease symptoms include fever, joint pain, muscle pain, rash, conjunctivitis, and headache. The reservoir of ZIKV is still not known...
June 2016: Virusdisease
Mohammad Hajizadeh, Kazhal Mohammadi
The occurrence of Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Kurdistan province, Iran was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and partial characterization of coat protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of WMV infecting C. annuum, adding a new host to list of more than 170 species infected by this virus.
March 2016: Virusdisease
Zahra Boroomand, Ramezan Ali Jafari, Mansour Mayahi
Newcastle disease (ND) is an acute and highly contagious disease affecting many domestic and wild species of birds. Its effects are most notable in domestic poultry due to their high susceptibility and the potential for severe impacts of an epizootic on the poultry industry. In this study, partial sequences of fusion genes of three Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates collected during 2013-14 outbreaks from the vaccinated commercial broiler chicken farms with high mortality around Ahvaz city (Southwest of Iran) were characterized...
March 2016: Virusdisease
Karam Chand, Sanchay K Biswas, Bimalendu Mondal
An immuno-affinity chromatography technique for purification of infective bluetongue virus (BTV) has been descried using anti-core antibodies. BTV anti-core antibodies (prepared in guinea pig) were mixed with cell culture-grown BTV-1 and then the mixture was added to the cyanogens bromide-activated protein-A Sepharose column. Protein A binds to the antibody which in turn binds to the antigen (i.e. BTV). After thorough washing, antigen-antibody and antibody-protein A couplings were dissociated with 4M MgCl2, pH6...
March 2016: Virusdisease
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