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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004020/molecular-epidemiology-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-dengue-virus-type-2-circulating-in-delhi-india
#1
Pankaj Sharma, Veena Mittal, Mala Chhabra, Roop Kumari, Priyanka Singh, Srinivas Venkatesh
Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) has been associated with severe dengue outbreaks in many countries including India. Its predominance was recorded nearly after a decade in the capital city, Delhi in 2013. The present study characterizes DENV-2 circulated during 2013-2014. Analysis based on envelope (E) gene showed the presence of two clades (I and II) of DENV-2, within the Cosmopolitan genotype. Analysis of time of most recent common ancestor revealed the existence of clade I for more than a decade (95 % HPD 13-16 years) however, clade II showed comparatively recent emergence (95 % HPD 5-13 years)...
December 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004019/role-of-nitric-oxide-in-the-regulation-of-immune-responses-during-rabies-virus-infection-in-mice
#2
B P Madhu, K P Singh, M Saminathan, R Singh, N Shivasharanappa, A K Sharma, Yashpal S Malik, K Dhama, V Manjunatha
Rabies virus (RABV) stimulates nitric oxide (NO) production, which either triggers T cell differentiation or suppresses T cell function depending on its concentration. Herein, we assessed the potential role of NO in regulation of immune responses during RABV infection in mice model. The experimental animals were divided into four groups and 100LD50 of challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of RABV was inoculated intracerebrally on day 0 and subsequently aminoguanidine (AG; inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) was injected intraperitoneally twice a day, up to 6 days...
December 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004018/isolation-and-phylogenetic-characterization-of-haemagglutinin-and-neuraminidase-genes-of-h9n2-low-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-virus-isolated-from-commercial-layers-in-india
#3
Vasudevan Gowthaman, Shambu Dayal Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Palani Srinivasan, Sellappan Saravanan, Thippichettypalayam Ramasamy Gopala Krishna Murthy, Kuppanan Sukumar, Basavaraj Mathapati, Camille Lebarbenchon, Yashpal Singh Malik, Muthannan Andavar Ramakrishnan
Avian influenza is a highly infectious and dynamically evolving disease of birds causing high morbidity and mortality. It is caused by avian influenza virus (AIV) that belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae. Two types of AIV have been described based on their pathogenicity viz. highly pathogenic avian influenza virus that causes severe disease with high mortality and low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAI) that generally causes asymptomatic infection or a mild disease. The H9N2 subtype is the widely circulated LPAI type in the world...
December 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004017/development-of-a-multiplex-rt-pcr-for-simultaneous-diagnosis-of-human-metapneumovirus-hmpv-and-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-hrsv-from-clinical-specimens
#4
Seetha Dayakar, Heera R Pillai, Vineetha P Thulasi, Radhakrishnan R Nair
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) are ubiquitous respiratory viral pathogens. They belong to the family Paramyxoviridae (subfamily Pneumovirinae) and is responsible for acute respiratory tract infections in children, elderly and immunocompromised patients. We designed and tested a multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) as a cost-effective alternative to real-time PCR and cell culture based detection for HMPV and HRSV. The newly developed PCR was used to screen nasal/throat swab samples from 356 patients with suspected acute respiratory infection attending the Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India...
December 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004016/peginterferon-alfa-2a-ribavirin-treatment-efficacy-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-is-related-to-natural-killer-group-2d-gene-rs1049174-gc-polymorphism
#5
Abolghasem Asadi-Saghandi, Ali Shams, Gilda Eslami, Seyed Ali Mirghanizadeh, Ebrahim Eskandari-Nasab
Natural killer group 2D (NKG2D), as an activating receptor, plays pivotal role in viral infectious diseases. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NKG2D gene have characterized that the rs1049174G/C SNP of NKG2D is in the spotlight of notice because of its role in activating of human T cells. This study aimed to investigate rs1049174G/C genetic polymorphism in Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) patients. The study compromised 107 CHC patients with genotype 1a and 1b. All recruited patients were under treatment with Peginterferon Alfa-2a/Ribavirin according to standard protocol...
December 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004015/influenza-infection-modulates-vesicular-trafficking-and-induces-golgi-complex-disruption
#6
Vibha Yadav, Antonito T Panganiban, Kerstin Honer Zu Bentrup, Thomas G Voss
Influenza A virus (IFV) replicates its genome in the nucleus of infected cells and uses the cellular protein transport system for genome trafficking from the nucleus to the plasma membrane. However, many details of the mechanism of this process, and its relationship to subsequent cytoplasmic virus trafficking, have not been elucidated. We examined the effect of nuclear transport inhibitors Leptomycin B (LB), 5,6 dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB), the vesicular transport inhibitor Brefeldin A (BFA), the caspase inhibitor ZWEHD, and microtubule inhibitor Nocodazole (NOC) on virus replication and intracellular trafficking of viral nucleoprotein (NP) from the nucleus to the ER and Golgi...
December 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004014/risky-exposures-and-national-estimate-of-hcv-seroprevalence-among-school-children-in-urban-egypt
#7
Ekram W Abd El-Wahab, Ahmed Abdel Maksoud, Hanan Z Shatat, Amira M Kotkat
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world, particularly in Egypt. Limited data are available concerning the national seroprevalence and the possible modes of transmission of HCV in the pediatric age group. The aim of this study was to obtain a better estimate of the national hepatitis C seroprevalence and the possible risky exposures among healthy school children in Alexandria; the second biggest city in Egypt. HCV knowledge and counseling for school children were also investigated...
December 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004013/aberrant-expression-of-interleukin-6-and-its-receptor-in-fallopian-tubes-bearing-an-ectopic-pregnancy-with-and-without-tubal-cytomegalovirus-infection
#8
Ahmed Mohamed Ashshi
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has recently been suggested as a potential risk factor for the development of ectopic pregnancy (EP) following upper genital tract infection in women. However, little is known about its associated underlying pathogenic mechanisms. This was a prospective case-control study that measured the prevalence of CMV infection in Fallopian tubes (FT) bearing an EP and its effects on the tubal expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and its signaling molecules, which are known to play significant roles in the immune response against CMV infection as well as embryo implantation...
December 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004012/newcastle-disease-in-nigeria-epizootiology-and-current-knowledge-of-circulating-genotypes
#9
REVIEW
Ismaila Shittu, Tony M Joannis, Georgina N Odaibo, Olufemi D Olaleye
Over the years, Newcastle disease (ND) has defied all available control measures. The disease has remained at the forefront of infectious diseases afflicting poultry production after avian influenza. Despite the continuous global use of million doses of ND vaccine annually, the causative pathogen, avian paramyxovirus type 1 also known as Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has continued to evolve causing, even more, a threat not only to the unvaccinated but the vaccinated flocks inclusive. The disease has been well studied in the developed countries where the virus is found in circulation...
December 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366776/orf-virus-infection-in-human-ecthyma-contagiosum-a-report-of-two-cases-in-the-west-of-iran
#10
Seyed Sajjad Hasheminasab, Ali Mahmoodi, Parvin Mahmoodi, Hossein Maghsood
Ecthyma contagiosum is caused by the orf virus, a member of the genus Parapoxvirus in the family Poxviridae. Humans acquire the infection from contact with infected or recently vaccinated animals in conjunction with skin trauma. In this study, we report two cases of orf infection in two women who had contact with animals. Diagnosis was based, apart from the clinical signs, on histological examination, virus isolation using fetal bovine esophagus cells, electron microscopy and PCR.
June 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366775/first-report-of-association-of-potato-virus-x-and-potato-virus-y-and-candidatus-phytoplasma-trifolii-in-brinjal-in-india
#11
Manish Kumar, Akshay Katiyar, Madhupriya, G P Rao
Symptoms of little leaf, leaf chlorosis and leaf malformations with mosaic mottling symptoms were observed in two brinjal varieties (Pusa Shyamla and Pusa Purple Cluster) in fields of IARI, New Delhi, India during 2014-2015. Electron microscopy, PCR and sequence analysis first time provided evidence of association of Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii with potato virus X and potato virus Y in brinjal in India.
June 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366774/phylogenetic-analysis-of-newcastle-disease-virus-isolates-occurring-in-india-during-1989-2013
#12
P A Desingu, S D Singh, K Dhama, K Karthik, O R Vinodh Kumar, Y S Malik
The study details characterization of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from commercial poultry flocks (chicken) and wild birds (crane) of India during the time period from 1989 to 2013. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the NDV isolates belongs to class II, genotype XIIIa and a chicken isolate (108/BAREILLY/AD-IVRI/91) was of genotype VI, where it showed diversity of 3 % from the other viruses belonging to same genotype. Another chicken isolate (75/RAMPUR/AD-IVRI/89) grouped in genotype III and showed 4 % diversity with viruses of genotype III...
June 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366773/occurrence-and-identification-of-contagious-ecthyma-in-blackbuck
#13
Anil Kumar Sharma, Gnanavel Venkatesan, Karikalan Mathesh, Hira Ram, Muthanan Andavar Ramakrishnan, Awadh Bihari Pandey
A carcass of male free ranging adult blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) was presented for necropsy examination exhibiting thick confluent nodular skin lesions around the mouth and the dry scaly crusts/fissures on the skin of abdomen, thigh and shoulder with subcutaneous haemorrhages. The skin sample around mouth was found positive for orf virus (ORFV) identified by counterimmunoelectrophoresis and PCR. Histopathology of the mouth skin revealed the hyperkeratinization, epidermal sloughing and epithelial hyperplasia showing acanthosis with rete ridges and few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in keratinocytes...
June 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366772/partial-biological-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-cucumber-mosaic-virus-isolate-naturally-infecting-cucumis-melo-in-iran
#14
Rasoul Rasoulpour, Alireza Afsharifar, Keramat Izadpanah
Melon seedlings showing systemic chlorotic spots and mosaic symptoms were collected in central part of Iran, and a virus was isolated from diseased plants by mechanical inoculation. The virus systemically infected the most inoculated test plants by inducing mosaic symptoms, while, in the members of Fabaceae family and Chenopodium quinoa induced local lesions. Agar gel diffusion test using a polyclonal antiserum against a squash Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolate showed the presence of CMV in the mechanically inoculated plants (designated CMV-Me)...
June 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366771/molecular-characterization-of-tospoviruses-associated-with-ringspot-disease-in-bell-pepper-from-different-districts-of-himachal-pradesh
#15
Anshul Sharma, Saurabh Kulshrestha
Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), an important cash crop for the farmers of Himachal Pradesh was found to be affected with tospovirus like disease. An extensive survey was conducted in the bell pepper grown areas in the five districts of Himachal Pradesh to identify and characterize the causative agent. Hence, 60 symptomatic bell pepper plants exhibiting characteristics symptoms were collected from Solan, Sirmaur, Hamirpur, Kangra and Bilaspur districts. Out of 60 samples, 53 samples were found to be positive by DAS-ELISA with tospovirus group specific antiserum...
June 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366770/chikungunya-a-reemerging-infection-spreading-during-2010-dengue-fever-outbreak-in-national-capital-region-of-india
#16
V G Ramachandran, Shukla Das, Priyamvada Roy, Vivek Hada, Narendra Singh Mogha
Chikungunya fever is an important reemerging arbovirus illness, which is transmitted by the same vector as of dengue virus. Many cases of concurrent infections with multiple dengue virus serotypes have been reported in many countries. Also, concurrent infection with Chikungunya virus and dengue virus has been reported in the past in Delhi. Therefore, this study was done to detect Chikungunya IgM antibodies in suspected dengue fever patients. In this study, 1666 serum samples suspected of dengue fever and collected during the outbreak period (August 2010-December 2010) were tested for dengue IgM antibodies, of which 736 tested negative...
June 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366769/rotavirus-infections-in-detroit-usa-a-region-of-low-vaccine-prevalence
#17
Nahed Abdel-Haq, Muhammad Amjad, Eric McGrath, Hossein Salimnia, Marilynn Fairfax, Basim I Asmar
After a sharp drop of rotavirus (RV) infections at Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, USA in 2010 season, we noted an increase in the number of cases during the 2011 season including some RV vaccine (RVV) recipients. This study was conducted to determine the circulating genotypes during 2011 season and whether the increase in RV diarrhea was caused by replacement genotypes. G and P genotypes were determined by RT PCR and nucleotide sequencing of selected strains was performed. The vaccination rate among study patients was 24 %...
June 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366768/antiviral-activity-of-the-oseltamivir-and-melissa-officinalis-l-essential-oil-against-avian-influenza-a-virus-h9n2
#18
Gholamhosein Pourghanbari, Hasan Nili, Afagh Moattari, Ali Mohammadi, Aida Iraji
Lemon balm derivatives are going to acquire a novelty as natural and potent remedy for treatment of viral infections since the influenza viruses are developing resistance to the current antivirals widely. Oseltamivir, Melissa officinalis essential oil (MOEO) and their synergistic efficacy against avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H9N2 were evaluated in vitro in MDCK cells at different time exposure by using TCID50, HA, Real Time PCR and HI assay. The results showed that MOEO could inhibit replication of AVI through the different virus replication phase (P ≤ 0...
June 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366767/evidence-of-genetic-drift-and-reassortment-in-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-and-emergence-of-outbreaks-in-poultry-farms-in-india
#19
Amrutlal K Patel, Vinod C Pandey, Joy K Pal
Recurrent outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) have become a burning problem to the poultry industry worldwide. Here, we performed genetic analysis of IBD virus (IBDV) field isolates from recent outbreaks in various poultry farms in India. The sequence analysis of IBDV VP2 hypervariable region revealed amino acid pattern similar to that of very virulent (222A, 242I, 253Q, 256I, 272I, 279D, 284A, 294I, 299S and 330S) and intermediate plus virulent (222A, 242I, 253Q, 256I, 272T, 279N, 284A, 294I, 299S and 330S) type whereas analysis of VP1 revealed presence of sequence similar to that of very virulent (61I, 145T) and unique (61I, 141I, 143D, 145S) type in field isolates...
June 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366766/molecular-characterization-of-banana-bunchy-top-virus-isolate-from-sri-lanka-and-its-genetic-relationship-with-other-isolates
#20
W A R T Wickramaarachchi, K S Shankarappa, K T Rangaswamy, M N Maruthi, R G A S Rajapakse, Saptarshi Ghosh
Bunchy top disease of banana caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus family Nanoviridae) is one of the most important constraints in production of banana in the different parts of the world. Six genomic DNA components of BBTV isolate from Kandy, Sri Lanka (BBTV-K) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers using total DNA extracted from banana tissues showing typical symptoms of bunchy top disease. The amplicons were of expected size of 1.0-1.1 kb, which were cloned and sequenced...
June 2016: Virusdisease
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