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Parichate Tangkanchanapas, Hathairat Juenak, Kris De Jonghe
A number of viroids can cause serious damage on Citrus spp. ranging from stunting, bark scaling, yellowing and epinasty of leaves over stem pitting and gumming. However, so far, they have never been found in Thailand. In recent years, the import of orange and lime fruits from China and Cambodia, respectively, increased, and holds a substantial risk of viroid introduction and spread in Thailand. Orange and lime fruit samples in 2013 and 2014 were screened for the presence of citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), hop stunt viroid (HSVd), citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd) and citrus dwarfing viroid (CDVd; CVd-IIId) by means of specific RT-PCR methods...
September 2018: Virusdisease
O A Fagbohun, T O Omobowale
Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) is the most common viral cause of gastroenteritis in puppies in Nigeria and worldwide. After its emergence in 1978, the wild-type CPV-2 was rapidly replaced by three antigenic subtypes CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. Subtype CPV-2a has been reported in Nigeria based on limited number of samples. As such, this study was carried out with 56 faecal samples and four CPV-2 vaccines using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing to have a better idea of CPV-2 subtypes circulating in dogs in Nigeria...
September 2018: Virusdisease
Showket A Ahanger, Rafia Parveen, Salik Nazki, Zahoor Dar, Tanveer Dar, Khadim Hussain Dar, Aijaz Dar, Niraj Rai, Pervaiz Dar
Orf virus (ORFV) is a zoonotic pathogen that primarily infects sheep and goats, and is responsible for significant economic losses. ORFV is endemic in all the major sheep and goat rearing areas of the world including Indian subcontinent. However, the nature of ORFV circulating among sheep and goat in Kashmir Himalayas has not yet been characterized. In the present study, we describe natural outbreaks of ORFV in sheep and goats of Kashmir Himalayas. We detected the presence of ORFV in the scab lesion by PCR amplification of the major envelope protein (B2L) gene...
September 2018: Virusdisease
John Emmanuel E Lapira, Michelle M Balbin, Lawrence P Belotindos, Victoria V Viloria, Nancy S Abes, Claro N Mingala
In the Philippines, bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is currently undetected and considered as an exotic disease of both cattle and water buffaloes. The Philippines until now has no official data regarding the occurrence of BEF. There were no existing control programs or vaccine used for the prevention of the disease. However, there are claims of BEF existence in different water buffalo and cattle farms based on the clinical signs but never confirmed using laboratory test yet. Detection of BEF virus in cattle and water buffalo blood samples was conducted using reverse-transcription PCR targeting the glycoprotein ( G ) gene, a conserved region in the BEF virus genome...
September 2018: Virusdisease
Puja Mech, Durlav P Bora, Samsun Neher, Nagendra N Barman, Probodh Borah, Shantanu Tamuly, Lakshya J Dutta, Sailendra K Das
Outbreaks of swinepox [caused by a swinepox virus (SWPV)] in pigs were investigated in 3 districts of Assam, a north eastern state of India. Diagnosis of the disease was carried out employing both standard virological as well as molecular methods. Three representative isolates from different places were selected for inoculation into confluent monolayers of Porcine Kidney-15 (PK-15) cell line. The cytopathic effects were characterized by cell rounding, nuclear vacuolation, cell fusion, granulation of cells and finally detachment from third blind passage onwards...
September 2018: Virusdisease
Fatemeh Sadat Mousavi, Arash Ghalyanchilangeroudi, Hossein Hosseini, Bahar Nayeri Fasaei, Seyed Ali Ghafouri, Hamed Abdollahi, Mohammad Hosein Fallah-Mehrabadi, Naser Sadri
The nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain IS-1494 like (variant-2; GI-23) was first isolated in the Middle East (1998). Despite intensive vaccinations, IS-1494 like IBVs are still circulating in Iran (the dominant genotype) and spread to other countries. Here, the full-length genome of this Iranian IS-1494 like IBV was (Mahed) determined to understand its evolutionary relationships. The genome consists of 27,652 nucleotides, with mutations in most of the structural genes. Thirteen open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted in the Mahed isolate (5' UTR-1a-1b-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-6b-3' UTR)...
September 2018: Virusdisease
Felipe Bedolla López, María E Trujillo Ortega, Susana Mendoza Elvira, Victor Quintero Ramírez, Rogelio Alonso Morales, Humberto Ramírez-Mendoza, Jose I Sanchez-Betancourt
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), family Circoviridae , genus Circovirus infection in domestic pig has been associated with several pathological conditions being the most important of them the postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Many studies have demonstrated the existence of three PCV2 genotypes (a, b, and c) and recently PCV3. Until now, these genotypes or subgenotypes have not been described in Mexico. We found genetic changes in ORF2 from nine strains of PCV2 obtained from samples of Jalisco, Veracruz, Estado de México, Hidalgo and Sonora states of Mexico...
September 2018: Virusdisease
Salonee Pandey, Mahima Sahu, Varsha Potdar, Pradip Barde
Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 emerged as a major public health problem in 2009. The virus has evolved since then and has acquired several mutations that are epidemiologically important. Viral hemagglutinin (HA) protein is crucial determinant for virus entry, antigenicity, and virulence. The information regarding amino acid substitutions in HA protein of viruses circulating in India during 2017 is lacking. We sequenced HA gene of Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 detected in Central India and compared the amino acid sequences with present vaccine component and contemporary Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 sequences...
September 2018: Virusdisease
Nilotpal Banerjee, Bibhuti Saha, Sumi Mukhopadhyay
Chikungunya (CHIK) is an arboviral infection having huge global burden affecting the life style of the patient badly due to debilitating polyarthralgia. This study aims to evaluate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in peripheral blood of patients suffering with persisting polyarthralgia post CHIK infection and the potential of Tinospora cordifolia leaf extract in scavenging those free radicals in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of the patient. Peripheral blood was collected from written informed consented patients and intracellular ROS was measured in PBMC of patients suffering with persisting polyarthralgia 3 months post CHIK infection followed by the study of free radical scavenging by T...
September 2018: Virusdisease
Sami Ullah, Muhammad Akram Khan, Shafiq Ur Rahman, Imran Khan, Fazal Akbar, Anshu Babbar
With about 200 million infections globally, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global health threat. The relative prevalence of hepatitis and HCV genotypes/subtypes varies among different geographic regions. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C and HCV genotypes/subtypes in District Dir (Lower), Pakistan. Blood samples from HCV positive patients were genotyped through multiplex PCR using specific primers for HCV core region. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from the patients and data was statistically analyzed for different epidemiological parameters...
September 2018: Virusdisease
Gundallhalli Bayyappa Manjunatha Reddy, Sumana Krishnappa, Balamurugan Vinayagamurthy, Rajendra Singh, Karam Pal Singh, Mani Saminathan, Basavaraj Sajjanar, Habibur Rahman
Rabies is a neglected viral zoonotic disease affecting humans, domestic and wild animals and is endemic in most parts of the India. Dog mediated rabies is more predominant than other forms of rabies and molecular epidemiology is poorly understood in both reservoir and susceptible hosts. In the present study, a total of 140 rabies suspected brain samples from different species of animals from different geographical regions of India were used. The samples were parallelly tested by direct fluorescent antibody test, reverse transcriptase PCR and real-time PCR...
September 2018: Virusdisease
Ana Margarida Henriques, Margarida Duarte, Sílvia Carla Barros, Teresa Fagulha, Fernanda Ramos, Tiago Luís, Miguel Fevereiro
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a spherical and non-enveloped virus belonging to the genus Circovirus of the Circoviridae family with a single stranded circular DNA genome. This virus, already detected worldwide, has been associated to several diseases and was implicated as the etiological agent of a disease named postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Several methods have been described for the detection of PCV2, being real-time PCR the most simple and reliable. As far as we know, all the real-time PCR systems described until now are based on ORF2 gene, that exhibit the highest variability...
September 2018: Virusdisease
M Asok Kumar, M Palanivelu, R Barathidasan, Deepak Kumar, S D Singh, Shyma K Lateef, Rajendra Singh, K Dhama
Marek's disease (MD) and lymphoid leucosis (LL) are the major diseases causing lymphoid tumors in chickens accounting for high economical losses. Gross examination could not yield definite diagnosis owing to their similar presentation of lesions. Thus present work was aimed for diagnosis and differentiation of MD and LL by utilizing simple cytology and novel immunocytology techniques. Cytological examination was carried out on slides with tumor touch imprints stained by simple Giemsa staining. The diagnosis was mainly achieved based on morphology of cell population...
September 2018: Virusdisease
Gemerlyn G Garcia, Mark Arman D Aquino, Michelle M Balbin, Lawrence P Belotindos, Jonathan G Supnet, Claro N Mingala
The viral agent of the porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) was investigated during the reported 2014-2015 outbreaks in commercial farms in Central Luzon, Philippines. The study covered detection of PED virus (PEDV) in fecal and intestinal samples through reverse transcription PCR and sequence analysis of the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Results showed that 10 out of 34 fecal and intestinal samples examined were positive for PEDV. The partial nucleotide sequence of the N gene of the field samples showed 98-99% homologous to PEDV sequences registered in the GenBank...
September 2018: Virusdisease
Sara Abdel-Mawgod, Amany Adel, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Hussein A Hussein
Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an important pathogen associated with immunosuppression in chicken. In this study, out of samples collected from 115 commercial poultry farms, 12 samples were CAV positive by PCR. Partial sequence and phylogenetic analysis of VP1 gene revealed that the detected viruses were clustered to genotype I (n = 3) and genotype II (n = 9). Motifs of both low (E144) and high pathogenic strains (T89, I125, Q141) were found in the three viruses of genotype I. Whereas genotype II viruses demonstrated the characteristic motifs of highly pathogenic strains (I75, T89, I125, Q141, and Q144)...
September 2018: Virusdisease
Nermeen M Ismail, Ayman H El-Deeb, Mohamed M Emara, Hoda I Tawfik, Nabil Abdel Wanis, Hussein A Hussein
In the present study, we carried-out assessment of efficacy of different immunization strategies using two bivalent vaccine formulations containing antigens of inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV-genotype VIId) and reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1-HPAIV) mixed with Montanide ISA71 and Montanide Gel02 as adjuvants. The efficacy of the prepared vaccines was evaluated by determining the cellular and humoral immune responses. In addition, protection against H5N1-AIV and NDV-genotype VIId challenge viruses post vaccination was assessed when Montanide-Gel02 based vaccine was inoculated in 10-days-old specific pathogen free chicks intraocularly once, twice or once followed by a boost with the Montanide ISA71 based vaccine...
September 2018: Virusdisease
Zohreh Moradi, Mohsen Mehrvar, Ehsan Nazifi
Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV; genus Poacevirus , family Potyviridae ) is a major causal agent of sugarcane mosaic disease in Asia. A survey of SCSMV was conducted in cultivated fields in Khuzestan province, southwestern Iran. Sixty-five sugarcane leaf samples showing mosaic symptoms were collected and investigated by RT-PCR. Almost one-fourth of the samples were found to be infected by SCSMV. To verify molecular variability, 12 SCSMV isolates were sequenced and analyzed by comparing partial NIb-CP gene sequences...
September 2018: Virusdisease
Kajal K Biswas, Supratik Palchoudhury, Susheel K Sharma, Bikram Saha, Shruti Godara, Dilip K Ghosh, Manjunath L Keremane
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV, genus Closterovirus ) is one of the most serious pathogens responsible for huge loss of citrus trees worldwide. Four Indian CTV isolates, Kat1 ( C. reticulata /Central India), D1 ( C. sinensis /North India), B5 ( Citrus limettoides /South India) and G28 ( C. lemon /Northeast India) collected from different regions of India were characterized based on sequencing of 3' half genome (~ 8.4 kb) comprising 10 open reading frames (ORFs2-11) and 3' UTR and the sequences were submitted to NCBI database as Acc...
September 2018: Virusdisease
A K M Muraduzzaman, Ahmed Nawsher Alam, Sharmin Sultana, Mahmuda Siddiqua, Manjur Hossain Khan, Arifa Akram, Farhana Haque, Meerjady Sabrina Flora, Tahmina Shirin
To identify the circulating serotype(s) of dengue viruses in Bangladesh, a retrospective molecular identification was performed on stored serum samples of dengue surveillance during the period of 2013-2016. Real time RT-PCR was performed on serum samples collected from the patients with less than 5 days fever for detection of dengue virus nucleic acid. The samples, positive for dengue PCR were further analyzed for serotypes by real time RT-PCR. The overall prevalence of dengue virus infection was varied among 13-42% in study years with a single peak flanked by April to September...
September 2018: Virusdisease
Mona Akhondnezhad, Mohammad Reza Haghshenas, Maryam Ghasemi, Tahoora Mousavi
Oral cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world which contains many kinds of malignant neoplasms in the oral cavity. Due to the carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its prevalence in cancer, including the oral cancer, this study was aimed at investigate the prevalence of HPV and its genotypes in patients suffering from oral tumors using PCR method. In this study, 83 samples of oral lesions were collected in the form of paraffin-embedded tissue. After extracting the DNA using DNA extraction kits, high-risk HPV positive samples were examined using special kits for genotyping, and low-risk types were sequenced after nested PCR...
September 2018: Virusdisease
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