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Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799083/an-evolutionary-behaviorist-perspective-on-orgasm
#1
Diana S Fleischman
Evolutionary explanations for sexual behavior and orgasm most often posit facilitating reproduction as the primary function (i.e. greater rate of fertilization). Other reproductive benefits of sexual pleasure and orgasm such as improved bonding of parents have also been discussed but not thoroughly. Although sex is known to be highly reinforcing, behaviorist principles are rarely invoked alongside evolutionary psychology in order to account for human sexual and social behavior. In this paper, I will argue that intense sexual pleasure, especially orgasm, can be understood as a primary reinforcer shaped by evolution to reinforce behavior that facilitates reproductive success (i...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799082/measuring-sperm-backflow-following-female-orgasm-a-new-method
#2
Robert King, Maria Dempsey, Katherine A Valentine
BACKGROUND: Human female orgasm is a vexed question in the field while there is credible evidence of cryptic female choice that has many hallmarks of orgasm in other species. Our initial goal was to produce a proof of concept for allowing females to study an aspect of infertility in a home setting, specifically by aligning the study of human infertility and increased fertility with the study of other mammalian fertility. In the latter case - the realm of oxytocin-mediated sperm retention mechanisms seems to be at work in terms of ultimate function (differential sperm retention) while the proximate function (rapid transport or cervical tenting) remains unresolved...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799081/do-rats-have-orgasms
#3
James G Pfaus, Tina Scardochio, Mayte Parada, Christine Gerson, Gonzalo R Quintana, Genaro A Coria-Avila
BACKGROUND: Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. METHOD: Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs) in other species: 1) physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2) short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3) long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799080/the-role-of-orgasm-in-the-development-and-shaping-of-partner-preferences
#4
Genaro A Coria-Avila, Deissy Herrera-Covarrubias, Nafissa Ismail, James G Pfaus
BACKGROUND: The effect of orgasm on the development and shaping of partner preferences may involve a catalysis of the neurochemical mechanisms of bonding. Therefore, understanding such process is relevant for neuroscience and psychology. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out using the terms Orgasm, Sexual Reward, Partner Preference, Pair Bonding, Brain, Learning, Sex, Copulation. RESULTS: In humans, concentrations of arousing neurotransmitters and potential bonding neurotransmitters increase during orgasm in the cerebrospinal fluid and the bloodstream...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799079/what-is-orgasm-a-model-of-sexual-trance-and-climax-via-rhythmic-entrainment
#5
Adam Safron
Orgasm is one of the most intense pleasures attainable to an organism, yet its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. On the basis of existing literatures, this article introduces a novel mechanistic model of sexual stimulation and orgasm. In doing so, it characterizes the neurophenomenology of sexual trance and climax, describes parallels in dynamics between orgasms and seizures, speculates on possible evolutionary origins of sex differences in orgasmic responding, and proposes avenues for future experimentation...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799078/determinants-of-female-sexual-orgasms
#6
Osmo Kontula, Anneli Miettinen
BACKGROUND: The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. OBJECTIVE: This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner's sexual techniques...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791969/introductory-editorial-to-orgasm-neurophysiological-psychological-and-evolutionary-perspectives
#7
EDITORIAL
Victoria Klimaj, Adam Safron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791968/the-whole-versus-the-sum-of-some-of-the-parts-toward-resolving-the-apparent-controversy-of-clitoral-versus-vaginal-orgasms
#8
James G Pfaus, Gonzalo R Quintana, Conall Mac Cionnaith, Mayte Parada
BACKGROUND: The nature of a woman's orgasm has been a source of scientific, political, and cultural debate for over a century. Since the Victorian era, the pendulum has swung from the vagina to the clitoris, and to some extent back again, with the current debate stuck over whether internal sensory structures exist in the vagina that could account for orgasms based largely on their stimulation, or whether stimulation of the external glans clitoris is always necessary for orgasm. METHOD: We review the history of the clitoral versus vaginal orgasm debate as it has evolved with conflicting ideas and data from psychiatry and psychoanalysis, epidemiology, evolutionary theory, feminist political theory, physiology, and finally neuroscience...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791967/testing-the-mate-choice-hypothesis-of-the-female-orgasm-disentangling-traits-and-behaviours
#9
James M Sherlock, Morgan J Sidari, Emily Ann Harris, Fiona Kate Barlow, Brendan P Zietsch
BACKGROUND: The evolution of the female orgasm in humans and its role in romantic relationships is poorly understood. Whereas the male orgasm is inherently linked to reproduction, the female orgasm is not linked to obvious reproductive or survival benefits. It also occurs less consistently during penetrative sex than does the male orgasm. Mate-choice hypotheses posit that the wide variation in female orgasm frequency reflects a discriminatory mechanism designed to select high-quality mates...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791966/activation-of-sensory-cortex-by-imagined-genital-stimulation-an-fmri-analysis
#10
Nan J Wise, Eleni Frangos, Barry R Komisaruk
BACKGROUND: During the course of a previous study, our laboratory made a serendipitous finding that just thinking about genital stimulation resulted in brain activations that overlapped with, and differed from, those generated by physical genital stimulation. OBJECTIVE: This study extends our previous findings by further characterizing how the brain differentially processes physical 'touch' stimulation and 'imagined' stimulation. DESIGN: Eleven healthy women (age range 29-74) participated in an fMRI study of the brain response to imagined or actual tactile stimulation of the nipple and clitoris...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774954/regularity-effect-in-prospective-memory-during-aging
#11
Geoffrey Blondelle, Mathieu Hainselin, Yannick Gounden, Laurent Heurley, Hélène Voisin, Olga Megalakaki, Estelle Bressous, Véronique Quaglino
BACKGROUND: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM), but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18-30), 16 intermediate adults (40-55), and 25 older adults (65-80)...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26993788/new-therapeutic-approaches-in-psychiatry-contribution-of-neuroscience
#12
EDITORIAL
Virginie Moulier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26993787/neural-correlates-of-cognitive-improvements-following-cognitive-remediation-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-trials
#13
REVIEW
Clémence Isaac, Dominique Januel
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments are a core feature in schizophrenia and are linked to poor social functioning. Numerous studies have shown that cognitive remediation can enhance cognitive and functional abilities in patients with this pathology. The underlying mechanism of these behavioral improvements seems to be related to structural and functional changes in the brain. However, studies on neural correlates of such enhancement remain scarce. OBJECTIVES: We explored the neural correlates of cognitive enhancement following cognitive remediation interventions in schizophrenia and the differential effect between cognitive training and other therapeutic interventions or patients' usual care...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26993786/effect-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-mood-in-healthy-subjects
#14
Virginie Moulier, Christian Gaudeau-Bosma, Clémence Isaac, Anne-Camille Allard, Noomane Bouaziz, Djedia Sidhoumi, Sonia Braha-Zeitoun, René Benadhira, Fanny Thomas, Dominique Januel
BACKGROUND: High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has shown significant efficiency in the treatment of resistant depression. However in healthy subjects, the effects of rTMS remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the impact of 10 sessions of rTMS applied to the DLPFC on mood and emotion recognition in healthy subjects. DESIGN: In a randomised double-blind study, 20 subjects received 10 daily sessions of active (10 Hz frequency) or sham rTMS...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26993785/the-application-of-tdcs-in-psychiatric-disorders-a-brain-imaging-view
#15
REVIEW
Chris Baeken, Jerome Brunelin, Romain Duprat, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive, non-convulsive technique for modulating brain function. In contrast to other non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, where costs, clinical applicability, and availability limit their large-scale use in clinical practices, the low-cost, portable, and easy-to-use tDCS devices may overcome these restrictions. OBJECTIVE: Despite numerous clinical applications in large numbers of patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, it is not quite clear how tDCS influences the mentally affected human brain...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26546793/social-interaction-is-associated-with-changes-in-infants-motor-activity
#16
Céline Scola, Marie Bourjade, Marianne Jover
BACKGROUND: In developmental research, infants are commonly assumed to be early stakeholders in interactions with their caregivers. The tools that infants can use to interact with others vary from visual contact to smiling or vocalizing, and also include motor activity. However, surprisingly few studies have explored how the nature and context of social interactions affect infants' engagement in motor activity. METHODS: We investigated the kinematic properties of foot and face movements produced by 11 infants aged between 5 and 9 months during six contrasting dyadic episodes (i...
2015: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26546792/memory-for-action-from-cognitive-models-to-clinical-evaluation
#17
Mathieu Hainselin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26507953/how-we-remember-what-we-can-do
#18
Gunnar Declerck
According to the motor simulation theory, the knowledge we possess of what we can do is based on simulation mechanisms triggered by an off-line activation of the brain areas involved in motor control. Action capabilities memory does not work by storing some content, but consists in the capacity, rooted in sensory-motor systems, to reenact off-line action sequences exhibiting the range of our powers. In this paper, I present several arguments from cognitive neuropsychology, but also first-person analysis of experience, against this hypothesis...
2015: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26246478/perceiving-what-you-intend-to-do-from-what-you-do-evidence-for-embodiment-in-social-interactions
#19
Francois Quesque, Yann Coello
Although action and perception are central components of our interactions with the external world, the most recent experimental investigations also support their implications in the emotional, decision-making, and goal ascription processes in social context. In this article, we review the existing literature supporting this view and highlighting a link between reach-to-grasp motor actions and social communicative processes. First, we discuss the most recent experimental findings showing how the social context subtly influences the execution of object-oriented motor actions...
2015: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26159158/the-role-of-motor-memory-in-action-selection-and-procedural-learning-insights-from-children-with-typical-and-atypical-development
#20
Jessica Tallet, Jean-Michel Albaret, James Rivière
Motor memory is the process by which humans can adopt both persistent and flexible motor behaviours. Persistence and flexibility can be assessed through the examination of the cooperation/competition between new and old motor routines in the motor memory repertoire. Two paradigms seem to be particularly relevant to examine this competition/cooperation. First, a manual search task for hidden objects, namely the C-not-B task, which allows examining how a motor routine may influence the selection of action in toddlers...
2015: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
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