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Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

Rei Mizuno, Kenji Kawada, Yoshiharu Sakai
Although a number of studies have revealed the underlying mechanisms which regulate the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), we have not completely overcome this disease yet. Accumulating evidence has shown that the posttranscriptional regulation by the noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs plays an important role in the development or progression of CRC. Among a number of microRNAs, the let-7 microRNA family that was first discovered in C. elegans and conserved from worms to humans has been linked with the development of many types of cancers including CRC...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Min Woo Lee, Hyo Keun Lim, Hyunchul Rhim, Dong Ik Cha, Tae Wook Kang, Kyoung Doo Song, Ji Hye Min, Geum-Youn Gwak, Seonwoo Kim, David S K Lu
Purpose: To assess usefulness of adding contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) to fusion imaging (FI) for percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) inconspicuous on FI alone. Therapeutic outcomes of RFA under CEUS-added FI guidance for HCCs inconspicuous on FI alone were also evaluated. Methods: This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Planning US was performed with FI for 126 patients with a single HCC (1-2 cm) to evaluate the feasibility of RFA by grading lesion conspicuity score using a four-point scale...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Lachaine Jean, Miron Audrey, Catherine Beauchemin, On Behalf Of The iGenoMed Consortium
Objective: The objective of this literature review was to evaluate the existing evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of treatment options in IBD. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify economic evaluations of IBD therapy. The literature search was performed using electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE. Searches were limited to full economic evaluations published in English or French between 2004 and 2016. Results: A total of 5,403 potentially relevant studies were identified...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Peter C Church, Jeffrey Hyams, Frank Ruemmele, Lissy de Ridder, Dan Turner, Anne M Griffiths
Background and Aims: Use of anti-TNF therapies varies internationally. As an initiative of the international Pediatric IBD Network (PIBDNet), we compared global pediatric IBD anti-TNF practice patterns. Methods: Physicians were surveyed about anti-TNF use in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Chi-squared, independent samples Mann-Whitney U , or related samples Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare groups. Results: 344 physicians treating pediatric IBD responded from 43 countries (54% North America, 29% Europe, 6% Oceania, 6% Asia, 3% Africa, and 2% South America)...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Hikmet Akkiz, Brian I Carr, Sedef Kuran, Ümit Karaoğullarından, Oguz Üsküdar, Salih Tokmak, Burcu Arslan, Figen Doran, Hüseyin Tugsan Balli, Abdulalh Ülkü, Tolga Atılgan Akçam, Halil İbrahim Bahçeci, Kamil Yalçın Polat, Necati Örmeci, Halis Şimşek, Abdullah Sonsuz, Ali Demir, Engin Altıntaş, Mehmet Demir, Kendal Yalçın, Nazım Ekinci, Ayşegül Harmancı Özakyol, Mehmet Yücesoy, Ahmet Uygun, Vito Guerra, Anıl Delik, Yaman Tokat, Sezai Yilmaz, Ahmet Bektaş, Murat Kılıç
Macroscopic portal vein invasion (PVT) by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the liver is one of the most important negative prognostic factors for HCC patients. The characteristics of a large cohort of such patients were examined. We found that the percent of patients with PVT significantly increased with increasing maximum tumor diameter (MTD), from 13.7% with tumors of MTD <5cm to 56.4% with tumors of MTD >10cm. There were similar numbers of HCC patients with very large tumors with and without PVT. Thus, MTD alone was insufficient to explain the presence of PVT, as were high AFP levels, since less than 50% of high AFP patients had PVT...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Takuya Komura, Masaaki Yano, Akimitsu Miyake, Hisashi Takabatake, Masaki Miyazawa, Norihiko Ogawa, Akihiro Seki, Masao Honda, Takashi Wada, Shigeyuki Matsui, Shuichi Kaneko, Yoshio Sakai
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC), the most common malignancy worldwide, causes inflammation. We explored the inflammatory pathophysiology of CRC by assessing the peripheral blood parameters. Methods: The differences in gene expression profiles of whole blood cells and cell subpopulations between CRC patients and healthy controls were analyzed using DNA microarray. Serum cytokine/chemokine concentrations in CRC patients and healthy controls were measured via multiplex detection immunoassays...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Xiaolong Qi, Min An, Tongwei Wu, Deke Jiang, Mengyun Peng, Weidong Wang, Jing Wang, Chunqing Zhang, On Behalf Of The Chess Study Group
Background: The hepatitis B virus infection is a global health issue and the stage of liver fibrosis affects the prognosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We performed the meta-analysis describing diagnostic accuracy of transient elastography (TE) for predicting CHB-related fibrosis. Methods: We performed an adequate literature search to identify studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of TE in CHB patients using biopsy as reference standard. Hierarchical summary receiver-operating curves model and the bivariate mixed-effects binary regression model were applied to generate summary receiver-operating characteristic curves and pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Daisuke Uchida, Hironari Kato, Yosuke Saragai, Saimon Takada, Sho Mizukawa, Shinichiro Muro, Yutaka Akimoto, Takeshi Tomoda, Kazuyuki Matsumoto, Shigeru Horiguchi, Hiroyuki Okada
Background and Aims: Recurrent pancreatitis associated with pancreatic strictures requires treatment with endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP), but it is sometimes technically unsuccessful. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreatic drainage (EUS-PD) was developed as an alternative to a surgical approach after failed ERP; however, the indications for EUS-PD are unclear. In this study, we evaluated the outcomes of EUS-PD and established the indications for EUS-PD. Methods: A total of 15 patients had indications for EUS-PD for recurrent pancreatitis due to pancreatic strictures...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Shuichiro Shiina, Koki Sato, Ryosuke Tateishi, Motonori Shimizu, Hideko Ohama, Takeshi Hatanaka, Masashi Takawa, Hiroaki Nagamatsu, Yasuharu Imai
Image-guided percutaneous ablation is considered best in the treatment of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ablation is potentially curative, minimally invasive, and easily repeatable for recurrence. Ethanol injection used to be the standard in ablation. However, radiofrequency ablation has recently been the most prevailing ablation method for HCC. Many investigators have reported that radiofrequency ablation is superior to ethanol injection, from the viewpoints of treatment response, local tumor curativity, and overall survival...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Fraser Kegel, Niv Sne, Timothy Rice, Eric Joy, Shayan Shahsavar, Celeste A Collins, Maria Gagarine, Alexandra Allard-Coutu, Lisa Klotz, Angela Coates, Kamyar Kahnamoui, Marko Simunovic
Background: Canadian independent health facilities (IHFs) have been implemented to reduce hospital endoscopy volume and expedite endoscopic evaluations for patients suspected to have underlying colorectal cancer. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of a prospective database at a large-volume urban IHF. The primary outcomes were wait times, and the secondary outcomes were colonoscopy quality indicators and complication rates. Results: Median wait times from referral to colonoscopy met the recommendations set out by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and Cancer Care Ontario for all indications: chronic abdominal pain: 43 days; new onset change in bowel habits: 36 days; bright red rectal bleeding: 42 days; documented iron-deficiency anemia: 43 days; fecal occult blood test positive: 38 days; cancer likely based on imaging or physical exam: 23 days; chronic diarrhea and chronic constipation: 42 days; and screening colonoscopies: 55 days...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Antonios Athanasiou, Eleftherios Spartalis, Mairead Hennessy, Michael Spartalis, Emmanouil Pikoulis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Wen-Xiong Xu, Qian Zhang, Xiang Zhu, Chao-Shuang Lin, You-Ming Chen, Hong Deng, Yong-Yu Mei, Zhi-Xin Zhao, Dong-Ying Xie, Zhi-Liang Gao, Chan Xie, Liang Peng
Background and Aims: We aimed to ascertain the feasibility and safety of NA cessation, the status of patients after cessation, and the predictive factors for relapse and subsequent retreatment. Methods: A total of 92 patients were enrolled in this prospective study. Patients were monitored every month for the first 3 months after cessation and every 3 months thereafter. Results: Sixty-two patients finished 48 weeks of follow-up. None died or developed liver failure, cirrhosis, or HCC...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Zofia Prokopowicz, Ewa Malecka-Tendera, Pawel Matusik
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in obese children. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for curing or slowing down the disease progression. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of NAFLD in this population and to identify anthropometrical and metabolic risk factors for NAFLD prediction and its development. Material and Methods: The study included 108 obese children. Anthropometric measurements, NAFLD diagnosis (based on ALT level and/or liver ultrasound), and metabolic syndrome (MS) components were assessed in all patients...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Marta Flisiak-Jackiewicz, Anna Bobrus-Chociej, Eugeniusz Tarasów, Małgorzata Wojtkowska, Irena Białokoz-Kalinowska, Dariusz Marek Lebensztejn
Introduction: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can be recognized as a feature of MS. Material and Methods: Serum IL-18 concentration was evaluated in serum of 108 obese children, determined with ELISA, and referred to degree of liver steatosis in USG or total intrahepatic lipid content assessed by magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy (1 HMRS). Results: Fatty liver was confirmed in 89 children with USG and in 72 with 1 HMRS...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Xiaoping Wang, Caifei Shen, Jianjiang Yang, Xianjun Yang, Sen Qin, Haijun Zeng, Xiaoling Wu, Shanhong Tang, Weizheng Zeng
Background and Aims: The value of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in hepatitis B-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBACLF) is not fully understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the prognostic effect of AFP on the prediction of HBACLF outcomes. Methods: We investigated a cohort of patients with HBACLF admitted from January 2013 to May 2017. The endpoint of followup was 180 days, death, or liver transplantation. AFP concentrations were estimated on admission...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Martin Perreault, Ewa Wunsch, Andrzej Białek, Jocelyn Trottier, Mélanie Verreault, Patrick Caron, Guy G Poirier, Piotr Milkiewicz, Olivier Barbier
Biliary obstruction, a severe cholestatic complication, causes accumulation of toxic bile acids (BAs) in liver cells. Glucuronidation, catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes, detoxifies cholestatic BAs. Using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, 11 BA glucuronide (-G) species were quantified in prebiliary and postbiliary stenting serum and urine samples from 17 patients with biliary obstruction. Stenting caused glucuronide- and fluid-specific changes in BA-G levels and BA-G/BA metabolic ratios...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Nikhil R Kalva, Vishwas Vanar, David Forcione, Matthew L Bechtold, Srinivas Reddy Puli
Background: Patients with acute cholecystitis are treated with early cholecystectomy. A subset of patients are unfit for surgery due to comorbidities and late presentation. Prompt gall bladder drainage (GBD) with percutaneous or endoscopic approach remains a viable therapeutic option for nonoperative candidates. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided transluminal gall bladder drainage (EUS-GBD) continues to evolve as an alternative approach to percutaneous drainage. With continued refinement in stent technology, lumen apposing self-expandable metal stent (LAMS) offers several advantages...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Anna Cieślak, Jocelyn Trottier, Mélanie Verreault, Piotr Milkiewicz, Marie-Claude Vohl, Olivier Barbier
Cholestasis is characterized by the accumulation of toxic bile acids (BAs) in liver cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), such as docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids, on BA homeostasis and toxicity in human cell models. The effects of EPA and/or DHA on the expression of genes involved in the maintenance of BA homeostasis were analyzed in human hepatoma (HepG2) and colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells, as well as in primary culture of human intestinal (InEpC) and renal (RPTEC) cells...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Yuanji Ma, Yan Xu, Fang Chen, Ying Wang, Lang Bai, Hong Tang
Aim: To assess the tolerance of citrate accumulation due to plasma exchange (PE) among patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Methods: A prospective, observational study was conducted among patients with ACLF who received heparin anticoagulation during PE-centered therapy without filtration and dialysis. Citrate accumulation was defined as the value of total calcium (Catot ) to ionized calcium (Caion ) ratio (Catot /Caion ) greater than or equal to 2...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Muddasir Hassan Abbasi, Sana Fatima, Muhammad Babar Khawar, Shah Jahan, Nadeem Sheikh
This study was aimed to find histological changes in the extrahepatic organs, hepatic iron deposition, and gene expression of some iron regulatory proteins in rats after sterile muscle abscess during the acute intoxication of Nerium oleander leaves decoction. 10 ml/kg of the leaves extract was injected intramuscularly in Wistar rats (200-225 g, n = 4). Control animals received saline injection of matched volume. Animals were anesthetized and sacrificed after 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after administration of decoction...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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