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Current Addiction Reports

Jennifer L Brown, Nicole K Gause, Nathan Northern
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alcohol use is prevalent among college students and may contribute to sexual risk behavior engagement. A narrative review of the recent empirical literature examining the association between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among college student samples was conducted. The purpose of this review was to: (a) review studies examining the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors; and (b) overview research investigating alcohol expectancies and partner characteristics as factors that may influence the alcohol-risky sex relation among college students...
December 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Carla J Rash, Nancy M Petry
In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder (GD) underwent several changes. This paper reviews recent research related to the revisions, including the elimination of the illegal acts criterion and the newly lowered diagnostic threshold. These studies suggest the removal of the illegal acts criterion has little impact in terms of prevalence or loss of diagnostic status among gamblers, especially when considered in combination with the newly lowered diagnostic threshold...
September 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Tammy Chung, Antonio Noronha, Kathleen M Carroll, Marc N Potenza, Kent Hutchison, Vince D Calhoun, John D E Gabrieli, Jon Morgenstern, Sara Jo Nixon, Bruce E Wexler, Judson Brewer, Lara Ray, Francesca Filbey, Timothy J Strauman, Hedy Kober, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
Increased understanding of "how" and "for whom" treatment works at the level of the brain has potential to transform addictions treatment through the development of innovative neuroscience-informed interventions. The 2015 Science of Change meeting bridged the fields of neuroscience and psychotherapy research to identify brain mechanisms of behavior change that are "common" across therapies, and "specific" to distinct behavioral interventions. Conceptual models of brain mechanisms underlying effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, mindfulness interventions, and Motivational Interviewing were discussed...
September 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Kristen P Morie, Sarah W Yip, Charla Nich, Karen Hunkele, Kathleen M Carroll, Marc N Potenza
Alexithymia, characterized by impairments in emotional awareness, is common among individuals with substance use disorders. Research on alexithymia suggests that it is a trait that may contribute to substance dependence. This paper will review alexithymia as it relates to substance use and substance use disorders, considering its potential role in the maintenance and treatment of these disorders. We will then describe how neural correlates associated with alexithymia may shed light on how alexithymia relates to addiction...
June 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Ryan Bogdan, Jonathan Ma Winstone, Arpana Agrawal
Approximately 50-70% of the variation in cannabis use and use disorders can be attributed to heritable factors. For cannabis use, the remaining variance can be parsed in to familial and person-specific environmental factors while for use disorders, only the latter contribute. While numerous candidate gene studies have identified the role of common variation influencing liability to cannabis involvement, replication has been elusive. To date, no genomewide association study has been sufficiently powered to identify significant loci...
June 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Robert Miranda, Hayley Treloar
Adolescence is a key period in the development of substance use and misuse. Substance use typically begins during adolescence and prevalence rates for many substance use disorders peak before age 21 years. Yet, despite clinical demand, treatments for youth rely almost entirely on psychosocial interventions that yield only modest benefit. One potential way to improve treatment effects is to augment the best available psychosocial interventions with pharmacotherapy. Although pharmacotherapy research has advanced care for adults with substance use disorders, no medication is indicated for adolescents and controlled trials with teenagers are scant...
June 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Punitha Subramaniam, Erin McGlade, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
The prevalence of comorbid cannabis and tobacco use has been increasing among adolescents and adults and has been shown to be associated with a range of changes or deficits in physical, psychological and behavioral outcomes. Moreover, comorbid use has been shown to have a differential effect on the structure and function of the brain, especially as it relates to the reward circuitry and learning and memory. This interaction might be mediated by the involvement of the endocannabinoid system and alterations in dopamine signaling in regions associated with reward and cognitive functioning...
June 1, 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Daniel J O Roche, Lara A Ray, Megan M Yardley, Andrea C King
There is a strong association between cigarette smoking and alcohol use at the epidemiological, behavioral, and molecular levels, and this co-use creates substantial impediments to smoking cessation among smokers who are also heavy drinkers. Compared with individuals who only smoke, those who both drink and smoke heavily experience more severe health consequences and have greater difficulty in quitting smoking. During smoking abstinence, greater alcohol use is associated with decreased odds of smoking cessation, and smokers are substantially more likely to experience a smoking lapse during drinking episodes...
March 2016: Current Addiction Reports
P Pedrelli, B Shapero, A Archibald, C Dale
Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) and alcohol misuse are common among adolescents and young adults and are associated with significant personal and societal problems. Similarly, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms are prevalent in this population and when they co-occur with alcohol misuse lead to even more severe consequences. Numerous studies have investigated the association between depressive symptoms, AUD and various drinking behaviors presenting an unclear picture. In this review we summarize studies among adolescents and young adults that have examined these relationships...
March 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Stephen T Higgins, Laura J Solomon
Smoking during pregnancy is a leading preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes and immediate and longer-term adverse health outcomes among exposed offspring. Developing more effective smoking-cessation interventions for pregnant women has been a public-health priority for more than thirty years. We review developments over the past three years (2012-15) on the use of financial incentives to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women. We searched the literature for reports on primary and secondary analyses and reviews of controlled trials on this topic published in peer-reviewed journals using the search engine PubMed, reviewed bibliographies of published articles, and consulted expert colleagues...
March 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Reagan R Wetherill, Teresa R Franklin, Sharon S Allen
Cigarette smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Similar to other addictive substances, the prevalence of cigarette smoking is greater among men than women, yet women are less successful at quitting smoking. Preclinical and clinical research suggests that ovarian hormones (i.e., estradiol and progesterone), which fluctuate over the course of the menstrual cycle, may contribute to these sex differences. Specifically, research suggests that progesterone may protect against cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction; whereas estradiol may underlie enhanced vulnerability...
March 1, 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Theresa H McKim, Tatiana A Shnitko, Donita L Robinson, Charlotte A Boettiger
Habitual actions enable efficient daily living, but they can also contribute to pathological behaviors that resistant change, such as alcoholism. Habitual behaviors are learned actions that appear goal-directed but are in fact no longer under the control of the action's outcome. Instead, these actions are triggered by stimuli, which may be exogenous or interoceptive, discrete or contextual. A major hallmark characteristic of alcoholism is continued alcohol use despite serious negative consequences. In essence, although the outcome of alcohol seeking and drinking is dramatically devalued, these actions persist, often triggered by environmental cues associated with alcohol use...
March 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Patricia J Conrod
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Personality factors have been implicated in risk for substance use disorders through longitudinal and neurobiologic studies for over four decades. Only recently, however, have targeted interventions been developed to assist individuals with personality risk factors for substance use disorders manage their risk. This article reviews current practices in personality-targeted interventions and the eight randomised trials examining the efficacy of such approaches with respect to reducing and preventing substance use and misuse...
2016: Current Addiction Reports
Ariel Ketcherside, Jessica Baine, Francesca Filbey
BACKGROUND: Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the primary ingredient in marijuana, exerts its effects across several neurological and biological systems that interact with the endocrine system. Thus, differential effects of Δ(9)-THC are likely to exist based on sex and hormone levels. METHODS: We reviewed the existing literature to determine sex-based effects of Δ(9)-THC on neural structure and functioning. RESULTS: The literature demonstrates differences in male and female marijuana users on brain structure, reward processing, attention, motor coordination, and sensitivity to withdrawal...
2016: Current Addiction Reports
Anne H Berman, Mikael Gajecki, Kristina Sinadinovic, Claes Andersson
Mobile interventions based on text messages, automated telephone programs (interactive voice response (IVR)), and smartphone apps offer a new approach targeting hazardous alcohol use in university students. This review covers seven recent studies involving college or university students that evaluated intervention efficacy in comparison to controls: four using text messages, one using IVR, and two smartphone apps. Only the study evaluating IVR reported positive results for the primary outcome. Two of the text message studies reported positive results on secondary outcomes, while the other two reported no differences in comparison to control groups...
2016: Current Addiction Reports
Philip A Fisher, Elliot T Berkman
In spite of extensive scientific knowledge about the neurobiological systems and neural pathways underlying addictions, only limited progress has been made to reduce the population-level incidence of addictions by using prevention and treatment programs. In this area of research the translation of basic neuroscience of causal mechanisms to effective interventions has not been fully realized. In this article we describe how an understanding of the effects of early adverse experiences on brain and biological development may provide new opportunities to achieve impact at scale with respect to reduction of addictions...
December 1, 2015: Current Addiction Reports
Julia M Shadur, Carl W Lejuez
Rates of substance use and comorbid psychopathology peak during adolescence, highlighting the need to identify transdiagnostic risk processes that cut across conditions and elucidate early embedded risk factors for comorbidity across development. The current review highlights emotion regulation deficits as a core transdiagnostic risk factor underlying the development of substance use, addiction, and comorbid psychopathology in adolescence. We present the dual systems model of neurological development to highlight adolescence as a critical period of increased risk for emotion regulation difficulties, corresponding risk behaviors, and psychopathology...
December 1, 2015: Current Addiction Reports
Lindsey A Hines, Katherine I Morley, Clare Mackie, Michael Lynskey
Adolescent substance use is of considerable public health importance. This narrative review provides a brief background to genetically informative research methodologies and highlights key recent literature examining the interplay between genetic and environmental influences in the etiology of substance use. Twin studies have quantified the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences, and more recently co-relative and Children of Twin designs have shown environments can moderate heritability. Studies have identified a number of specific gene variants (e...
June 2015: Current Addiction Reports
Shirley Y Hill, Jessica O'Brien
It has long been known that Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) run in families with substantial heritability. Determining the specific genetic underpinnings of these disorders has been challenging because of the clinical heterogeneity and variable expression across the lifespan. The search for endophenotypic biological variation associated with the AUD and related substance use disorder (SUD) phenotypes is based on the belief that an endophenotype is more proximal to the causative gene. Identification of genes conferring increased susceptibility has important implications for treatment through the potential development of medications that target specific genetic pathways...
June 2015: Current Addiction Reports
Nathaniel R Riggs
Several preventive interventions have demonstrated efficacy in reducing substance use. However, opportunities exist to further improve prevention approaches. The application of recent advances in developmental neuroscience can inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs. This paper first briefly describes the developmental integration of the prefrontal cortex with emotion and motivation centers of the brain, and the implications of this process for substance use vulnerability...
June 1, 2015: Current Addiction Reports
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