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Current Addiction Reports

Wendy J Lynch, Andrea M Robinson, Jean Abel, Mark A Smith
Purpose of Review: This report provides an update on clinical and preclinical findings for the efficacy of exercise to prevent substance use disorder with a focus on recent evidence for sex differences and neurobiological mechanisms. Recent Findings: Exercise/physical activity is associated with decreased drug use in humans. Preclinical results further indicate that exercise decreases vulnerability to drug use and the development of features of substance use disorder, and suggest that females have an enhanced sensitivity to its reward-substitution effects...
December 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Wendy J Lynch, Jean Abel, Andrea M Robinson, Mark A Smith
Purpose of Review: Exercise is a promising treatment for substance use disorder that may reduce withdrawal symptoms and prevent relapse. In this review, we discuss recent evidence from clinical and preclinical studies for its efficacy, from a behavioral to a molecular level, in order to understand the exercise conditions that lead to beneficial effects. We also highlight the few recent findings of sex-specific differences. Recent Findings: Clinical and preclinical findings show that exercise decreases withdrawal symptoms, including craving, in both males and females...
December 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Steven Schinke, Traci Marie Schwinn
Purpose of Review: Computer-based programs for substance use prevention and intervention among youth are on the ascendancy. Whether delivered by computer per se or by electronic tablet or smartphone, technology-driven programs are harmonious with how young people access information and interact with their worlds. This review examines recent evidence on computer-based programs aimed at substance use among youth, with particular attention to results from randomized trials. Recent Findings: Outcome studies of computer-based, substance use-related programs published over the past 5 years reveal mixed results amidst diverse intervention approaches and delivery settings...
December 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Christian S Hendershot, Christina N Nona
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human laboratory studies involving alcohol administration have generated critical knowledge about individual differences in risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD), but have primarily involved adult populations and cross-sectional research designs. Ethical constraints have largely precluded human laboratory alcohol research in adolescence, and prospective studies have been rare. This paper provides an overview of developmental considerations in human laboratory alcohol research, with a focus on studies conducted with youth...
December 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Eva H Telzer, Christina R Rogers, Jorien Van Hoorn
Purpose of Review: Adolescents often engage in elevated levels of risk taking that gives rise to substance use. Family and peers constitute the primary contextual risk factors for adolescent substance use. This report reviews how families and peers influence adolescent neurocognitive development to inform their risk taking and subsequent substance use. Recent Findings: Developmental neuroscience using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has identified regions of the brain involved in social cognition, cognitive control, and reward processing that are integrally linked to social influence on adolescent risk taking...
September 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Benjamin L Berey, Cassidy Loparco, Robert F Leeman, Joel W Grube
Purpose of Review: This review investigates effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent drinking. Prior reviews focused on behavioral outcomes and long-term effects. In contrast, the present review focuses on subgroups with greater exposure to alcohol advertising, research methods to study alcohol advertising, potential mechanisms underlying relationships between adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising and increased drinking and points to prevention/intervention strategies that may reduce effects of alcohol advertising...
June 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Justin D Caouette, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
Purpose of review: Most adolescents begin exploring cannabis in peer contexts, but the neural mechanisms that underlie peer influence on adolescent cannabis use are still unknown. This theoretical overview elucidates the intersecting roles of neural function and peer factors in cannabis use in adolescents. Recent findings: Novel paradigms using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in adolescents have identified distinct neural mechanisms of risk decision-making and incentive processing in peer contexts, centered on reward-motivation and affect regulatory neural networks; these findings inform a theoretical model of peer-driven cannabis use decisions in adolescents...
June 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Shikha Prashad, Amber L Milligan, Janna Cousijn, Francesca M Filbey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) are prevalent worldwide. Current epidemiological studies underscore differences in behaviors that contribute to cannabis use across cultures that can be leveraged towards prevention and treatment of CUDs. This review proposes a framework for understanding the effects of cross-cultural differences on psychological, neural, and genomic processes underlying CUDs that has the potential to inform global policies and impact global public health...
June 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Alexandra Hershberger, Melissa A Cyders
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As prevalence rates of electronic cigarette (e-cig) use increase, researchers and clinicians should not only be paying careful attention to the direct health effects of e-cigs, but also the potential impact e-cigs may have on alcohol use behaviors. We review the current state of the literature and propose a conceptual model for the relationship between e-cig and alcohol use, including important consequences, mechanisms, and moderators of this relationship. RECENT FINDINGS: The model is based in emerging literature examining the direct relationship between e-cig and alcohol use, as well as indirect evidence concerning potential mechanisms from research on cigarette and alcohol use...
June 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Nicolas J Schlienz, Alan J Budney, Dustin C Lee, Ryan Vandrey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This report provides an updated overview of pre-clinical and clinical research on the etiology and biological substrates of the cannabis withdrawal syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term cannabis use is associated with downregulation of type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1). Reduced CB1 receptor density is related to increased withdrawal during early abstinence, and the reduction in CB1 receptor density reverses with extended abstinence. Females have been shown to have increased rate and severity of a subset of cannabis withdrawal symptoms compared with men...
June 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Jodi M Gilman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although peer influence is an important factor in the initiation and maintenance of cannabis use, few studies have investigated the neural correlates of peer influence among cannabis users. The current review summarizes research on the neuroscience of social influence in cannabis users, with the goal of highlighting gaps in the literature and the need for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain regions underlying peer influence may function differently in cannabis users...
June 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Kelly E Courtney, Margie Hernandez Mejia, Joanna Jacobus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the literature to date that has capitalized on the longitudinal research study framework in order to elucidate the etiology of cannabis use disorders (CUDs). RECENT FINDINGS: The studies are mixed with respect to reliable predictors of CUD development. Of the studies outlined, the most consistently indicated risk factors for CUD development include: male sex, past cannabis and other substance use (especially tobacco), and the presence of pre/comorbid psychopathology (especially mood disorders)...
June 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Kamran Siddiqi, Aishwarya Lakshmi Vidyasagaran, Anne Readshaw, Ray Croucher
Background: Globally, over 300 million people consume diverse smokeless tobacco (ST) products. They are addictive, cause cancer, increased cardiovascular mortality risks and poor pregnancy outcomes. Purpose of Review: To identify gaps in implementing key ST demand-reduction measures, focused literature reviews were conducted and findings synthesized according to relevant WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Articles. Recent Findings: The literature supports implementation of ST demand-reduction measures...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
Elizabeth J D'Amico, Joan S Tucker, Eric R Pedersen, Regina A Shih
Purpose of Review: There is not one answer to address whether marijuana use has increased, decreased, or stayed the same given changes in state legalization of medical and non-medical marijuana in the USA. Recent Findings: Evidence suggests some health benefits for medical marijuana; however, initiation of marijuana use is a risk factor for developing problem cannabis use. Though use rates have remained stable over recent years, about one in three 10th graders report marijuana use, most adolescents do not view the drug as harmful, and over 650,000 youth aged 12 to 17 struggle with cannabis use disorder...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
Mark D Griffiths, Filip Nuyens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are many different factors involved in how and why people develop problems with video game playing. One such set of factors concerns the structural characteristics of video games (i.e., the structure, elements, and components of the video games themselves). Much of the research examining the structural characteristics of video games was initially based on research and theorizing from the gambling studies field. The present review briefly overviews the key papers in the field to date...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
Mike Keesman, Henk Aarts, Michael Häfner, Esther K Papies
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mindfulness-based interventions are becoming increasingly popular as a means to facilitate healthy eating. We suggest that the decentering component of mindfulness, which is the metacognitive insight that all experiences are impermanent, plays an especially important role in such interventions. To facilitate the application of decentering, we address its psychological mechanism to reduce reactivity to food cues, proposing that it makes thoughts and simulations in response to food cues less compelling...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
Helen K Ruddock, Charlotte A Hardman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current paper reviews recent research on perceptions of food addiction in the lay public. It also examines the potential consequences of such beliefs for eating behaviour. RECENT FINDINGS: Surveys suggest that, within community samples, the majority of individuals believe that certain foods are addictive, and that food addiction causes obesity. Further, many people believe themselves to be 'food addicts', and these individuals demonstrate increased patterns of aberrant eating...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
Marco Colizzi, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The lack of clarity about the effect of cannabis use on cognition may be attributable to the considerable heterogeneity among studies in terms of cannabis composition. This article selectively reviews studies examining the distinctive effects of cannabinoids on human cognition, particularly those of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). RECENT FINDINGS: Research indicates that ∆9-THC administration acutely impairs cognition, particularly memory and emotional processing...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
Harm Veling, Natalia S Lawrence, Zhang Chen, Guido M van Koningsbruggen, Rob W Holland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: During food go/no-go training, people consistently withhold responses toward no-go food items. We discuss how food go/no-go training may change people's behavior toward no-go food items by comparing three accounts: (a) the training strengthens 'top-down' inhibitory control over food-related responses, (b) the training creates automatic 'bottom-up' associations between no-go food items and stopping responses, and (c) the training leads to devaluation of no-go food items...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
Sally Adams
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Comorbidity of alcohol and tobacco use is highly prevalent and may exacerbate the health effects of either substance alone. However, the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are not well understood. This review will examine the evidence for shared neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol and nicotine comorbidity and experimental studies of the behavioural consequences of these interactions. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies examining the shared neurobiology of alcohol and nicotine have identified two main mechanisms of comorbidity: (1) cross-reinforcement via the mesolimbic dopamine pathway and (2) cross-tolerance via shared genetic and nAChR interaction...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
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