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Current Addiction Reports

Mike Keesman, Henk Aarts, Michael Häfner, Esther K Papies
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mindfulness-based interventions are becoming increasingly popular as a means to facilitate healthy eating. We suggest that the decentering component of mindfulness, which is the metacognitive insight that all experiences are impermanent, plays an especially important role in such interventions. To facilitate the application of decentering, we address its psychological mechanism to reduce reactivity to food cues, proposing that it makes thoughts and simulations in response to food cues less compelling...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
Helen K Ruddock, Charlotte A Hardman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current paper reviews recent research on perceptions of food addiction in the lay public. It also examines the potential consequences of such beliefs for eating behaviour. RECENT FINDINGS: Surveys suggest that, within community samples, the majority of individuals believe that certain foods are addictive, and that food addiction causes obesity. Further, many people believe themselves to be 'food addicts', and these individuals demonstrate increased patterns of aberrant eating...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
Marco Colizzi, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The lack of clarity about the effect of cannabis use on cognition may be attributable to the considerable heterogeneity among studies in terms of cannabis composition. This article selectively reviews studies examining the distinctive effects of cannabinoids on human cognition, particularly those of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). RECENT FINDINGS: Research indicates that ∆9-THC administration acutely impairs cognition, particularly memory and emotional processing...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
Harm Veling, Natalia S Lawrence, Zhang Chen, Guido M van Koningsbruggen, Rob W Holland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: During food go/no-go training, people consistently withhold responses toward no-go food items. We discuss how food go/no-go training may change people's behavior toward no-go food items by comparing three accounts: (a) the training strengthens 'top-down' inhibitory control over food-related responses, (b) the training creates automatic 'bottom-up' associations between no-go food items and stopping responses, and (c) the training leads to devaluation of no-go food items...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
Sally Adams
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Comorbidity of alcohol and tobacco use is highly prevalent and may exacerbate the health effects of either substance alone. However, the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are not well understood. This review will examine the evidence for shared neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol and nicotine comorbidity and experimental studies of the behavioural consequences of these interactions. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies examining the shared neurobiology of alcohol and nicotine have identified two main mechanisms of comorbidity: (1) cross-reinforcement via the mesolimbic dopamine pathway and (2) cross-tolerance via shared genetic and nAChR interaction...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
Camila L Arnaudo, Barbara Andraka-Christou, Kacy Allgood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review seeks to investigate three questions: What is the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among pregnant women with opioid use disorder (OUD)? How do comorbid psychiatric illnesses impact pregnant women with OUD? And how do comorbid psychiatric illnesses affect the ability of pregnant women with OUD to adhere to and complete OUD treatment? RECENT FINDINGS: Based on this literature review, 25-33% of pregnant women with OUD have a psychiatric comorbidity, with depression and anxiety being especially common...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
Emily R Jeffries, Austin W Lemke, Sonia M Shah, Kimberlye E Dean, Ashley A Richter, Julia D Buckner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Addictive behaviors among college students are a significant public health concern. This manuscript reviews the past two years of literature on prevention and treatment approaches for college students who engage in addictive behaviors. RECENT FINDINGS: In-person skills-based interventions and motivational interventions that incorporate personalized feedback are effective in the short-term but little support was found for long-term effects. Although web-based interventions reduced certain addictive behaviors (e...
December 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Dipali Venkataraman Rinker, Heather Krieger, Clayton Neighbors
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To provide an overview of studies within the past five years examining the impact of social network factors on addictive behaviors among college students, to discuss gaps, limitations, and controversies in the field, and to summarize with a discussion of future directions and implications for interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: A review of 13 studies indicated that greater network exposure, centrality, reciprocated ties, and more tightly interconnected networks were associated with greater alcohol use and other addictive behaviors among college students...
December 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Mai-Ly N Steers, Megan A Moreno, Clayton Neighbors
Social media has become a primary way for college students to communicate aspects of their daily lives to those within their social network. Such communications often include substance use displays (e.g., selfies of college students drinking). Furthermore, students' substance use displays have been found to robustly predict not only the posters' substance use-related outcomes (e.g., consumption, problems) but also that of their social networking peers. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes findings of recent literature exploring the intersection between social media and substance use...
December 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Jennifer L Brown, Nicole K Gause, Nathan Northern
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alcohol use is prevalent among college students and may contribute to sexual risk behavior engagement. A narrative review of the recent empirical literature examining the association between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among college student samples was conducted. The purpose of this review was to: (a) review studies examining the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors; and (b) overview research investigating alcohol expectancies and partner characteristics as factors that may influence the alcohol-risky sex relation among college students...
December 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Carla J Rash, Nancy M Petry
In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder (GD) underwent several changes. This paper reviews recent research related to the revisions, including the elimination of the illegal acts criterion and the newly lowered diagnostic threshold. These studies suggest the removal of the illegal acts criterion has little impact in terms of prevalence or loss of diagnostic status among gamblers, especially when considered in combination with the newly lowered diagnostic threshold...
September 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Tammy Chung, Antonio Noronha, Kathleen M Carroll, Marc N Potenza, Kent Hutchison, Vince D Calhoun, John D E Gabrieli, Jon Morgenstern, Sara Jo Nixon, Bruce E Wexler, Judson Brewer, Lara Ray, Francesca Filbey, Timothy J Strauman, Hedy Kober, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
Increased understanding of "how" and "for whom" treatment works at the level of the brain has potential to transform addictions treatment through the development of innovative neuroscience-informed interventions. The 2015 Science of Change meeting bridged the fields of neuroscience and psychotherapy research to identify brain mechanisms of behavior change that are "common" across therapies, and "specific" to distinct behavioral interventions. Conceptual models of brain mechanisms underlying effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, mindfulness interventions, and Motivational Interviewing were discussed...
September 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Kristen P Morie, Sarah W Yip, Charla Nich, Karen Hunkele, Kathleen M Carroll, Marc N Potenza
Alexithymia, characterized by impairments in emotional awareness, is common among individuals with substance use disorders. Research on alexithymia suggests that it is a trait that may contribute to substance dependence. This paper will review alexithymia as it relates to substance use and substance use disorders, considering its potential role in the maintenance and treatment of these disorders. We will then describe how neural correlates associated with alexithymia may shed light on how alexithymia relates to addiction...
June 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Ryan Bogdan, Jonathan Ma Winstone, Arpana Agrawal
Approximately 50-70% of the variation in cannabis use and use disorders can be attributed to heritable factors. For cannabis use, the remaining variance can be parsed in to familial and person-specific environmental factors while for use disorders, only the latter contribute. While numerous candidate gene studies have identified the role of common variation influencing liability to cannabis involvement, replication has been elusive. To date, no genomewide association study has been sufficiently powered to identify significant loci...
June 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Robert Miranda, Hayley Treloar
Adolescence is a key period in the development of substance use and misuse. Substance use typically begins during adolescence and prevalence rates for many substance use disorders peak before age 21 years. Yet, despite clinical demand, treatments for youth rely almost entirely on psychosocial interventions that yield only modest benefit. One potential way to improve treatment effects is to augment the best available psychosocial interventions with pharmacotherapy. Although pharmacotherapy research has advanced care for adults with substance use disorders, no medication is indicated for adolescents and controlled trials with teenagers are scant...
June 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Punitha Subramaniam, Erin McGlade, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
The prevalence of comorbid cannabis and tobacco use has been increasing among adolescents and adults and has been shown to be associated with a range of changes or deficits in physical, psychological and behavioral outcomes. Moreover, comorbid use has been shown to have a differential effect on the structure and function of the brain, especially as it relates to the reward circuitry and learning and memory. This interaction might be mediated by the involvement of the endocannabinoid system and alterations in dopamine signaling in regions associated with reward and cognitive functioning...
June 1, 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Daniel J O Roche, Lara A Ray, Megan M Yardley, Andrea C King
There is a strong association between cigarette smoking and alcohol use at the epidemiological, behavioral, and molecular levels, and this co-use creates substantial impediments to smoking cessation among smokers who are also heavy drinkers. Compared with individuals who only smoke, those who both drink and smoke heavily experience more severe health consequences and have greater difficulty in quitting smoking. During smoking abstinence, greater alcohol use is associated with decreased odds of smoking cessation, and smokers are substantially more likely to experience a smoking lapse during drinking episodes...
March 2016: Current Addiction Reports
P Pedrelli, B Shapero, A Archibald, C Dale
Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) and alcohol misuse are common among adolescents and young adults and are associated with significant personal and societal problems. Similarly, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms are prevalent in this population and when they co-occur with alcohol misuse lead to even more severe consequences. Numerous studies have investigated the association between depressive symptoms, AUD and various drinking behaviors presenting an unclear picture. In this review we summarize studies among adolescents and young adults that have examined these relationships...
March 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Stephen T Higgins, Laura J Solomon
Smoking during pregnancy is a leading preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes and immediate and longer-term adverse health outcomes among exposed offspring. Developing more effective smoking-cessation interventions for pregnant women has been a public-health priority for more than thirty years. We review developments over the past three years (2012-15) on the use of financial incentives to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women. We searched the literature for reports on primary and secondary analyses and reviews of controlled trials on this topic published in peer-reviewed journals using the search engine PubMed, reviewed bibliographies of published articles, and consulted expert colleagues...
March 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Reagan R Wetherill, Teresa R Franklin, Sharon S Allen
Cigarette smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Similar to other addictive substances, the prevalence of cigarette smoking is greater among men than women, yet women are less successful at quitting smoking. Preclinical and clinical research suggests that ovarian hormones (i.e., estradiol and progesterone), which fluctuate over the course of the menstrual cycle, may contribute to these sex differences. Specifically, research suggests that progesterone may protect against cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction; whereas estradiol may underlie enhanced vulnerability...
March 1, 2016: Current Addiction Reports
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