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Microbiology Insights

Patrick Twohig, Jaclyn Rivington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Microbiology Insights
Ama Okyere, Dayna Bishoff, Micah O Oyaro, Nadim J Ajami, Charles Darkoh
Fish has been an important source of proteins, essential vitamins, and low saturated fats for centuries. However, improperly handled fish can expose consumers to infectious bacteria, including difficult to treat multidrug-resistant pathogens. With the goal to investigate the existence of disease-causing and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, we examined bacterial communities present on various types of fish purchased from supermarkets in Houston, Texas, USA. The bacterial communities were characterized by selective phenotypic culture methods, 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, and antibiotic susceptibility testing...
2018: Microbiology Insights
Jenni Firrman, LinShu Liu, Gustavo Arango Argoty, Liqing Zhang, Peggy Tomasula, Minqian Wang, Sherri Pontious, Masuko Kobori, Weidong Xiao
In this study, the effect of the flavanone naringenin on the growth and genetic expression of the commensal gut microbes, Ruminococcus gauvreauii , Bifidobacterium catenulatum , and Enterococcus caccae , was analyzed. Analysis of growth curves revealed that Ruminococcus gauvreauii was unaffected by naringenin, Bifidobacterium catenulatum was slightly enhanced by naringenin, and Enterococcus caccae was severely inhibited by naringenin. Changes in genetic expression due to naringenin were determined using single-molecule RNA sequencing...
2018: Microbiology Insights
Dieng Assane, Camara Makhtar, Diop Abdoulaye, Fall Amary, Boiro Djibril, Diop Amadou, Diouf Jean Baptiste Niokhor, Diop Amadou, Loucoubar Cheikh, Dia Ndongo, Niang Mbayame, Fall Lamine, Boye Cheikh Saad Bouh
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the leading cause of infectious disease-related morbidity, hospitalization, and morbidity among children worldwide. This study aimed to assess the viral and bacterial causes of ARI morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years in Senegal. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from children under 5 years who had ARI. Viruses and bacteria were identified using multiplex real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and conventional biochemical techniques, respectively...
2018: Microbiology Insights
Salla J Kiiskinen, Tarja Ojanen, Yvonne Björkman, Harri Laitinen, Anja Siitonen
In Finland, all laboratories carrying out diagnostics of infectious diseases in humans are approved by the Regional State Administrative Agencies and are obligated to participate in External Quality Assurance rounds. Performance in these rounds is thought to reflect the quality of laboratory work. In the 6-year study period, 17 Finnish laboratories received 48 simulated faecal specimens for the culturing of diarrhoeal pathogens, yielding altogether 586 faecal culture External Quality Control specimens and 581 reports...
2017: Microbiology Insights
Abdul Musaweer Habib, Md Jibran Alam, Bashudev Rudra, Md Abdul Quader, Mohammad Al-Forkan
The pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori is a causative agent of gastric diseases in Bangladesh as well as throughout the world. This study aimed at analyzing the prevalence of H. pylori infection among dyspeptic patients in Chittagong, the second most populous city of Bangladesh, using 16S rRNA-based H. pylori-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction and Campylobacter-like organism test. We found that 67% of the population under study was positive for H. pylori infection. Gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer disease showed statistically significant association with H...
2016: Microbiology Insights
Shilpi Gupta, Nozrin Laskar, Daniel E Kadouri
Standard antimicrobial susceptibility tests are performed in vitro under normal room oxygen conditions to predict the in vivo effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the effect of different oxygen levels on the antibiotic susceptibility of two strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It was found that anoxic conditions caused reduced sensitivity of bacteria to aminoglycoside antibiotics in four of six bacteria used in the study...
2016: Microbiology Insights
Veerendra Koppolu, Veneela Kr Vasigala
Increased energy consumption coupled with depleting petroleum reserves and increased greenhouse gas emissions have renewed our interest in generating fuels from renewable energy sources via microbial fermentation. Central to this problem is the choice of microorganism that catalyzes the production of fuels at high volumetric productivity and yield from cheap and abundantly available renewable energy sources. Microorganisms that are metabolically engineered to redirect renewable carbon sources into desired fuel products are contemplated as best choices to obtain high volumetric productivity and yield...
2016: Microbiology Insights
Jing Zhang, Guo-Chiuan Hung, Kenjiro Nagamine, Bingjie Li, Shien Tsai, Shyh-Ching Lo
Culture-based identification methods have been the gold standard for the diagnosis of fungal infection. Currently, molecular technologies such as real-time PCR assays with short turnaround time can provide desirable alternatives for the rapid detection of Candida microbes. However, most of the published PCR primer sets are not Candida specific and likely to amplify DNA from common environmental contaminants, such as Aspergillus microbes. In this study, we designed pan-Candida primer sets based on the ribosomal DNA-coding regions conserved within Candida but distinct from those of Aspergillus and Penicillium...
2016: Microbiology Insights
Neelam Taneja, Harsimran Kaur
Currently, drug resistance, especially against cephalosporins and carbapenems, among gram-negative bacteria is an important challenge, which is further enhanced by the limited availability of drugs against these bugs. There are certain antibiotics (colistin, fosfomycin, temocillin, and rifampicin) that have been revived from the past to tackle the menace of superbugs, including members of Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter species, and Pseudomonas species. Very few newer antibiotics have been added to the pool of existing drugs...
2016: Microbiology Insights
Sudipta Roy, Sahana Yasmin, Subhadeep Ghosh, Somesankar Bhattacharya, Debdulal Banerjee
This study was conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria possessing anti-infective property from Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a well-known medicinal plant. A total of 23 strains were isolated from this plant among which the strain KL1, isolated from surface-sterilized leaf of this medicinal herb, showed broad-spectrum antagonism against an array of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Ethyl acetate extract of KL1-fermented media yielded a greenish amorphous substance retaining anti-infective property...
2016: Microbiology Insights
Kaushik Venkiteshwaran, Benjamin Bocher, James Maki, Daniel Zitomer
Anaerobic digestion (AD) involves a consortium of microorganisms that convert substrates into biogas containing methane for renewable energy. The technology has suffered from the perception of being periodically unstable due to limited understanding of the relationship between microbial community structure and function. The emphasis of this review is to describe microbial communities in digesters and quantitative and qualitative relationships between community structure and digester function. Progress has been made in the past few decades to identify key microorganisms influencing AD...
2015: Microbiology Insights
Patrick McNamara, Mark Krzmarzick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Microbiology Insights
Srijan Aggarwal, Philip S Stewart, Raymond M Hozalski
Bacterial biofilms are highly resistant to common antibacterial treatments, and several physiological explanations have been offered to explain the recalcitrant nature of bacterial biofilms. Herein, a biophysical aspect of biofilm recalcitrance is being reported on. While engineering structures are often overdesigned with a factor of safety (FOS) usually under 10, experimental measurements of biofilm cohesive strength suggest that the FOS is on the order of thousands. In other words, bacterial biofilms appear to be designed to withstand extreme forces rather than typical or average loads...
2015: Microbiology Insights
Brooke K Mayer, Yu Yang, Daniel W Gerrity, Morteza Abbaszadegan
This study examined the effect of the amino acid composition of protein capsids on virus inactivation using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and titanium dioxide photocatalysis, and physical removal via enhanced coagulation using ferric chloride. Although genomic damage is likely more extensive than protein damage for viruses treated using UV, proteins are still substantially degraded. All amino acids demonstrated significant correlations with UV susceptibility. The hydroxyl radicals produced during photocatalysis are considered nonspecific, but they likely cause greater overall damage to virus capsid proteins relative to the genome...
2015: Microbiology Insights
Cheridah D Todd, María Reyes-Batlle, Basilio Valladares, John F Lindo, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free-living amoebae (FLA) occupy a wide range of freshwater, marine, and soil habitats, and are opportunistic pathogens in human beings. While Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, and Balamuthia mandrillaris are well-known opportunistic organisms, Vannella epipetala is nonpathogenic. Sediments were collected from a freshwater source from a park in Jamaica to investigate the presence of FLA. Acanthamoeba and Naegleria spp. were not recovered; however, a Vannellid species identified by microscopy and PCR analysis as V...
2015: Microbiology Insights
Bryan Jk Smith, Melissa A Boothe, Brice A Fiddler, Tania M Lozano, Russel K Rahi, Mark J Krzmarzick
Organohalide contaminants such as triclosan and triclocarban have been well documented in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), but the degradation of these contaminants is not well understood. One possible removal mechanism is organohalide respiration by which bacteria reduce the halogenated compound. The purpose of this study was to determine the abundance of organohalide-respiring bacteria in eight WWTP anaerobic digesters. The obligate organohalide respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi was the most abundant and averaged 3...
2015: Microbiology Insights
Patrick J McNamara, Timothy M LaPara, Paige J Novak
A plethora of organic micropollutant mixtures are found in untreated municipal wastewater. Anaerobic digesters receive large loadings of hydrophobic micropollutants that sorb to wastewater biosolids. Despite micropollutants being pervasive as mixtures, little research is available to explain the impact that mixtures of compounds, as well as exposure time, have on microbial communities in anaerobic digesters. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was added to anaerobic enrichment cultures in both short-term (14 days) and long-term (140 days) studies to determine the impact of exposure time...
2015: Microbiology Insights
Benjamin E Johns, Kevin J Purdy, Nicholas P Tucker, Sarah E Maddocks
Small colony variant (SCV) bacteria arise spontaneously within apparently homogeneous microbial populations, largely in response to environmental stresses, such as antimicrobial treatment. They display unique phenotypic characteristics conferred in part by heritable genetic changes. Characteristically slow growing, SCVs comprise a minor proportion of the population from which they arise but persist by virtue of their inherent resilience and host adaptability. Consequently, SCVs are problematic in chronic infection, where antimicrobial treatment is administered during the acute phase of infection but fails to eradicate SCVs, which remain within the host causing recurrent or chronic infection...
2015: Microbiology Insights
Kenjiro Nagamine, Guo-Chiuan Hung, Bingjie Li, Shyh-Ching Lo
Using Streptococcus pyogenes as a model, we previously established a stepwise computational workflow to effectively identify species-specific DNA signatures that could be used as PCR primer sets to detect target bacteria with high specificity and sensitivity. In this study, we extended the workflow for the rapid development of PCR assays targeting Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium tetani, and Staphylococcus aureus, which are of safety concern for human tissue intended for transplantation...
2015: Microbiology Insights
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