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Microbiology Insights

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891051/analysis-of-helicobacter-pylori-prevalence-in-chittagong-bangladesh-based-on-pcr-and-clo-test
#1
Abdul Musaweer Habib, Md Jibran Alam, Bashudev Rudra, Md Abdul Quader, Mohammad Al-Forkan
The pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori is a causative agent of gastric diseases in Bangladesh as well as throughout the world. This study aimed at analyzing the prevalence of H. pylori infection among dyspeptic patients in Chittagong, the second most populous city of Bangladesh, using 16S rRNA-based H. pylori-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction and Campylobacter-like organism test. We found that 67% of the population under study was positive for H. pylori infection. Gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer disease showed statistically significant association with H...
2016: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891050/evaluating-the-effect-of-oxygen-concentrations-on-antibiotic-sensitivity-growth-and-biofilm-formation-of-human-pathogens
#2
Shilpi Gupta, Nozrin Laskar, Daniel E Kadouri
Standard antimicrobial susceptibility tests are performed in vitro under normal room oxygen conditions to predict the in vivo effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the effect of different oxygen levels on the antibiotic susceptibility of two strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It was found that anoxic conditions caused reduced sensitivity of bacteria to aminoglycoside antibiotics in four of six bacteria used in the study...
2016: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441002/role-of-escherichia-coli-in-biofuel-production
#3
REVIEW
Veerendra Koppolu, Veneela Kr Vasigala
Increased energy consumption coupled with depleting petroleum reserves and increased greenhouse gas emissions have renewed our interest in generating fuels from renewable energy sources via microbial fermentation. Central to this problem is the choice of microorganism that catalyzes the production of fuels at high volumetric productivity and yield from cheap and abundantly available renewable energy sources. Microorganisms that are metabolically engineered to redirect renewable carbon sources into desired fuel products are contemplated as best choices to obtain high volumetric productivity and yield...
2016: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103821/development-of-candida-specific-real-time-pcr-assays-for-the-detection-and-identification-of-eight-medically-important-candida-species
#4
Jing Zhang, Guo-Chiuan Hung, Kenjiro Nagamine, Bingjie Li, Shien Tsai, Shyh-Ching Lo
Culture-based identification methods have been the gold standard for the diagnosis of fungal infection. Currently, molecular technologies such as real-time PCR assays with short turnaround time can provide desirable alternatives for the rapid detection of Candida microbes. However, most of the published PCR primer sets are not Candida specific and likely to amplify DNA from common environmental contaminants, such as Aspergillus microbes. In this study, we designed pan-Candida primer sets based on the ribosomal DNA-coding regions conserved within Candida but distinct from those of Aspergillus and Penicillium...
2016: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27013887/insights-into-newer-antimicrobial-agents-against-gram-negative-bacteria
#5
REVIEW
Neelam Taneja, Harsimran Kaur
Currently, drug resistance, especially against cephalosporins and carbapenems, among gram-negative bacteria is an important challenge, which is further enhanced by the limited availability of drugs against these bugs. There are certain antibiotics (colistin, fosfomycin, temocillin, and rifampicin) that have been revived from the past to tackle the menace of superbugs, including members of Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter species, and Pseudomonas species. Very few newer antibiotics have been added to the pool of existing drugs...
2016: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997870/anti-infective-metabolites-of-a-newly-isolated-bacillus-thuringiensis-kl1-associated-with-kalmegh-andrographis-paniculata-nees-a-traditional-medicinal-herb
#6
Sudipta Roy, Sahana Yasmin, Subhadeep Ghosh, Somesankar Bhattacharya, Debdulal Banerjee
This study was conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria possessing anti-infective property from Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a well-known medicinal plant. A total of 23 strains were isolated from this plant among which the strain KL1, isolated from surface-sterilized leaf of this medicinal herb, showed broad-spectrum antagonism against an array of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Ethyl acetate extract of KL1-fermented media yielded a greenish amorphous substance retaining anti-infective property...
2016: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27127410/relating-anaerobic-digestion-microbial-community-and-process-function
#7
REVIEW
Kaushik Venkiteshwaran, Benjamin Bocher, James Maki, Daniel Zitomer
Anaerobic digestion (AD) involves a consortium of microorganisms that convert substrates into biogas containing methane for renewable energy. The technology has suffered from the perception of being periodically unstable due to limited understanding of the relationship between microbial community structure and function. The emphasis of this review is to describe microbial communities in digesters and quantitative and qualitative relationships between community structure and digester function. Progress has been made in the past few decades to identify key microorganisms influencing AD...
2015: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103820/introductory-editorial-water-microbiology
#8
Patrick McNamara, Mark Krzmarzick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26819559/biofilm-cohesive-strength-as-a-basis-for-biofilm-recalcitrance-are-bacterial-biofilms-overdesigned
#9
Srijan Aggarwal, Philip S Stewart, Raymond M Hozalski
Bacterial biofilms are highly resistant to common antibacterial treatments, and several physiological explanations have been offered to explain the recalcitrant nature of bacterial biofilms. Herein, a biophysical aspect of biofilm recalcitrance is being reported on. While engineering structures are often overdesigned with a factor of safety (FOS) usually under 10, experimental measurements of biofilm cohesive strength suggest that the FOS is on the order of thousands. In other words, bacterial biofilms appear to be designed to withstand extreme forces rather than typical or average loads...
2015: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26604779/the-impact-of-capsid-proteins-on-virus-removal-and-inactivation-during-water-treatment-processes
#10
Brooke K Mayer, Yu Yang, Daniel W Gerrity, Morteza Abbaszadegan
This study examined the effect of the amino acid composition of protein capsids on virus inactivation using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and titanium dioxide photocatalysis, and physical removal via enhanced coagulation using ferric chloride. Although genomic damage is likely more extensive than protein damage for viruses treated using UV, proteins are still substantially degraded. All amino acids demonstrated significant correlations with UV susceptibility. The hydroxyl radicals produced during photocatalysis are considered nonspecific, but they likely cause greater overall damage to virus capsid proteins relative to the genome...
2015: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26512204/vannellid-species-isolated-from-freshwater-source-in-a-park-in-jamaica-west-indies
#11
Cheridah D Todd, MarĂ­a Reyes-Batlle, Basilio Valladares, John F Lindo, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free-living amoebae (FLA) occupy a wide range of freshwater, marine, and soil habitats, and are opportunistic pathogens in human beings. While Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, and Balamuthia mandrillaris are well-known opportunistic organisms, Vannella epipetala is nonpathogenic. Sediments were collected from a freshwater source from a park in Jamaica to investigate the presence of FLA. Acanthamoeba and Naegleria spp. were not recovered; however, a Vannellid species identified by microscopy and PCR analysis as V...
2015: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26508873/enumeration-of-organohalide-respirers-in-municipal-wastewater-anaerobic-digesters
#12
Bryan Jk Smith, Melissa A Boothe, Brice A Fiddler, Tania M Lozano, Russel K Rahi, Mark J Krzmarzick
Organohalide contaminants such as triclosan and triclocarban have been well documented in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), but the degradation of these contaminants is not well understood. One possible removal mechanism is organohalide respiration by which bacteria reduce the halogenated compound. The purpose of this study was to determine the abundance of organohalide-respiring bacteria in eight WWTP anaerobic digesters. The obligate organohalide respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi was the most abundant and averaged 3...
2015: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26462249/the-effect-of-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-exposure-time-and-chemical-mixtures-on-methanogenic-community-structure-and-function
#13
Patrick J McNamara, Timothy M LaPara, Paige J Novak
A plethora of organic micropollutant mixtures are found in untreated municipal wastewater. Anaerobic digesters receive large loadings of hydrophobic micropollutants that sorb to wastewater biosolids. Despite micropollutants being pervasive as mixtures, little research is available to explain the impact that mixtures of compounds, as well as exposure time, have on microbial communities in anaerobic digesters. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was added to anaerobic enrichment cultures in both short-term (14 days) and long-term (140 days) studies to determine the impact of exposure time...
2015: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448688/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characteristics-of-small-colony-variants-and-their-role-in-chronic-infection
#14
REVIEW
Benjamin E Johns, Kevin J Purdy, Nicholas P Tucker, Sarah E Maddocks
Small colony variant (SCV) bacteria arise spontaneously within apparently homogeneous microbial populations, largely in response to environmental stresses, such as antimicrobial treatment. They display unique phenotypic characteristics conferred in part by heritable genetic changes. Characteristically slow growing, SCVs comprise a minor proportion of the population from which they arise but persist by virtue of their inherent resilience and host adaptability. Consequently, SCVs are problematic in chronic infection, where antimicrobial treatment is administered during the acute phase of infection but fails to eradicate SCVs, which remain within the host causing recurrent or chronic infection...
2015: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26279626/dna-sequence-signatures-for-rapid-detection-of-six-target-bacterial-pathogens-using-pcr-assays
#15
Kenjiro Nagamine, Guo-Chiuan Hung, Bingjie Li, Shyh-Ching Lo
Using Streptococcus pyogenes as a model, we previously established a stepwise computational workflow to effectively identify species-specific DNA signatures that could be used as PCR primer sets to detect target bacteria with high specificity and sensitivity. In this study, we extended the workflow for the rapid development of PCR assays targeting Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium tetani, and Staphylococcus aureus, which are of safety concern for human tissue intended for transplantation...
2015: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26056470/fungal-presence-in-selected-tree-nuts-and-dried-fruits
#16
V H Tournas, N S Niazi, J S Kohn
Sixty-four tree nut samples (almonds, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts) and 50 dried fruit samples (apricots, cranberries, papaya, pineapple, and raisins) were purchased from local supermarkets and analyzed for fungal contamination using conventional culture as well as molecular methods. The results of our study showed that the highest yeast and mold (YM) counts (5.34 log10 CFU g(-1)) were found in walnuts and the lowest in pecans. The most common mold in nuts was Aspergillus niger, relatively low numbers of A...
2015: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25922581/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-potentially-pathogenic-free-living-amoebae-from-water-sources-in-kish-island-southern-iran
#17
Maryam Niyyati, Zohreh Lasgerdi, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Amoebic keratitis, a sight-threatening corneal infection, mainly occurs in contact lens wearers who wash their eyes with tap water. The present research was conducted to identify the occurrence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) in tap water sources on Kish Island, a tourist region in Iran. Amoebae were detected using a culture-enriched method and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing of the diagnostic fragment 3 region of the 18S rRNA gene of Acanthamoeba. In the case of other free-living amoebae species, PCR/sequencing analysis of the 18S rDNA was conducted...
2015: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25452699/genetic-diversity-and-allelic-frequency-of-glutamate-rich-protein-glurp-in-plasmodium-falciparum-isolates-from-sub-saharan-africa
#18
Kimberley C Duru, Bolaji N Thomas
Glutamate-rich protein is a Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) antigen found in all stages of the parasite and has been reported to induce clinical immunity. The R0 and R2 regions have been found to exhibit a high degree of conservation, therefore serving as a good vaccine design material. We assayed the genetic diversity of Pf glurp genes in the R0 and R2 regions, as well as evaluated the role of seasonality on allelic frequency. A total of 402 genomic DNA samples, extracted from filter paper blood samples, were screened by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of Pf glurp R0 and R2 regions, in addition to fragment analysis of the polymorphic regions to identify allelic diversity of the parasite population...
2014: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25452698/evaluative-profiling-of-arsenic-sensing-and-regulatory-systems-in-the-human-microbiome-project-genomes
#19
Raphael D Isokpehi, Udensi K Udensi, Shaneka S Simmons, Antoinesha L Hollman, Antia E Cain, Samson A Olofinsae, Oluwabukola A Hassan, Zainab A Kashim, Ojochenemi A Enejoh, Deborah E Fasesan, Oyekanmi Nashiru
The influence of environmental chemicals including arsenic, a type 1 carcinogen, on the composition and function of the human-associated microbiota is of significance in human health and disease. We have developed a suite of bioinformatics and visual analytics methods to evaluate the availability (presence or absence) and abundance of functional annotations in a microbial genome for seven Pfam protein families: As(III)-responsive transcriptional repressor (ArsR), anion-transporting ATPase (ArsA), arsenical pump membrane protein (ArsB), arsenate reductase (ArsC), arsenical resistance operon transacting repressor (ArsD), water/glycerol transport protein (aquaporins), and universal stress protein (USP)...
2014: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25288885/limitations-of-using-propidium-monoazide-with-qpcr-to-discriminate-between-live-and-dead-legionella-in-biofilm-samples
#20
Michael J Taylor, Richard H Bentham, Kirstin E Ross
Accurately quantifying Legionella for regulatory purposes to protect public health is essential. Real-time PCR (qPCR) has been proposed as a better method for detecting and enumerating Legionella in samples than conventional culture method. However, since qPCR amplifies any target DNA in the sample, the technique's inability to discriminate between live and dead cells means that counts are generally significantly overestimated. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used successfully in qPCR to aid live/dead discrimination...
2014: Microbiology Insights
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