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Annals of Global Health

Keith Martin, Philip J Landrigan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Annals of Global Health
Rajeev Gupta, Indu Mohan, Jagat Narula
Cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease (CHD), are epidemic in India. The Registrar General of India reported that CHD led to 17% of total deaths and 26% of adult deaths in 2001-2003, which increased to 23% of total and 32% of adult deaths in 2010-2013. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Global Burden of Disease Study also have highlighted increasing trends in years of life lost (YLLs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from CHD in India. In India, studies have reported increasing CHD prevalence over the last 60 years, from 1% to 9%-10% in urban populations and <1% to 4%-6% in rural populations...
March 2016: Annals of Global Health
Iyad Al-Ammouri, Fares Ayoub
BACKGROUND: Since March 2011, an estimated 600,000 Syrian refugees crossed into Jordan, of which 52% were children. Demand for health care is overwhelming. The burden of heart disease in Syrian refugee children is not known. The aim of this study WAS to describe heart disease in Syrian refugee children in terms of diagnoses, presentation, outcome, and funding sources for treatment. METHODS: From April 1, 2012 to April 30, 2014, data on Syrian refugee children who were referred to the Pediatric Cardiology Department at Jordan University Hospital and were found to have heart disease was recorded...
March 2016: Annals of Global Health
Ernesto L Schiffrin, Norman R C Campbell, Ross D Feldman, Janusz Kaczorowski, Richard Lewanczuk, Raj Padwal, Sheldon W Tobe
Canada has an extremely successful hypertension detection and treatment program. The aim of this review was to highlight the historic and current infrastructure and initiatives that have led to this success, and the outlook moving forward into the future. We discuss the evolution of hypertension awareness and control in Canada; contributions made by organizations such as the Canadian Hypertension Society, Blood Pressure Canada, and the Canadian Hypertension Education Program; the amalgamation of these organizations into Hypertension Canada; and the impact that Hypertension Canada has had on hypertension care in Canada...
March 2016: Annals of Global Health
James P Sheppard, Claire L Schwartz, Katherine L Tucker, Richard J McManus
BACKGROUND: The effective diagnosis and management of hypertension is one of the most important parts of cardiovascular prevention internationally and this is no different in the United Kingdom. Approximately 14% of the UK population currently receive treatment for hypertension. Recent UK guidelines from the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence have placed greater emphasis on the utilization of out-of-office measurement of blood pressure to more accurately diagnose hypertension...
March 2016: Annals of Global Health
Kazuomi Kario, Naoko Tomitani, Yuri Matsumoto, Haruna Hamasaki, Yukie Okawara, Maiko Kondo, Ryoko Nozue, Hiromi Yamagata, Ayako Okura, Satoshi Hoshide
Asians have specific characteristics of hypertension (HTN) and its relationship with cardiovascular disease. The morning surge in blood pressure (BP) in Asians is more extended, and the association slope between higher BP and the risk for cardiovascular events is steeper in this population than in whites. Thus, 24-hour BP control including at night and in the morning is especially important for Asian patients with HTN. There are 3 components of "perfect 24-hour BP control": the 24-hour BP level, adequate dipping of nocturnal BP (dipper type), and adequate BP variability such as the morning BP surge...
March 2016: Annals of Global Health
Cheryl R Dennison Himmelfarb, Yvonne Commodore-Mensah, Martha N Hill
The role of the nurse in improving hypertension control has expanded over the past 50 years, complementing and supplementing that of the physician. Nurses' involvement began with measuring and monitoring blood pressure (BP) and patient education and has expanded to become one of the most effective strategies to improve BP control. Today the roles of nurses and nurse practitioners (NPs) in hypertension management involve all aspects of care, including (1) detection, referral, and follow up; (2) diagnostics and medication management; (3) patient education, counseling, and skill building; (4) coordination of care; (5) clinic or office management; (6) population health management; and (7) performance measurement and quality improvement...
March 2016: Annals of Global Health
Sripriya Ravi, Odilia I Bermudez, Vijayakumar Harivanzan, Kwan Ho Kenneth Chui, Preethi Vasudevan, Aviva Must, Sadagopan Thanikachalam, Mohan Thanikachalam
BACKGROUND: The association between prevalence of hypertension and its relationship with dietary sodium intake has never been published from large epidemiological studies in the South Indian population before. OBJECTIVES: To assess sodium intake and its association with blood pressure, and major dietary sources of sodium in an adult population in southeastern India. METHODS: This study included a representative population-based sample of 8080 individuals (57% women) >20 years of age...
March 2016: Annals of Global Health
Joshua D Bundy, Jiang He
BACKGROUND: With rapid economic development, urbanization, and an aging population, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have become the leading cause of death in China. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive review on the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension (HTN) as well as blood pressure (BP)-related morbidity and mortality of CVD in Chinese adults over time. FINDINGS: The prevalence of HTN in China is high and increasing...
March 2016: Annals of Global Health
Lawrence R Krakoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Annals of Global Health
Courtney C Carignan, Tracy Punshon, Margaret R Karagas, Kathryn L Cottingham
BACKGROUND: Rice is known to be high in arsenic, including in infant rice cereal. Although arsenic in drinking water is currently regulated, there are currently no US regulations regarding arsenic concentrations in food. OBJECTIVE: We used published values to estimate arsenic exposure via rice cereal relative to breast milk or formula for 6- to 12-month-old infants in the general US population. RESULTS: We found that arsenic exposure from 3 servings of rice cereal exceeded that of formula made with water containing arsenic at 10 μg/L, the US Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level...
January 2016: Annals of Global Health
Philip J Landrigan
BACKGROUND: The Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) convened an Expert Committee in 2014 to update the 1997 and 2000 Helsinki criteria on asbestos, asbestosis, and cancer. METHODS: The Collegium Ramazzini reviewed the criteria for pathological diagnosis of the diseases caused by asbestos presented in the 2014 Helsinki Consensus Report and compared them with the widely used diagnostic criteria developed in 1982 by the College of American Pathologists and the National Institutes of Occupational Safety and Health (CAP-NIOSH)...
January 2016: Annals of Global Health
Phillip J Landrigan
BACKGROUND: European asbestos manufacturers and their expert witnesses have advanced the claim that recent exposures to asbestos are not of significance in the causation of malignant mesothelioma. They argue that in cases of prolonged exposure to asbestos only the earliest exposures contribute to mesothelioma induction. METHODS: The Collegium Ramazzini examined this claim and compared it with the findings of the Epidemiology and Public Health Working Group of the Second Italian Consensus Conference on Pleural Mesothelioma...
January 2016: Annals of Global Health
Ken Takahashi, Philip J Landrigan
The Collegium Ramazzini (CR) reaffirms its long-standing position that responsible public health action is to ban all extraction and use of asbestos, including chrysotile. This current statement updates earlier statements by the CR with a focus on global health dimensions of asbestos and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). The ARD epidemic will likely not peak for at least a decade in most industrialized countries and for several decades in industrializing countries. Asbestos and ARDs will continue to present challenges in the arena of occupational medicine and public health, as well as in clinical research and practice, and have thus emerged as a global health issue...
January 2016: Annals of Global Health
Idayu Badilla Idris, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Khor Hui Zhie, Khairul Aliff Khairuman, Siti Kasuma Yahya, Farah Azureen Abd Zaim, Chok Wai Nam, Hazwan Zuhairi Abdul Rasid, Zaleha Md Isa
The prevalence of asthma is increasing, especially among children in Malaysia, with environmental factors as one of the main preventable contributors. The aim of this study was to determine the association between environmental air pollutants and the occurrence of asthma among children seen in pediatric clinics in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur. An unmatched case control study among children who attended the pediatric clinic was carried out from May to August 2015. A total of 223 children who were diagnosed with asthma (105 cases) and who did not have asthma (118 controls) were included in this study...
January 2016: Annals of Global Health
Antonio Pascale, Adriana Sosa, Cristina Bares, Alejandra Battocletti, María José Moll, Darío Pose, Amalia Laborde, Hugo González, Gabriella Feola
BACKGROUND: Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling creates exposures to several hazardous substances including lead. In Uruguay, primitive recycling procedures are a significant source of lead exposure. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine lead exposure in blood lead levels (BLLs) in low-income children exposed to lead through burning cables. METHODS: A sample of children and adolescents exposed to lead through burning cable activities were assessed at the Department of Toxicology in Montevideo, Uruguay, between 2010 and 2014...
January 2016: Annals of Global Health
Jessica E Laine, Rebecca C Fry
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is associated with dysregulated fetal gene and protein expression. Potential biological mechanisms that underlie these changes include, but are not limited to, changes to the epigenome. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to identify whether the expression of key genes, proteins, or both and their associated biological pathways are perturbed by compiling datasets from studies on prenatal arsenic exposure...
January 2016: Annals of Global Health
Fiona C Goldizen
BACKGROUND: Over the past decades global environmental change, globalization, urbanization, and the rise in movement of people have increased the risk for pandemic disease outbreaks. As environmental exposures do not respect state borders, a globalist concept of global health response has developed, which requires transparency and cooperation for coordinated responses to disease outbreaks. Countries that avoid cooperation on health issues for social or political reasons can endanger the global community...
January 2016: Annals of Global Health
Ann Aschengrau, Patricia A Janulewicz, Roberta F White, Veronica M Vieira, Lisa G Gallagher, Kelly D Getz, Thomas F Webster, David M Ozonoff
BACKGROUND: Tetrachloroethene (PCE) is a common environmental and occupational contaminant and an acknowledged neurotoxicant. From 1968 through 1983, widespread contamination of public drinking water supplies with PCE occurred in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts. The source of the contamination was a vinyl liner applied to the inner surface of water distribution pipes. OBJECTIVES: A retrospective cohort study (the Cape Cod Health Study) was undertaken to examine possible health consequences of early-life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water...
January 2016: Annals of Global Health
J Leith Sly, Sophie E Moore, Fiona Gore, Marie Noel Brune, Maria Neira, Paul Jagals, Peter D Sly
BACKGROUND: Adverse environmental exposures in early life increase the risk of chronic disease but do not attract the attention nor receive the public health priority warranted. A safe and healthy environment is essential for children's health and development, yet absent in many countries. A framework that aids in understanding the link between environmental exposures and adverse health outcomes are environmental health indicators-numerical estimates of hazards and outcomes that can be applied at a population level...
January 2016: Annals of Global Health
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