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World Journal of Experimental Medicine

Geeta Shroff
AIM: To describe the morphogenesis of different neuronal cells from the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line, SCT-N, under in vitro culture conditions. METHODS: The directed neuronal cell line was produced from a single, spare, pre-implantation stage fertilized ovum that was obtained during a natural in vitro fertilization process. The hESCs were cultured and maintained as per our proprietary in-house technology in a Good Manufacturing Practice, Good Laboratory Practice and Good Tissue Practice compliant laboratory...
November 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Alexander Dontsov, Anna Koromyslova, Mikhail Ostrovsky, Natalia Sakina
AIM: To investigate the effect of two ways of lipofuscin production (lipid peroxidation and glycation) on lipofuscin fluorescence characteristics and phototoxicity and to compare them with the properties of natural lipofuscin. METHODS: Model lipofuscins were prepared on the basis of bovine photoreceptor outer segments (POS) with bisretinoid A2E addition. One set of samples was prepared from POS modified by lipid peroxidation, while another set from POS modified by glycation with fructose...
November 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Wen-Chen Ji, Xiao-Wei Zhang, Yu-Sheng Qiu
Spinal cord injury usually leads to permanent disability, which could cause a huge financial problem to the patient. Up to now there is no effective method to treat this disease. The key of the treatment is to enable the damage zone axonal regeneration and luckily it could go through the damage zone; last a connection can be established with the target neurons. This study attempts to combine stem cell, material science and genetic modification technology together, by preparing two genes modified adipose-derived stem cells and inducing them into neuron direction; then by compositing them on the silk fibroin/chitosan scaffold and implanting them into the spinal cord injury model, seed cells can have features of neuron cells...
August 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Hudson Alves Pinto, Alan Lane de Melo
Eurytremiasis is an important parasitic disease of cattle that was recently suggested to be a neglected and emerging human disease in Brazil. Based on a misinterpretation of the life cycle of the parasite, it was suggested that a great number of people could be infected with this fluke in the country. In the present letter, aspects of the life cycle of Eurytrema spp. are revisited and clarified. The mechanism of transmission previously reported for the few accidental human cases involved the ingestion of raw or undercooked insects (grasshoppers and crickets) harboring the infective metacercariae...
May 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Anja Geisler, Henry Fechner
Safe and effective gene therapy approaches require targeted tissue-specific transfer of a therapeutic transgene. Besides traditional approaches, such as transcriptional and transductional targeting, microRNA-dependent post-transcriptional suppression of transgene expression has been emerging as powerful new technology to increase the specificity of vector-mediated transgene expression. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs and often expressed in a tissue-, lineage-, activation- or differentiation-specific pattern...
May 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Roberto Mazzanti, Umberto Arena, Renato Tassi
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second cause of death due to malignancy in the world, following lung cancer. The geographic distribution of this disease accompanies its principal risk factors: Chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection, alcoholism, aflatoxin B1 intoxication, liver cirrhosis, and some genetic attributes. Recently, type II diabetes has been shown to be a risk factor for HCC together with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Although the risk factors are quite well known and it is possible to diagnose HCC when the tumor is less than 1 cm diameter, it remains elusive at the beginning and treatment is often unsuccessful...
February 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Camila Idelí Morales Fénero, Alicia Angelina Colombo Flores, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara
The ingest of diets with high content of fats and carbohydrates, low or no physical exercise and a stressful routine are part of the everyday lifestyle of most people in the western world. These conditions are triggers for different diseases with complex interactions between the host genetics, the metabolism, the immune system and the microbiota, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), obesity and diabetes. The incidence of these disorders is growing worldwide; therefore, new strategies for its study are needed...
February 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Kang Huo, Syed I Hashim, Kimberley L Y Yong, Hua Su, Qiu-Min Qu
Bone fracture occurs in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, prolonging recovery time and increasing medical costs. In this review, we discuss the potential risk factors for post-stroke bone fracture and preventive methods. Most post-stroke bone fractures occur in the lower extremities, indicating fragile bones are a risk factor. Motor changes, including posture, mobility, and balance post-stroke contribute to bone loss and thus increase risk of bone fracture. Bone mineral density is a useful indicator for bone resorption, useful to identify patients at risk of post-stroke bone fracture...
February 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Pedro Xavier-Elsas, Sandra Epifânio Bastos, Maria Ignez C Gaspar-Elsas
AIM: To determine whether online diffusion of the "Ten Warning Signs of Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases (PID)'' adheres to accepted scientific standards. METHODS: We analyzed how reproducible is online diffusion of a unique instrument, the "Ten Warning Signs of PID", created by the Jeffrey Modell Foundation (JMF), by Google-assisted searches among highly visited sites from professional, academic and scientific organizations; governmental agencies; and patient support/advocacy organizations...
November 20, 2015: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Jean Huang, Rudruidee Karnchanasorn, Horng-Yih Ou, Wei Feng, Lee-Ming Chuang, Ken C Chiu, Raynald Samoa
AIM: To investigate the relationship of iron indices with diabetes mellitus (DM) in those without hemochromatosis. METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined data collected during the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Only those who fasted properly and were not anemic with transferrin saturation < 45% were included (n = 6849). Insulin sensitivity and beta cell function were calculated from fasting glucose and insulin concentrations...
November 20, 2015: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Shizuyo Tsujimura, Yoshiya Tanaka
The main purpose of treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) is to control activation of lymphocytes, although some patients do not respond adequately to such treatment. Among various mechanisms of multidrug resistance, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a member of ATP-binding cassette transporters, causes drug-resistance by efflux of intracellular drugs. Certain stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, activate lymphocytes and induce P-gp expression on lymphocytes, as evident in active RA...
November 20, 2015: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Valter Lubrano, Silvana Balzan
In biological systems there is a balance between the production and neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This balance is maintained by the presence of natural antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The enhancement of lipid peroxidation or the decrease of antioxidant protection present in metabolic diseases or bad lifestyle can induce endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Clinical studies have shown that oxidative stress can increase ROS reducing the formation of antioxidant defences, especially in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD)...
November 20, 2015: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Mohamed Hassan, Denis Selimovic, Matthias Hannig, Youssef Haikel, Robert T Brodell, Mossaad Megahed
Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. Disrupted intracellular signaling pathways are responsible for melanoma's extraordinary resistance to current chemotherapeutic modalities. The pathophysiologic basis for resistance to both chemo- and radiation therapy is rooted in altered genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that, in turn, result in the impairing of cell death machinery and/or excessive activation of cell growth and survival-dependent pathways. Although most current melanoma therapies target mitochondrial dysregulation, there is increasing evidence that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated pathways play a role in the potentiation, initiation and maintenance of cell death machinery and autophagy...
November 20, 2015: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Christina Piperi, Efthimia K Basdra
Polycystins are key mechanosensor proteins able to respond to mechanical forces of external or internal origin. They are widely expressed in primary cilium and plasma membrane of several cell types including kidney, vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, osteoblasts and cardiac myocytes modulating their physiology. Interaction of polycystins with diverse ion channels, cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix junctional proteins implicates them in the regulation of cell structure, mechanical force transmission and mechanotransduction...
November 20, 2015: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Antonia Digklia, Ioannis A Voutsadakis
AIM: To discuss treatment with eribulin in clinical practice outside a clinical trial. METHODS: Archives of patients treated for metastatic breast cancer were reviewed and 21 patients treated with the new chemotherapeutic eribulin mesylate, a synthetic analog of a natural marine product, were identified. Information on patients' characteristics and treatment outcomes was extracted. Treatment with eribulin mesylate was initiated at the recommended dose of 1.4 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle in 17 patients and at a decreased dose of 1...
August 20, 2015: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Peter Lea
Advanced diagnostic methods and algorithms for immune disorders provide qualitative and quantitative multiplex measurement for pre-clinical prognostic and clinical diagnostic biomarkers specific for diseases. Choice of therapy is confirmed by modulating diagnostic efficacy of companion, theranotic drug concentrations. Assay methods identify, monitor and manage autoimmune diseases, or risk thereof, in subjects who have, or who are related to individuals with autoimmune disease. These same diagnostic protocols also integrate qualitative and quantitative assay test protocol designs for responder patient assessment, risk analysis and management of disease when integrating multiplex planar microarray diagnostic tests, patient theranostic companion diagnostic methods and test panels for simultaneous assessment and management of dysimmune and inflammatory disorders, autoimmunity, allergy and cancer...
August 20, 2015: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Kazuhiro Imai
Finite element analysis (FEA) is a computer technique of structural stress analysis and developed in engineering mechanics. FEA has developed to investigate structural behavior of human bones over the past 40 years. When the faster computers have acquired, better FEA, using 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) has been developed. This CT-based finite element analysis (CT/FEA) has provided clinicians with useful data. In this review, the mechanism of CT/FEA, validation studies of CT/FEA to evaluate accuracy and reliability in human bones, and clinical application studies to assess fracture risk and effects of osteoporosis medication are overviewed...
August 20, 2015: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Remo George, Renata Cavalcante, Celso Carvalho Jr, Elyana Marques, Jonathan B Waugh, M Tino Unlap
Tuberculosis is one of the leading infectious diseases plaguing mankind and is mediated by the facultative pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Once the pathogen enters the body, it subverts the host immune defenses and thrives for extended periods of time within the host macrophages in the lung granulomas, a condition called latent tuberculosis (LTB). Persons with LTB are prone to reactivation of the disease when the body's immunity is compromised. Currently there are no reliable and effective diagnosis and treatment options for LTB, which necessitates new research in this area...
August 20, 2015: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Claiton Ismael Schwertz, Neuber Jose Lucca, Aleksandro Schafer da Silva, Piotr Baska, Gustavo Bonetto, Mateus Eloir Gabriel, Fábio Centofanti, Ricardo Evandro Mendes
The trematodes of the genus Eurytrema are low pathogenic pancreatic parasites, but can be related to a decrease in cattle productive performance and eventually death. Parasitized animals develop chronic interstitial pancreatitis and may show a productive performance drop and emaciation. Human infection by Eurytrema sp. has already been reported in other countries as an incidental finding during autopsy or routine tests, but the parasite has not been found in humans in Brazil. However, it is possible that a large number of people could be infected, since parasitological tests have low sensitivity and the parasite is neglected as a pathogen for humans and even animals...
August 20, 2015: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Joe We Moss, Dipak P Ramji
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the vasculature and is the primary cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is currently the world's leading cause of death and the numbers are predicted to rise further because of a global increase in risk factors such as diabetes and obesity. Current therapies such as statins have had a major impact in reducing mortality from CVD. However, there is a marked residual CVD risk in patients on statin therapy. It is therefore important to understand the molecular basis of this disease in detail and to develop alternative novel therapeutics...
August 20, 2015: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
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