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Annals of Translational Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217701/gut-microbiota-and-oxalate-homeostasis
#1
Marguerite Hatch
This perspective focuses on how the gut microbiota can impact urinary oxalate excretion in the context of hyperoxaluria, a major risk factor in kidney stone disease. In the genetic disease of Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1 (PH1), an increased endogenous production of oxalate, due to a deficiency of the liver enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), results in hyperoxaluria and oxalate kidney stones. The constant elevation in urinary oxalate in PH1 patients ultimately leads to tissue deposition of oxalate, renal failure and death and the only known cure for PH1 is a liver or liver-kidney transplant...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217700/the-multiple-antibacterial-activities-of-the-bladder-epithelium
#2
REVIEW
Jianxuan Wu, Yuxuan Miao, Soman N Abraham
The urinary tract is subject to frequent challenges from the gut microflora. Indeed, up to 40% of women will experience at least one urinary tract infection (UTI) during their lifetime. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) contribute to an overwhelming majority of these cases and they typically initiate UTIs by invading the superficial epithelium that lines the bladder lumen. In addition to serving as an effective barrier to noxious agents found in urine, bladder epithelial cells (BECs) play a key physiological role in regulating bladder volume to accommodate urine flow...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217699/the-female-urinary-microbiota-urinary-health-and-common-urinary-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Linda Brubaker, Alan J Wolfe
This review provides the clinical context and updated information regarding the female urinary microbiota (FUM), a resident microbial community within the female bladder of many adult women. Microbial communities have variability and distinct characteristics in health, as well as during community disruption (dysbiosis). Information concerning characteristics of the FUM in health and disease is emerging. Sufficient data confirms that the microbes that compose the FUM are not contaminants and are cultivatable under appropriate conditions...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217698/questions-and-challenges-associated-with-studying-the-microbiome-of-the-urinary-tract
#4
REVIEW
Yige Bao, Kait F Al, Ryan M Chanyi, Samantha Whiteside, Malcom Dewar, Hassan Razvi, Gregor Reid, Jeremy P Burton
Urologists are typically faced with clinical situations for which the microbiome may have been a contributing factor. Clinicians have a good understanding regarding the role of bacteria related to issues such as antibiotic resistance; however, they generally have a limited grasp of how the microbiome may relate to urological issues. The largest part of the human microbiome is situated in the gastrointestinal tract, and though this is mostly separated from the urinary system, bacterial dissemination and metabolic output by this community is thought to have a significant influence on urological conditions...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217697/the-association-between-bacteria-and-urinary-stones
#5
REVIEW
Andrew L Schwaderer, Alan J Wolfe
Urinary stone disease (USD) is an increasing clinical problem in both children and adults. One in ten individuals will experience a urinary stone, yet the mechanisms responsible for urinary stones remain largely unknown. Bacteria have long been recognized to contribute to struvite urinary stones; however, the role of bacteria in the development of the more common calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaPhos) stones has not been extensively investigated. However, several findings do indicate a possible association between urinary stones and bacteria, including the high rate of urinary tract infections (UTI) in urinary stone patients and multiple case series of culture-positive urinary stones, including stones composed of CaOx or CaPhos...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217696/the-mycobiome-of-the-human-urinary-tract-potential-roles-for-fungi-in-urology
#6
REVIEW
A Lenore Ackerman, David M Underhill
The mycobiome, defined as the fungal microbiota within a host environment, is an important but understudied component of the human microbial ecosystem. New culture-independent approaches to determine microbial diversity, such as next-generation sequencing methods, have discovered specific, characteristic, commensal fungal populations present in different body sites. These studies have also identified diverse patterns in fungal communities associated with various diseases. While alterations in urinary bacterial communities have been noted in disease states, a comprehensive description of the urinary mycobiome has been lacking...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217695/gut-microbiome-and-chronic-prostatitis-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Hans C Arora, Charis Eng, Daniel A Shoskes
Analysis of the human microbiome continues to reveal new and previously unrealized associations between microbial dysbiosis and disease. Novel approaches to bacterial identification using culture-independent methods allow practitioners to discern the presence of alterations in the taxa and diversity of the microbiome and identify correlations with disease processes. While some of these diseases that have been extensively studied are well-defined in their etiology and treatment methods (colorectal cancer), others have provided much more significant challenges in both diagnosis and treatment...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217694/probiotics-for-prevention-of-urinary-stones
#8
John C Lieske
BACKGROUND: Urinary supersaturation is one key determinant of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urinary stone formation, and urinary excretions of oxalate and citrate are two key determinants. Each is influenced by gastrointestinal processes. METHODS: Open label and randomized placebo studies have examined the effect of oral probiotic preparations on urinary supersaturation and oxalate excretion. Cross sectional studies in humans have studied the association of Oxalobacter formigenes colonization status and urinary oxalate excretion and prevalence of urinary stones...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217693/one-size-doesn-t-fit-all-unraveling-the-diversity-of-factors-and-interactions-that-drive-e-coli-urovirulence
#9
EDITORIAL
Henry L Schreiber, Caitlin N Spaulding, Karen W Dodson, Jonathan Livny, Scott J Hultgren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217692/preface-to-the-human-microbiome-in-urologic-health-and-disease
#10
Daniel A Shoskes, Jill A Macoska
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164111/erratum-to-treatment-strategies-according-to-genotype-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-children
#11
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.21037/atm.2016.09.06.].
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164110/narcolepsy-and-influenza-vaccination-induced-autoimmunity
#12
COMMENT
S Sohail Ahmed, Lawrence Steinman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164109/exercising-recommendations-for-paroxysmal-af-in-young-and-middle-aged-athletes-pafiyama-syndrome
#13
Carme Perez-Quilis, Giuseppe Lippi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Herbert Löllgen, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164108/a-novel-role-of-exosomes-in-the-vaccination-approach
#14
COMMENT
Pradip B Devhare, Ratna B Ray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164107/vascular-changes-and-perifascicular-muscle-fiber-damage-in-dermatomyositis-another-question-of-the-chicken-or-the-egg-that-is-on-our-mind
#15
COMMENT
Boel De Paepe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164106/mir-21-alters-circulating-treg-function-in-vascular-disease-hope-for-restoring-immunoregulatory-responses-in-atherosclerosis
#16
COMMENT
Emer E Hackett, Frederick J Sheedy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164105/contemporary-issues-in-endoscopic-resection-for-esophageal-squamous-cell-cancer
#17
COMMENT
Emmanuel Gabriel, Steven N Hochwald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164104/left-ventricle-mitral-valve-ring-size-mismatch-understanding-the-limitations-of-mitral-valve-repair-for-ischemic-mitral-regurgitation
#18
COMMENT
Christos G Mihos, Evin Yucel, Orlando Santana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164103/nanodiamonds-and-nanoparticles-as-tumor-cell-radiosensitizers-promising-results-but-an-obscure-mechanism-of-action
#19
COMMENT
Martin Falk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164102/automated-early-warning-system-for-septic-shock-the-new-way-to-achieve-intensive-care-unit-quality-improvement
#20
COMMENT
Fábio Ferreira Amorim, Alfredo Nicodemos Cruz Santana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
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