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Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine

Michael K Hancock, Leisha Kopp, Navjot Kaur, Bonnie J Hanson
Neurite outgrowth is an important morphological phenotype of neuronal cells that correlates with their function and cell health, yet there are limited methods available for measuring this phenomenon. Current approaches to measuring neurite outgrowth are laborious and time-consuming, relying largely upon immunocytochemical staining of neuronal markers (e.g., beta-III tubulin or MAP2) followed by manual or automated microscopy for image acquisition and analysis. Here we report the development of a quick and simple dual-color fluorescent dye-based staining method that allows for the simultaneous measurement of neuronal cell health and relative neurite outgrowth from the same sample...
2015: Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine
Kenji Sorimachi, Teiji Okayasu
The complete vertebrate mitochondrial genome consists of 13 coding genes. We used this genome to investigate the existence of natural selection in vertebrate evolution. From the complete mitochondrial genomes, we predicted nucleotide contents and then separated these values into coding and non-coding regions. When nucleotide contents of a coding or non-coding region were plotted against the nucleotide content of the complete mitochondrial genomes, we obtained linear regression lines only between homonucleotides and their analogs...
2015: Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine
Jaime Freitas, Nicole Miller, Brenda J Mengeling, Menghang Xia, Ruili Huang, Keith Houck, Ivonne M C M Rietjens, J David Furlow, Albertinka J Murk
To adapt the use of GH3.TRE-Luc reporter gene cell line for a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) platform, we miniaturized the reporter gene assay to a 1536-well plate format. 1280 chemicals from the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) 1408 compound collection were analyzed to identify potential thyroid hormone receptor (TR) agonists and antagonists. Of the 2688 compounds tested, eight scored as potential TR agonists when the positive hit cut-off was defined at ≥10% efficacy, relative to maximal triiodothyronine (T3) induction, and with only one of those compounds reaching ≥20% efficacy...
2014: Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine
Brian G Reid, Taleen Jerjian, Purvi Patel, Qiong Zhou, Byong Hoon Yoo, Peter Kabos, Carol A Sartorius, Daniel V Labarbera
The multi cellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) model has been used for decades with proven superiority over monolayer cell culture models at recapitulating in vivo tumor growth. Yet its use in high-throughput drug discovery has been limited, particularly with image based screening, due to practical and technical hurdles. Here we report a significant advance in utilizing live MCTS models for high-content image based drug discovery. Using a validated GFP reporter (CK5Pro-GFP) of luminal breast cancer stem cells (CSC), we developed an algorithm to quantify changes in CK5Pro-GFP expression levels for individual Z-stack planes (local) or as maximal projections of the summed Z-stacks (global) of MCTS...
2014: Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine
Chi Shing Sum, Debra Nickischer, Ming Lei, Andrea Weston, Litao Zhang, Liang Schweizer
Microtubules are important components of the cellular cytoskeleton that play roles in various cellular processes such as vesicular transport and spindle formation during mitosis. They are formed by an ordered organization of α-tubulin and β-tubulin hetero-polymers. Altering microtubule polymerization has been known to be the mechanism of action for a number of therapeutically important drugs including taxanes and epothilones. Traditional cell-based assays for tubulin-interacting compounds rely on their indirect effects on cell cycle and/or cell proliferation...
2014: Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine
J V Peppard, C Rugg, M Smicker, C Dureuil, B Ronan, O Flamand, L Durand, B Pasquier
Autophagy plays an important role in cancer and it has been suggested that it functions not only as a tumor suppressor pathway to prevent tumor initiation, but also as a pro-survival pathway that helps tumor cells endure metabolic stress and resist death triggered by chemotherapeutic agents, including acquired resistance. We aimed to identify small-molecule autophagy inhibitors using a HTS/HCA approach through a phenotypic, cell image-based assay, in order to screen multiple biological targets simultaneously and to screen compounds in a physiologically relevant environment...
2014: Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine
Zhuyin Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine
Sarah E Sinnett, Jonathan Z Sexton, Jay E Brenman
AMPK is a conserved heterotrimeric serine-threonine kinase that regulates anabolic and catabolic pathways in eukaryotes. Its central role in cellular and whole body metabolism makes AMPK a commonly proposed therapeutic target for illnesses characterized by abnormal energy regulation, including cancer and diabetes. Many AMPK modulators, however, produce AMPK-independent effects. To identify drugs that modulate AMPK activity independent of the canonical ATP-binding pocket found throughout the kinome, we designed a robust fluorescence-based high throughput screening assay biased toward the identification of molecules that bind the regulatory region of AMPK through displacement of MANT-ADP, a fluorescent ADP analog...
2013: Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine
Lidia S Nierobisz, Bentley Cheatham, Benjamin M Buehrer, Jonathan Z Sexton
Myoblast proliferation and differentiation are essential for normal skeletal muscle growth and repair. Muscle recovery is dependent on the quiescent population of muscle stem cells - satellite cells. During muscle injury, satellite cells become mitotically active and begin the repair process by fusing with each other and/or with myofibers. Aging, prolonged inactivity, obesity, cachexia and other muscle wasting diseases are associated with a decreased number of quiescent and proliferating satellite cells, which impedes the repair process...
2013: Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine
Sebastian Breuer, Sheryll Espinola, Xavier Morelli, Bruce E Torbett, Stefan T Arold, Ingo H Engels
The current treatment regimens for HIV include over 20 anti-retrovirals. However, adverse drug effects and the emergence of drug resistance necessitates the continued improvement of the existing drug classes as well as the development of novel drugs that target as yet therapeutically unexploited viral and cellular pathways. Here we demonstrate a strategy for the discovery of protein-protein interaction inhibitors of the viral pathogenicity factor HIV-1 Nef and its interaction with the host factor SH3. A combination of a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy resonance energy transfer-based assay and a label-free resonant waveguide grating-based assay was optimized for high-throughput screening formats...
2013: Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine
Haifeng Eishingdrelo, Sathapana Kongsamut
It has become clear in recent years that multiple signal transduction pathways are employed upon GPCR activation. One of the major cellular effectors activated by GPCRs is extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Both G-protein and β-arrestin mediated signaling pathways can lead to ERK activation. However, depending on activation pathway, the subcellular destination of activated ERK1/2 may be different. G-protein -dependent ERK activation results in the translocation of active ERK to the nucleus, whereas ERK activated via an arrestin-dependent mechanism remains largely in the cytoplasm...
2013: Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine
Heeral Sheth, Colleen Gorey, Nicole Roush, Shelly Smallman, Elizabeth Collantes, Maxine Santoro, Barbara Olson, Laura Fitzgerald, Paul H Lee, Xiqiang John Shen
Intracellular calcium response and resulting calcium signaling to an agonist-GPCR interaction are important for the measurement of compound activity in the GPCR drug development. The increase in cytosol calcium concentration can be measured by the fluorescent calcium indicator dye such as Fluo-4 in a quick assay (in 3-5 minutes) using the fluorescence imaging plate reader. The calcium signaling through the transcription factors such as NFAT that induces gene expression can be measured by the reporter gene assay that links to the expression of reporter enzyme such as the beta-lactamase that requires 5-hour incubation...
2013: Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine
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