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Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096295/does-selection-for-short-sleep-duration-explain-human-vulnerability-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Randolph M Nesse, Caleb E Finch, Charles L Nunn
Compared with other primates, humans sleep less and have a much higher prevalence of Alzheimer 's disease (AD) pathology. This article reviews evidence relevant to the hypothesis that natural selection for shorter sleep time in humans has compromised the efficacy of physiological mechanisms that protect against AD during sleep. In particular, the glymphatic system drains interstitial fluid from the brain, removing extra-cellular amyloid beta (eAβ) twice as fast during sleep. In addition, melatonin - a peptide hormone that increases markedly during sleep - is an effective antioxidant that inhibits the polymerization of soluble eAβ into insoluble amyloid fibrils that are associated with AD...
January 16, 2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567284/ethnically-tibetan-women-in-nepal-with-low-hemoglobin-concentration-have-better-reproductive-outcomes
#2
Jang Ik Cho, Buddha Basnyat, Choongwon Jeong, Anna Di Rienzo, Geoff Childs, Sienna R Craig, Jiayang Sun, Cynthia M Beall
Background and objectives: Tibetans have distinctively low hemoglobin concentrations at high altitudes compared with visitors and Andean highlanders. This study hypothesized that natural selection favors an unelevated hemoglobin concentration among Tibetans. It considered nonheritable sociocultural factors affecting reproductive success and tested the hypotheses that a higher percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (indicating less stress) or lower hemoglobin concentration (indicating dampened response) associated with higher lifetime reproductive success...
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496978/erratum-evolutionary-medicine-why-do-humans-get-bunions
#3
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/emph/eox001.].
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435680/adiposity-cvd-risk-factors-and-testosterone-variation-by-partnering-status-and-residence-with-children-in-us-men
#4
Lee T Gettler, Mallika S Sarma, Rieti G Gengo, Rahul C Oka, James J McKenna
Background and objectives: In many settings, partnered, invested fathers have lower testosterone than single men or fathers who are not involved in caregiving. Reduced testosterone has been identified as a risk factor for multiple chronic diseases, and men's health also commonly varies by life history status. There have been few tests of whether variation in testosterone based on partnering and parenting has implications for men's health. Methodology: We analysed data from a US population-representative sample (NHANES) of young-to-middle aged US men (n = 875; mean age: 29...
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421136/time-from-pre-eclampsia-diagnosis-to-delivery-affects-future-health-prospects-of-children
#5
Birgitte Hollegaard, Jacob A Lykke, Jacobus J Boomsma
Background and objectives: Pre-eclampsia often has detrimental health effects for pregnant women and their fetuses, but whether exposure in the womb has long-term health-consequences for children as they grow up remains poorly understood. We assessed overall morbidity of children following exposure to either mild or severe pre-eclampsia up to 30 years after birth and related disease risks to duration of exposure, i.e. the time from diagnosis to delivery. Methodology: We did a registry-based retrospective cohort study in Denmark covering the years 1979-2009, using the separate diagnoses of mild and severe pre-eclampsia and the duration of exposure as predictor variables for specific and overall risks of later disease...
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396796/evolutionary-medicine-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#6
Althea Anne D Perez, Scott W Simpson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396795/progress-and-change
#7
EDITORIAL
Charles L Nunn, Stephen C Stearns
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396794/evolutionarily-medicine-why-do-humans-get-bunions
#8
Pierre Tamer, Scott Simpson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396793/erratum-lethal-gene-drive-selects-inbreeding
#9
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/emph/eow030.].
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073827/reply-to-hagen-and-thornhill
#10
Sarah Myers, Oskar Burger, Sarah E Johns
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073826/testing-the-psychological-pain-hypothesis-for-postnatal-depression-reproductive-success-versus-evidence-of-design
#11
LETTER
Edward H Hagen, Randy Thornhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003312/energetics-and-the-immune-system-trade-offs-associated-with-non-acute-levels-of-crp-in-adolescent-gambian-girls
#12
Heather Shattuck-Heidorn, Meredith W Reiches, Andrew M Prentice, Sophie E Moore, Peter T Ellison
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The human immune system is an ever-changing composition of innumerable cells and proteins, continually ready to respond to pathogens or insults. The cost of maintaining this state of immunological readiness is rarely considered. In this paper we aim to discern a cost to non-acute immune function by investigating how low levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) relate to other energetic demands and resources in adolescent Gambian girls. METHODOLOGY: Data from a longitudinal study of 66 adolescent girls was used to test hypotheses around investment in immune function...
December 21, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013241/oup-lethal-gene-drive-selects-inbreeding
#13
James J Bull
The use of 'selfish' gene drive systems to suppress or even extinguish populations has been proposed on theoretical grounds for almost half a century. Creating these genes has recently become possible with CRISPR technology. One seemingly feasible approach, originally proposed by Burt, is to create a homing endonuclease gene (HEG) that inserts into an essential gene, enabling heterozygote viability but causing homozygote lethality. With 100% segregation distortion in gametes, such genes can cause profound population suppression if resistance does not evolve...
December 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744353/evolutionary-science-as-a-method-to-facilitate-higher-level-thinking-and-reasoning-in-medical-training
#14
Joseph L Graves, Chris Reiber, Anna Thanukos, Magdalena Hurtado, Terry Wolpaw
Evolutionary science is indispensable for understanding biological processes. Effective medical treatment must be anchored in sound biology. However, currently the insights available from evolutionary science are not adequately incorporated in either pre-medical or medical school curricula. To illuminate how evolution may be helpful in these areas, examples in which the insights of evolutionary science are already improving medical treatment and ways in which evolutionary reasoning can be practiced in the context of medicine are provided...
October 15, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666719/cardiovascular-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-in-evolutionary-perspective-a-critical-role-for-helminths
#15
REVIEW
Michael D Gurven, Benjamin C Trumble, Jonathan Stieglitz, Aaron D Blackwell, David E Michalik, Caleb E Finch, Hillard S Kaplan
Heart disease and type 2 diabetes are commonly believed to be rare among contemporary subsistence-level human populations, and by extension prehistoric populations. Although some caveats remain, evidence shows these diseases to be unusual among well-studied hunter-gatherers and other subsistence populations with minimal access to healthcare. Here we expand on a relatively new proposal for why these and other populations may not show major signs of these diseases. Chronic infections, especially helminths, may offer protection against heart disease and diabetes through direct and indirect pathways...
September 25, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26929090/borderline-personality-disorder-why-fast-and-furious
#16
REVIEW
Martin Brüne
The term 'Borderline Personality Disorder' (BPD) refers to a psychiatric syndrome that is characterized by emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, risk-taking behavior, irritability, feelings of emptiness, self-injury and fear of abandonment, as well as unstable interpersonal relationships. BPD is not only common in psychiatric populations but also more prevalent in the general community than previously thought, and thus represents an important public health issue. In contrast to most psychiatric disorders, some symptoms associated with BPD may improve over time, even without therapy, though impaired social functioning and interpersonal disturbances in close relationships often persist...
February 28, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26817485/a-deep-sequencing-tool-for-partitioning-clearance-rates-following-antimalarial-treatment-in-polyclonal-infections
#17
Nicole Mideo, Jeffrey A Bailey, Nicholas J Hathaway, Billy Ngasala, David L Saunders, Chanthap Lon, Oksana Kharabora, Andrew Jamnik, Sujata Balasubramanian, Anders Björkman, Andreas Mårtensson, Steven R Meshnick, Andrew F Read, Jonathan J Juliano
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Current tools struggle to detect drug-resistant malaria parasites when infections contain multiple parasite clones, which is the norm in high transmission settings in Africa. Our aim was to develop and apply an approach for detecting resistance that overcomes the challenges of polyclonal infections without requiring a genetic marker for resistance. METHODOLOGY: Clinical samples from patients treated with artemisinin combination therapy were collected from Tanzania and Cambodia...
January 27, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26817483/chronic-inflammatory-systemic-diseases-an-evolutionary-trade-off-between-acutely-beneficial-but-chronically-harmful-programs
#18
REVIEW
Rainer H Straub, Carsten Schradin
It has been recognized that during chronic inflammatory systemic diseases (CIDs) maladaptations of the immune, nervous, endocrine and reproductive system occur. Maladaptation leads to disease sequelae in CIDs. The ultimate reason of disease sequelae in CIDs remained unclear because clinicians do not consider bodily energy trade-offs and evolutionary medicine. We review the evolution of physiological supersystems, fitness consequences of genes involved in CIDs during different life-history stages, environmental factors of CIDs, energy trade-offs during inflammatory episodes and the non-specificity of CIDs...
January 27, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920041/an-adaptive-response-to-uncertainty-can-lead-to-weight-gain-during-dieting-attempts
#19
A D Higginson, J M McNamara
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Peoples' attempts to lose weight by low calorie diets often result in weight gain because of over-compensatory overeating during lapses. Animals usually respond to a change in food availability by adjusting their foraging effort and altering how much energy reserves they store. But in many situations the long-term availability of food is uncertain, so animals may attempt to estimate it to decide the appropriate level of fat storage. METHODOLOGY: We report the results of a conceptual model of feeding in which the animal knows whether food is currently abundant or limited, but does not know the proportion of time, there will be an abundance in the long-term and has to learn it...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651516/the-blemishes-of-modern-society-acne-prevalence-in-the-dogon-of-mali
#20
Christine E Campbell, Beverly I Strassmann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-communicable diseases may reflect an evolutionary mismatch between our human ancestry and modern environments. To explore the mismatch hypothesis for Acne vulgaris, we studied the prevalence and severity of acne in Dogon adolescents in Mali, West Africa. METHODOLOGY: We graded the prevalence and severity of acne in 1182 Dogon adolescents aged 11-18 years from nine villages using facial photos taken as part of a prospective cohort study...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
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