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Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health

Arjen R Buschman, Annelies Rep
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Anthony J Basile, David B Schwartz, Joseph Rigdon, Hamilton Stapell
Lay Summary: Through an online survey of nutrition and dietetic professionals and students, we learned there is interest to incorporate evolutionary medicine into the nutrition and dietetics field and education programs. Background and objectives: Evolutionary medicine is an emerging field that examines the evolutionary significance of modern disease to develop new preventative strategies or treatments. While many areas of interest in evolutionary medicine and public health involve diet, we currently lack an understanding of whether nutrition and dietetics professionals and students appreciate the potential of evolutionary medicine...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Charles L Nunn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Emily S Bailey, Jessica Y Choi, Jane K Fieldhouse, Laura K Borkenhagen, Juliana Zemke, Dingmei Zhang, Gregory C Gray
This year, in 2018, we mark 100 years since the 1918 influenza pandemic. In the last 100 years, we have expanded our knowledge of public health and increased our ability to detect and prevent influenza; however, we still face challenges resulting from these continually evolving viruses. Today, it is clear that influenza viruses have multiple animal reservoirs (domestic and wild), making infection prevention in humans especially difficult to achieve. With this report, we summarize new knowledge regarding influenza A, B, C and D viruses and their control...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Melissa B Manus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Jonathan C K Wells
Lay Summary: This review sets out the hypothesis that life history trade-offs in the maternal generation favour the emergence of similar trade-offs in the offspring generation, mediated by the partitioning of maternal investment between pregnancy and lactation, and that these trade-offs help explain widely reported associations between growth trajectories and NCD risk. Growth patterns in early life predict the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), but adaptive explanations remain controversial. It is widely assumed that NCDs occur either because of physiological adjustments to early constraints, or because early ecological cues fail to predict adult environmental conditions (mismatch)...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Alison A Macintosh, Jonathan C K Wells, Jay T Stock
Lay summary: Girls with a slower life history trajectory build a larger body with larger and mechanically stronger bones. Thus, variation in the emergence of slower versus faster life history trajectories during development can have consequences for bone mechanical competence, and hence fracture risk in adulthood. Background and objectives: Variation in life history trajectory, specifically relative investment in growth versus reproduction, has been associated with chronic disease risk among women, but whether this scenario extends to skeletal health and fracture risk is unknown...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Akanksha Ojha, Milind Watve
Lay Summary: Different species of vertebrates have conditions similar to human obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Increasing number of studies are now revealing that the causes and interrelationships between these states are substantially different in different species. Comparative physiology may turn out to be an eye opener for evolutionary theories of diabetes. Obesity induced insulin resistance is believed to be central to type 2 diabetes. Recent work on Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus , has revealed a hyperglycemic phenotype similar to human type 2 diabetes but here insulin resistance is the cause of obesity rather than an effect...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Herbert Renz-Polster, Freia De Bock
Lay Summary: In industrialized societies some babies develop flattening of the back part of their head. It is thought that this comes from sleeping supine, which has been shown to be the safest option for babies. However, this explanation cannot be correct from an evolutionary standpoint: why should safe sleep come at the cost of a misshaped head? Babies in industrialized societies are generally healthy. The medical problems they may be afflicted with are usually well understood. Deformational plagiocephaly presents a notable exception...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Erping Long
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Alexandra Alvergne, Marija Vlajic Wheeler, Vedrana Högqvist Tabor
Background and objectives: The underlying reasons why some women experience debilitating premenstrual symptoms and others do not are largely unknown. Here, we test the evolutionary ecological hypothesis that some negative premenstrual symptoms may be exacerbated by the presence of chronic sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methodology: 34 511 women were recruited through a digital period-tracker app. Participants were asked: (i) Have you ever been diagnosed with a STI? (ii) If yes, when was it, and were you given treatment? Those data were combined with longitudinal cycle data on menstrual bleeding patterns, the experience of pain and emotions and hormonal contraceptive use...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Silvie Huijben, Brian H K Chan, William A Nelson, Andrew F Read
Background and objectives: The rate of evolution of drug resistance depends on the fitness of resistant pathogens. The fitness of resistant pathogens is reduced by competition with sensitive pathogens in untreated hosts and so enhanced by competitive release in drug-treated hosts. We set out to estimate the magnitude of those effects on a variety of fitness measures, hypothesizing that competitive suppression and competitive release would have larger impacts when resistance was rarer to begin with. Methodology: We infected mice with varying densities of drug-resistant Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites in a fixed density of drug-sensitive parasites and followed infection dynamics using strain-specific quantitative PCR...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Kaspar Staub, Maciej Henneberg, Francesco M Galassi, Patrick Eppenberger, Martin Haeusler, Irina Morozova, Frank J Rühli, Nicole Bender
Background and objectives: The body mass index (BMI) is an established anthropometric index for the development of obesity-related conditions. However, little is known about the distribution of BMI within a population, especially about this distribution's temporal change. Here, we analysed changes in the distribution of height, weight and BMI over the past 140 years based on data of Swiss conscripts and tested for correlations between anthropometric data and standard blood parameters...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Mel Greaves, William Hughes
Cancer cells have a parasitic propensity in the primary host but their capacity to transit between individuals is severely restrained by two factors: a lack of a route for viable cell transfer and immune recognition in allogeneic, secondary recipients. Several examples of transmissible animal cancers are now recognised. In humans, the only natural route for transmission is via the haemochorial placenta which is permissive for cell traffic. There are three special examples of this occurring in utero : maternal to foetus, intraplacental twin to twin leukaemias and choriocarcinoma-extra-embryonic cells to mother...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Sean D Boyden, Martha Pott, Philip T Starks
Night terrors, also known as sleep terrors, are an early childhood parasomnia characterized by screams or cries, behavioral manifestations of extreme fear, difficulty waking and inconsolability upon awakening. The mechanism causing night terrors is unknown, and a consistently successful treatment has yet to be documented. Here, we argue that cultural practices have moved us away from an ultimate solution: cosleeping. Cosleeping is the norm for closely related primates and for humans in non-Western cultures...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
David Waynforth
Background and objectives: Jobs for life have become increasingly rare in industrialized economies, and have been replaced by shorter-term employment contracts and freelancing. This labour market change is likely to be accompanied by physiological changes in individuals who have experienced little job stability. Evolved responses to increased environmental instability or stochasticity include increased fat deposition and fight-or-flight responses, such as glucose mobilization and increased blood pressure...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Avantika Mainieri, David Haig
Background and objectives: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system is a major arena of intragenomic conflict over embryonic growth between imprinted genes of maternal and paternal origin and the IGF type 1 receptor (IGF1R) promotes proliferation of many human cancers. The 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the mouse Igf1r mRNA is targeted by miR-675-3p derived from the imprinted H19 long noncoding RNA. We undertook a comparative sequence analysis of vertebrate IGF1R 3'-UTRs to determine the evolutionary history of miR-675 target sequences and to identify conserved features that are likely to be involved in post-transcriptional regulation of IGF1R translation...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Benjamin K Chan, Paul E Turner, Samuel Kim, Hamid R Mojibian, John A Elefteriades, Deepak Narayan
Management of prosthetic vascular graft infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be a significant challenge to clinicians. These infections often do not resolve with antibiotic therapy alone due to antibiotic resistance/tolerance by bacteria, poor ability of antibiotics to permeate/reduce biofilms and/or other factors. Bacteriophage OMKO1 binding to efflux pump proteins in P. aeruginosa was consistent with an evolutionary trade-off: wildtype bacteria were killed by phage whereas evolution of phage-resistance led to increased antibiotic sensitivity...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Daniel Z Grunspan, Randolph M Nesse, M Elizabeth Barnes, Sara E Brownell
Background and objectives: Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Riley M Bove
The goal of this review is to apply an evolutionary lens to understanding the origins of multiple sclerosis (MS), integrating three broad observations. First, only humans are known to develop MS spontaneously. Second, humans have evolved large brains, with characteristically large amounts of metabolically costly myelin. This myelin is generated over long periods of neurologic development-and peak MS onset coincides with the end of myelination. Third, over the past century there has been a disproportionate increase in the rate of MS in young women of childbearing age, paralleling increasing westernization and urbanization, indicating sexually specific susceptibility in response to changing exposures...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
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