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Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744353/evolutionary-science-as-a-method-to-facilitate-higher-level-thinking-and-reasoning-in-medical-training
#1
Joseph L Graves, Chris Reiber, Anna Thanukos, Magdalena Hurtado, Terry Wolpaw
Evolutionary science is indispensable for understanding biological processes. Effective medical treatment must be anchored in sound biology. However, currently the insights available from evolutionary science are not adequately incorporated in either pre-medical or medical school curricula. To illuminate how evolution may be helpful in these areas, examples in which the insights of evolutionary science are already improving medical treatment and ways in which evolutionary reasoning can be practiced in the context of medicine are provided...
October 15, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666719/cardiovascular-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-in-evolutionary-perspective-a-critical-role-for-helminths
#2
Michael D Gurven, Benjamin C Trumble, Jonathan Stieglitz, Aaron D Blackwell, David E Michalik, Caleb E Finch, Hillard S Kaplan
Heart disease and type 2 diabetes are commonly believed to be rare among contemporary subsistence-level human populations, and by extension prehistoric populations. Although some caveats remain, evidence shows these diseases to be unusual among well-studied hunter-gatherers and other subsistence populations with minimal access to healthcare. Here we expand on a relatively new proposal for why these and other populations may not show major signs of these diseases. Chronic infections, especially helminths, may offer protection against heart disease and diabetes through direct and indirect pathways...
September 25, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26929090/borderline-personality-disorder-why-fast-and-furious
#3
REVIEW
Martin Brüne
The term 'Borderline Personality Disorder' (BPD) refers to a psychiatric syndrome that is characterized by emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, risk-taking behavior, irritability, feelings of emptiness, self-injury and fear of abandonment, as well as unstable interpersonal relationships. BPD is not only common in psychiatric populations but also more prevalent in the general community than previously thought, and thus represents an important public health issue. In contrast to most psychiatric disorders, some symptoms associated with BPD may improve over time, even without therapy, though impaired social functioning and interpersonal disturbances in close relationships often persist...
February 28, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26817485/a-deep-sequencing-tool-for-partitioning-clearance-rates-following-antimalarial-treatment-in-polyclonal-infections
#4
Nicole Mideo, Jeffrey A Bailey, Nicholas J Hathaway, Billy Ngasala, David L Saunders, Chanthap Lon, Oksana Kharabora, Andrew Jamnik, Sujata Balasubramanian, Anders Björkman, Andreas Mårtensson, Steven R Meshnick, Andrew F Read, Jonathan J Juliano
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Current tools struggle to detect drug-resistant malaria parasites when infections contain multiple parasite clones, which is the norm in high transmission settings in Africa. Our aim was to develop and apply an approach for detecting resistance that overcomes the challenges of polyclonal infections without requiring a genetic marker for resistance. METHODOLOGY: Clinical samples from patients treated with artemisinin combination therapy were collected from Tanzania and Cambodia...
January 27, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26817483/chronic-inflammatory-systemic-diseases-an-evolutionary-trade-off-between-acutely-beneficial-but-chronically-harmful-programs
#5
REVIEW
Rainer H Straub, Carsten Schradin
It has been recognized that during chronic inflammatory systemic diseases (CIDs) maladaptations of the immune, nervous, endocrine and reproductive system occur. Maladaptation leads to disease sequelae in CIDs. The ultimate reason of disease sequelae in CIDs remained unclear because clinicians do not consider bodily energy trade-offs and evolutionary medicine. We review the evolution of physiological supersystems, fitness consequences of genes involved in CIDs during different life-history stages, environmental factors of CIDs, energy trade-offs during inflammatory episodes and the non-specificity of CIDs...
January 27, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920041/an-adaptive-response-to-uncertainty-can-lead-to-weight-gain-during-dieting-attempts
#6
A D Higginson, J M McNamara
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Peoples' attempts to lose weight by low calorie diets often result in weight gain because of over-compensatory overeating during lapses. Animals usually respond to a change in food availability by adjusting their foraging effort and altering how much energy reserves they store. But in many situations the long-term availability of food is uncertain, so animals may attempt to estimate it to decide the appropriate level of fat storage. METHODOLOGY: We report the results of a conceptual model of feeding in which the animal knows whether food is currently abundant or limited, but does not know the proportion of time, there will be an abundance in the long-term and has to learn it...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651516/the-blemishes-of-modern-society-acne-prevalence-in-the-dogon-of-mali
#7
Christine E Campbell, Beverly I Strassmann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-communicable diseases may reflect an evolutionary mismatch between our human ancestry and modern environments. To explore the mismatch hypothesis for Acne vulgaris, we studied the prevalence and severity of acne in Dogon adolescents in Mali, West Africa. METHODOLOGY: We graded the prevalence and severity of acne in 1182 Dogon adolescents aged 11-18 years from nine villages using facial photos taken as part of a prospective cohort study...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637201/opposite-differential-risks-for-autism-and-schizophrenia-based-on-maternal-age-paternal-age-and-parental-age-differences
#8
Sean G Byars, Jacobus J Boomsma
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Effects of maternal and paternal age on offspring autism and schizophrenia risks have been studied for over three decades, but inconsistent risks have often been found, precluding well-informed speculation on why these age-related risks might exist. METHODOLOGY: To help clarify this situation we analysed a massive single population sample from Denmark including the full spectrum of autistic and schizophrenic disorders (eliminating between-study confounding), used up to 30 follow-up years, controlled for over 20 potentially confounding factors and interpret the ultimate causation of the observed risk patterns using generally accepted principles of parent-offspring conflict and life-history theory...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615376/evolutionary-change-in-physiological-phenotypes-along-the-human-lineage
#9
Alexander Q Vining, Charles L Nunn
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research in evolutionary medicine provides many examples of how evolution has shaped human susceptibility to disease. Traits undergoing rapid evolutionary change may result in associated costs or reduce the energy available to other traits. We hypothesize that humans have experienced more such changes than other primates as a result of major evolutionary change along the human lineage. We investigated 41 physiological traits across 50 primate species to identify traits that have undergone marked evolutionary change along the human lineage...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535084/interactions-between-immune-challenges-and-cancer-cells-proliferation-timing-does-matter
#10
Camille Jacqueline, Youssef Bourfia, Hassan Hbid, Gabriele Sorci, Frédéric Thomas, Benjamin Roche
The immune system is a key component of malignant cell control and it is also involved in the elimination of pathogens that threaten the host. Despite our body is permanently exposed to a myriad of pathogens, the interference of such infections with the immune responses against cancer has been poorly investigated. Through a mathematical model, we show that the frequency, the duration and the action (positive or negative) of immune challenges may significantly impact tumor proliferation. First, we observe that a long immunosuppressive challenge increases accumulation of cancerous cells only if it occurs 14 years after the beginning of immunosenescence...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530544/adaptive-behavior-can-produce-maladaptive-anxiety-due-to-individual-differences-in-experience
#11
Frazer Meacham, Carl T Bergstrom
Normal anxiety is considered an adaptive response to the possible presence of danger, but is susceptible to dysregulation. Anxiety disorders are prevalent at high frequency in contemporary human societies, yet impose substantial disability upon their sufferers. This raises a puzzle: why has evolution left us vulnerable to anxiety disorders? We develop a signal detection model in which individuals must learn how to calibrate their anxiety responses: they need to learn which cues indicate danger in the environment...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530543/early-developmental-exposures-shape-trade-offs-between-acquired-and-innate-immunity-in-humans
#12
Alexander V Georgiev, Christopher W Kuzawa, Thomas W McDade
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Life history theory predicts resource allocation trade-offs between competing functions and processes. We test the hypothesis that relative investment towards innate versus acquired immunity in humans is subject to such trade-offs and that three types of early developmental exposures are particularly salient in shaping adult immunophenotype: (i) pathogen exposure, (ii) nutritional resources; and (iii) extrinsic mortality cues. METHODOLOGY: We quantified one aspect each of innate and acquired immune function, via C-reactive protein and Epstein-Barr virus antibodies, respectively, in a sample of 1248 men and women from the Philippines (ca...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491895/meta-analysis-of-variance-an-illustration-comparing-the-effects-of-two-dietary-interventions-on-variability-in-weight
#13
Alistair M Senior, Alison K Gosby, Jing Lu, Stephen J Simpson, David Raubenheimer
Meta-analysis, which drives evidence-based practice, typically focuses on the average response of subjects to a treatment. For instance in nutritional research the difference in average weight of participants on different diets is typically used to draw conclusions about the relative efficacy of interventions. As a result of their focus on the mean, meta-analyses largely overlook the effects of treatments on inter-subject variability. Recent tools from the study of biological evolution, where inter-individual variability is one of the key ingredients for evolution by natural selection, now allow us to study inter-subject variability using established meta-analytic models...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470330/shining-evolutionary-light-on-human-sleep-and-sleep-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Charles L Nunn, David R Samson, Andrew D Krystal
Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep to better understand sleep along the human lineage and in the modern world. Compared to other primates, sleep in great apes has undergone substantial evolutionary change, with all great apes building a sleeping platform or 'nest'. Further evolutionary change characterizes human sleep, with humans having the shortest sleep duration, yet the highest proportion of rapid eye movement sleep among primates...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412864/vancomycin-gene-selection-in-the-microbiome-of-urban-rattus-norvegicus-from-hospital-environment
#15
Thomas Arn Hansen, Tejal Joshi, Anders Rhod Larsen, Paal Skytt Andersen, Klaus Harms, Sarah Mollerup, Eske Willerslev, Kurt Fuursted, Lars Peter Nielsen, Anders Johannes Hansen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Widespread use of antibiotics has resulted in selection pressure on genes that make bacteria non-responsive to antibiotics. These antibiotic-resistant bacteria are currently a major threat to global health. There are various possibilities for the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. It has been argued that animal vectors such as Rattus norvegicus (R. norvegicus) living in hospital sewage systems are ideal for carrying pathogens responsible for fatal diseases in humans...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378798/depression-and-anxiety-maladaptive-byproducts-of-adaptive-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Carl T Bergstrom, Frazer Meacham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378797/george-c-williams-prize-2015
#17
Andrew F Read, Gillian R Bentley, David Haig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193201/clone-wars-the-evolution-of-therapeutic-resistance-in-cancer
#18
Catherine M Worsley, Elizabeth S Mayne, Rob B Veale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193200/the-low-prevalence-of-female-smoking-in-the-developing-world-gender-inequality-or-maternal-adaptations-for-fetal-protection
#19
Edward H Hagen, Melissa J Garfield, Roger J Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Female smoking prevalence is dramatically lower in developing countries (3.1%) than developed countries (17.2%), whereas male smoking is similar (32% vs 30.1%). Low female smoking has been linked to high gender inequality. Alternatively, to protect their offspring from teratogenic substances, pregnant and lactating women appear to have evolved aversions to toxic plant substances like nicotine, which are reinforced by cultural proscriptions. Higher total fertility rates (TFRs) in developing countries could therefore explain their lower prevalence of female smoking...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193199/association-between-clinical-antibiotic-resistance-and-susceptibility-of-pseudomonas-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-lung
#20
Gunther Jansen, Niels Mahrt, Leif Tueffers, Camilo Barbosa, Malte Harjes, Gernot Adolph, Anette Friedrichs, Annegret Krenz-Weinreich, Philip Rosenstiel, Hinrich Schulenburg
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cystic fibrosis patients suffer from chronic lung infections that require long-term antibiotic therapy. Pseudomonas readily evolve resistance, rendering antibiotics ineffective. In vitro experiments suggest that resistant bacteria may be treated by exploiting their collateral sensitivity to other antibiotics. Here, we investigate correlations of sensitivity and resistance profiles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that naturally adapted to antibiotics in the cystic fibrosis lung...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
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