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Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30487969/an-ecosystem-framework-for-understanding-and-treating-disease
#1
REVIEW
Michael E Hochberg
Pathogens and cancers are pervasive health risks in the human population. I argue that if we are to better understand disease and its treatment, then we need to take an ecological perspective of disease itself . I generalize and extend an emerging framework that views disease as an ecosystem and many of its components as interacting in a community. I develop the framework for biological etiological agents (BEAs) that multiply within humans-focusing on bacterial pathogens and cancers-but the framework could be extended to include other host and parasite species...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455951/influenza-evolution-and-the-next-pandemic
#2
REVIEW
David S Fedson
Mortality rates in influenza appear to have been shaped by evolution. During the 1918 pandemic, mortality rates were lower in children compared with adults. This mortality difference occurs in a wide variety of infectious diseases. It has been replicated in mice and might be due to greater tolerance of infection, not greater resistance. Importantly, combination treatment with inexpensive and widely available generic drugs (e.g. statins and angiotensin receptor blockers) might change the damaging host response in adults to a more tolerant response in children...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455950/probing-the-evolutionary-robustness-of-two-repurposed-drugs-targeting-iron-uptake-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#3
Chiara Rezzoagli, David Wilson, Michael Weigert, Stefan Wyder, Rolf Kümmerli
Lay Summary: We probed the evolutionary robustness of two antivirulence drugs, gallium and flucytosine, targeting the iron-scavenging pyoverdine in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Using an experimental evolution approach in human serum, we showed that antivirulence treatments are not evolutionarily robust per se, but vary in their propensity to select for resistance. Background and objectives: Treatments that inhibit the expression or functioning of bacterial virulence factors hold great promise to be both effective and exert weaker selection for resistance than conventional antibiotics...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30430010/variation-among-populations-in-the-immune-protein-composition-of-mother-s-milk-reflects-subsistence-pattern
#4
Laura D Klein, Jincui Huang, Elizabeth A Quinn, Melanie A Martin, Alicia A Breakey, Michael Gurven, Hillard Kaplan, Claudia Valeggia, Grazyna Jasienska, Brooke Scelza, Carlito B Lebrilla, Katie Hinde
Lay Summary: Adaptive immune proteins in mothers' milk are more variable than innate immune proteins across populations and subsistence strategies. These results suggest that the immune defenses in milk are shaped by a mother's environment throughout her life. Background and objectives: Mother's milk contains immune proteins that play critical roles in protecting the infant from infection and priming the infant's developing immune system during early life. The composition of these molecules in milk, particularly the acquired immune proteins, is thought to reflect a mother's immunological exposures throughout her life...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410762/the-influenza-of-1918-evolutionary-perspectives-in-a-historical-context
#5
REVIEW
Margaret Humphreys
The 1918 influenza pandemic was the deadliest in known human history. It spread globally to the most isolated of human communities, causing clinical disease in a third of the world's population, and infecting nearly every human alive at the time. Determination of mortality numbers is complicated by weak contemporary surveillance in the developing world, but recent estimates put the death toll at 50 million or even higher. This outbreak is of great interest to modern day epidemiologists, virologists, global health researchers and evolutionary biologists...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374404/pre-eclampsia-and-maternal-fetal-conflict
#6
P J Varas Enriquez, L J McKerracher, M G Elliot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30364450/autism-evolution-and-the-inadequacy-of-spectrum
#7
Neil S Greenspan
Lay Summary: Individuals diagnosed with autism display variation in many traits, such as interest and ability in social interaction or resistance to change. Referring to this variation as a 'spectrum', defined as a range of values along an axis, understates the extent of such variation and can foster incorrect inferences. In psychiatry, the currently accepted term for a developmental disability characterized by variably impaired social and communicative skills, repetitive behaviors, and restricted interests is "autism spectrum disorder...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323930/pre-eclampsia-understanding-clinical-complexity
#8
Arjen R Buschman, Annelies Rep
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30254747/status-of-evolutionary-medicine-within-the-field-of-nutrition-and-dietetics-a-survey-of-professionals-and-students
#9
Anthony J Basile, David B Schwartz, Joseph Rigdon, Hamilton Stapell
Lay Summary: Through an online survey of nutrition and dietetic professionals and students, we learned there is interest to incorporate evolutionary medicine into the nutrition and dietetics field and education programs. Background and objectives: Evolutionary medicine is an emerging field that examines the evolutionary significance of modern disease to develop new preventative strategies or treatments. While many areas of interest in evolutionary medicine and public health involve diet, we currently lack an understanding of whether nutrition and dietetics professionals and students appreciate the potential of evolutionary medicine...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30250738/the-1918-influenza-pandemic-ecological-historical-and-evolutionary-perspectives
#10
EDITORIAL
Charles L Nunn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30210800/the-continual-threat-of-influenza-virus-infections-at-the-human-animal-interface-what-is-new-from-a-one-health-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Emily S Bailey, Jessica Y Choi, Jane K Fieldhouse, Laura K Borkenhagen, Juliana Zemke, Dingmei Zhang, Gregory C Gray
This year, in 2018, we mark 100 years since the 1918 influenza pandemic. In the last 100 years, we have expanded our knowledge of public health and increased our ability to detect and prevent influenza; however, we still face challenges resulting from these continually evolving viruses. Today, it is clear that influenza viruses have multiple animal reservoirs (domestic and wild), making infection prevention in humans especially difficult to achieve. With this report, we summarize new knowledge regarding influenza A, B, C and D viruses and their control...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159142/evolutionary-mismatch
#12
Melissa B Manus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30152817/life-history-trade-offs-and-the-partitioning-of-maternal-investment-implications-for-health-of-mothers-and-offspring
#13
REVIEW
Jonathan C K Wells
Lay Summary: This review sets out the hypothesis that life history trade-offs in the maternal generation favour the emergence of similar trade-offs in the offspring generation, mediated by the partitioning of maternal investment between pregnancy and lactation, and that these trade-offs help explain widely reported associations between growth trajectories and NCD risk. Growth patterns in early life predict the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), but adaptive explanations remain controversial. It is widely assumed that NCDs occur either because of physiological adjustments to early constraints, or because early ecological cues fail to predict adult environmental conditions (mismatch)...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30152815/maternal-investment-maturational-rate-of-the-offspring-and-mechanical-competence-of-the-adult-female-skeleton
#14
Alison A Macintosh, Jonathan C K Wells, Jay T Stock
Lay summary: Girls with a slower life history trajectory build a larger body with larger and mechanically stronger bones. Thus, variation in the emergence of slower versus faster life history trajectories during development can have consequences for bone mechanical competence, and hence fracture risk in adulthood. Background and objectives: Variation in life history trajectory, specifically relative investment in growth versus reproduction, has been associated with chronic disease risk among women, but whether this scenario extends to skeletal health and fracture risk is unknown...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151194/blind-fish-an-eye-opener
#15
Akanksha Ojha, Milind Watve
Lay Summary: Different species of vertebrates have conditions similar to human obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Increasing number of studies are now revealing that the causes and interrelationships between these states are substantially different in different species. Comparative physiology may turn out to be an eye opener for evolutionary theories of diabetes. Obesity induced insulin resistance is believed to be central to type 2 diabetes. Recent work on Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus , has revealed a hyperglycemic phenotype similar to human type 2 diabetes but here insulin resistance is the cause of obesity rather than an effect...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151193/deformational-plagiocephaly-the-case-for-an-evolutionary-mismatch
#16
REVIEW
Herbert Renz-Polster, Freia De Bock
Lay Summary: In industrialized societies some babies develop flattening of the back part of their head. It is thought that this comes from sleeping supine, which has been shown to be the safest option for babies. However, this explanation cannot be correct from an evolutionary standpoint: why should safe sleep come at the cost of a misshaped head? Babies in industrialized societies are generally healthy. The medical problems they may be afflicted with are usually well understood. Deformational plagiocephaly presents a notable exception...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094027/evolutionary-medicine-why-does-prevalence-of-myopia-significantly-increase
#17
Erping Long
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090631/do-sexually-transmitted-infections-exacerbate-negative-premenstrual-symptoms-insights-from-digital-health
#18
Alexandra Alvergne, Marija Vlajic Wheeler, Vedrana Högqvist Tabor
Background and objectives: The underlying reasons why some women experience debilitating premenstrual symptoms and others do not are largely unknown. Here, we test the evolutionary ecological hypothesis that some negative premenstrual symptoms may be exacerbated by the presence of chronic sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methodology: 34 511 women were recruited through a digital period-tracker app. Participants were asked: (i) Have you ever been diagnosed with a STI? (ii) If yes, when was it, and were you given treatment? Those data were combined with longitudinal cycle data on menstrual bleeding patterns, the experience of pain and emotions and hormonal contraceptive use...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087774/the-impact-of-within-host-ecology-on-the-fitness-of-a-drug-resistant-parasite
#19
Silvie Huijben, Brian H K Chan, William A Nelson, Andrew F Read
Background and objectives: The rate of evolution of drug resistance depends on the fitness of resistant pathogens. The fitness of resistant pathogens is reduced by competition with sensitive pathogens in untreated hosts and so enhanced by competitive release in drug-treated hosts. We set out to estimate the magnitude of those effects on a variety of fitness measures, hypothesizing that competitive suppression and competitive release would have larger impacts when resistance was rarer to begin with. Methodology: We infected mice with varying densities of drug-resistant Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites in a fixed density of drug-sensitive parasites and followed infection dynamics using strain-specific quantitative PCR...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942512/increasing-variability-of-body-mass-and-health-correlates-in-swiss-conscripts-a-possible-role-of-relaxed-natural-selection
#20
Kaspar Staub, Maciej Henneberg, Francesco M Galassi, Patrick Eppenberger, Martin Haeusler, Irina Morozova, Frank J Rühli, Nicole Bender
Background and objectives: The body mass index (BMI) is an established anthropometric index for the development of obesity-related conditions. However, little is known about the distribution of BMI within a population, especially about this distribution's temporal change. Here, we analysed changes in the distribution of height, weight and BMI over the past 140 years based on data of Swiss conscripts and tested for correlations between anthropometric data and standard blood parameters...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
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