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Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713796/multimodal-imaging-in-focal-therapy-planning-and-assessment-in-primary-prostate-cancer
#1
Hossein Jadvar
PURPOSE: There is increasing interest in focal therapy (male lumpectomy) of localized low-intermediate risk prostate cancer. Focal therapy is typically associated with low morbidity and provides the possibility of retreatment. Imaging is pivotal in stratification of men with localized prostate cancer for active surveillance, focal therapy or radical intervention. This article provides a concise review of focal therapy and the evolving role of imaging in this clinical setting. METHODS: We performed a narrative and critical literature review by searching PubMed/Medline database from January 1997 to January 2017 for articles in the English language and the use of search keywords "focal therapy", "prostate cancer", and "imaging"...
June 2017: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680873/amino-acid-pet-and-mr-perfusion-imaging-in-brain-tumours
#2
REVIEW
Christian P Filss, Francesco Cicone, Nadim Jon Shah, Norbert Galldiks, Karl-Josef Langen
PURPOSE: Despite the excellent capacity of the conventional MRI to image brain tumours, problems remain in answering a number of critical diagnostic questions. To overcome these diagnostic shortcomings, PET using radiolabeled amino acids and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) are currently under clinical evaluation. The role of amino acid PET and PWI in different diagnostic challenges in brain tumours is controversial. METHODS: Based on the literature and experience of our centres in correlative imaging with PWI and PET using O-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine or 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[(18)F]-fluoro-l-phenylalanine, the current role and shortcomings of amino acid PET and PWI in different diagnostic challenges in brain tumours are reviewed...
2017: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596949/new-methodologies-for-the-preparation-of-carbon-11-labeled-radiopharmaceuticals
#3
REVIEW
Kenneth Dahl, Christer Halldin, Magnus Schou
PURPOSE: This short review aims to cover the more recent and promising developments of carbon-11 ((11)C) labeling radiochemistry and its utility in the production of novel radiopharmaceuticals, with special emphasis on methods that have the greatest potential to be translated for clinical positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. METHODS: A survey of the literature was undertaken to identify articles focusing on methodological development in (11)C chemistry and their use within novel radiopharmaceutical preparation...
2017: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596948/standardization-of-123-i-meta-iodobenzylguanidine-myocardial-sympathetic-activity-imaging-phantom-calibration-and-clinical-applications
#4
REVIEW
Kenichi Nakajima, Derk O Verschure, Koichi Okuda, Hein J Verberne
PURPOSE: Myocardial sympathetic imaging with (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-mIBG) has gained clinical momentum. Although the need for standardization of (123)I-mIBG myocardial uptake has been recognized, the availability of practical clinical standardization approaches is limited. The need for standardization includes the heart-to-mediastinum ratio (HMR) and washout rate with planar imaging, and myocardial defect scoring with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
2017: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596947/molecular-mechanisms-of-hypoxia-in-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Amarnath Challapalli, Laurence Carroll, Eric O Aboagye
PURPOSE: Hypoxia is a condition of insufficient oxygen to support metabolism which occurs when the vascular supply is interrupted, or when a tumour outgrows its vascular supply. It is a negative prognostic factor due to its association with an aggressive tumour phenotype and therapeutic resistance. This review provides an overview of hypoxia imaging with Positron emission tomography (PET), with an emphasis on the biological relevance, mechanism of action, highlighting advantages, and limitations of the currently available hypoxia radiotracers...
2017: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138436/siderophores-for-molecular-imaging-applications
#6
REVIEW
Milos Petrik, Chuangyan Zhai, Hubertus Haas, Clemens Decristoforo
This review covers publications on siderophores applied for molecular imaging applications, mainly for radionuclide-based imaging. Siderophores are low molecular weight chelators produced by bacteria and fungi to scavenge essential iron. Research on these molecules has a continuing history over the past 50 years. Many biomedical applications have been developed, most prominently the use of the siderophore desferrioxamine (DFO) to tackle iron overload related diseases. Recent research described the upregulation of siderophore production and transport systems during infection...
2017: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933282/myocardial-perfusion-scintigraphy-dosimetry-optimal-use-of-spect-and-spect-ct-technologies-in-stress-first-imaging-protocol
#7
REVIEW
M Lecchi, S Malaspina, C Scabbio, V Gaudieri, A Del Sole
PURPOSE: Over the past decade, nuclear medicine experts have been seeking to minimize patient exposure to radiation in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). This review describes the latest technological innovations in MPS, particularly with regard to dose reduction. METHODS: We searched in PubMed for original clinical papers in English, published after 2008, using the following research criteria: (dose) and ((reduction) or (reducing)) and ((myocardial) or (cardiac) or (heart)) and ((nuclear medicine) or (nuclear imaging) or (radionuclide) or (scintigraphy) or (SPET) or (SPECT))...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933281/pet-imaging-of-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-receptor-upar-in-prostate-cancer-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Dorthe Skovgaard, Morten Persson, Andreas Kjaer
Overexpression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptors (uPAR) represents an important biomarker for aggressiveness in most common malignant diseases, including prostate cancer (PC). Accordingly, uPAR expression either assessed directly in malignant PC tissue or assessed directly in plasma (intact/cleaved forms)-provides independent additional clinical information to that contributed by PSA, Gleason score, and other relevant pathological and clinical parameters. In this respect, non-invasive molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) offers a very attractive technology platform, which can provide the required quantitative information on the uPAR expression profile, without the need for invasive procedures and the risk of missing the target due to tumor heterogeneity...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933280/bone-imaging-in-prostate-cancer-the-evolving-roles-of-nuclear-medicine-and-radiology
#9
REVIEW
Gary J R Cook, Gurdip Azad, Anwar R Padhani
The bone scan continues to be recommended for both the staging and therapy response assessment of skeletal metastases from prostate cancer. However, it is widely recognised that bone scans have limited sensitivity for disease detection and is both insensitive and non-specific for determining treatment response, at an early enough time point to be clinically useful. We, therefore, review the evolving roles of nuclear medicine and radiology for this application. We have reviewed the published literature reporting recent developments in imaging bone metastases in prostate cancer, and provide a balanced synopsis of the state of the art...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738629/the-sentinel-node-approach-in-gynaecological-malignancies
#10
REVIEW
Angela Collarino, Sergi Vidal-Sicart, Germano Perotti, Renato A Valdés Olmos
This review discusses the state-of-the-art of sentinel lymph node mapping in gynaecological malignancies, including cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, and vulvar cancer, with an emphasis on new technological advances. For this objective, PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for relevant studies about the sentinel lymph node procedure in gynaecology. In particular, the use of preoperative lymphatic mapping with lymphoscintigraphy and single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) was identified in 18 studies...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738628/beyond-penile-cancer-is-there-a-role-for-sentinel-node-biopsy-in-urological-malignancies
#11
REVIEW
O R Brouwer, H G van der Poel, R F Bevers, E J van Gennep, S Horenblas
This review aims to discuss the current state-of-the-art of sentinel node (SN) mapping in urological malignancies. The principles and methodological aspects of lymphatic mapping and SN biopsy in urological malignancies are reviewed. Literature search was restricted to English language. The references of the retrieved articles were examined to identify additional articles. The review also includes meta-analyses published in the past 5 years. SN biopsy for penile cancer is recommended by the European Association of Urology as the preferred staging tool for clinically node-negative patients with at least T1G2 tumours (level of evidence 2a, Grade B)...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738627/methodological-aspects-of-99m-tc-sestamibi-guided-biopsy-in-breast-cancer
#12
REVIEW
A Collarino, R A Valdés Olmos, A F van der Hoeven, L M Pereira Arias-Bouda
PURPOSE: This review aims to discuss the methodological aspects of dedicated molecular breast imaging (MBI) using (99m)Tc-sestamibi as radiotracer to guide biopsy of occult or unclear breast lesions on mammography (MG) and ultrasound (US) that are suspicious on MBI (BI-RADS criteria 4 and 5), including its advantages, limitations and future clinical applications. METHODS: Literature search was performed using the PubMed/MEDLINE database and "(99m)Tc-sestamibi", "biopsy" and "breast cancer" as keywords...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738626/cerenkov-luminescence-imaging-cli-for-image-guided-cancer-surgery
#13
REVIEW
M R Grootendorst, M Cariati, A Kothari, D S Tuch, A Purushotham
Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is a novel molecular optical imaging technique based on the detection of optical Cerenkov photons emitted by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents. The ability to use clinically approved tumour-targeted tracers in combination with small-sized imaging equipment makes CLI a particularly interesting technique for image-guided cancer surgery. The past few years have witnessed a rapid increase in proof-of-concept preclinical studies in this field, and several clinical trials are currently underway...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512689/the-role-of-90-y-radioembolization-in-downstaging-primary-and-secondary-hepatic-malignancies-a-systematic-review
#14
M N G J A Braat, M Samim, M A A J van den Bosch, M G E H Lam
Radioembolization (RE) is an emerging treatment strategy for patients with primary hepatic malignancies and metastatic liver disease. Though RE is primarily performed in the palliative setting, a shift toward the curative setting is seen. Currently, hepatic resection and in selected cases liver transplantation are the only curative options for patients with a hepatic malignancy. Unfortunately, at diagnosis most patients are not eligible for liver surgery due to the imbalance between the necessary liver resection and the remaining liver remnant...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512688/preclinical-studies-and-prospective-clinical-applications-for-bacteria-targeted-imaging-the-future-is-bright
#15
REVIEW
Marjolein Heuker, Anna Gomes, Jan Maarten van Dijl, Gooitzen M van Dam, Alexander W Friedrich, Bhanu Sinha, Marleen van Oosten
Bacterial infections are a frequently occurring and major complication in human healthcare, in particular due to the rapid increase of antimicrobial resistance and the emergence of pan-drug-resistant microbes. Current anatomical and functional imaging modalities are insufficiently capable of distinguishing sites of bacterial infection from sterile inflammation. Therefore, definitive diagnosis of an infection can often only be obtained by tissue biopsy and subsequent culture and, occasionally, a definite diagnosis even appears to be impossible...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512687/imaging-bacteria-with-radiolabelled-quinolones-cephalosporins-and-siderophores-for-imaging-infection-a-systematic-review
#16
S Auletta, F Galli, C Lauri, D Martinelli, I Santino, Alberto Signore
Bacterial infections are still one of the main causes of patient morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nowadays, many imaging techniques, like computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, are used to identify inflammatory processes, but, although they recognize anatomical modifications, they cannot easily distinguish bacterial infective foci from non bacterial infections. In nuclear medicine, many efforts have been made to develop specific radiopharmaceuticals to discriminate infection from sterile inflammation...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340650/tspo-imaging-in-parkinsonian-disorders
#17
Alexander Gerhard
Microglial activation is a key aspect of the neuroinflammatory process in neurodegenerative disorders including idiopathic and atypical parkinsonian disorders. With positron emission tomography (PET) it has become possible to image this phenomenon in vivo and over the last years patterns of microglia activation corresponding with the known distribution of neuropathological changes in these disorders have been demonstrated using this technique. In addition the effects of interventions aimed at suppressing microglia activation as part of interventional trials have successfully been demonstrated...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340649/optical-imaging-of-bacterial-infections
#18
REVIEW
Bethany Mills, Mark Bradley, Kevin Dhaliwal
The rise in multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has become a global crisis. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of infection will facilitate antibiotic stewardship and preserve our ability to treat and cure patients from bacterial infection. Direct in situ imaging of bacteria offers the prospect of accurately diagnosing disease and monitoring patient outcomes and response to treatment in real-time. There have been many recent advances in the field of optical imaging of infection; namely in specific probe and fluorophore design...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27077070/imaging-latent-tuberculosis-infection-with-radiolabeled-nitroimidazoles
#19
Alfred O Ankrah, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Mike M Sathekge, Hans C Klein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27077069/tspo-expression-in-brain-tumours-is-tspo-a-target-for-brain-tumour-imaging
#20
REVIEW
Federico Roncaroli, Zhangjie Su, Karl Herholz, Alexander Gerhard, Federico E Turkheimer
Positron emission tomography (PET) alone or in combination with MRI is increasingly assuming a central role in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for brain tumours with the aim of addressing tumour heterogeneity, assisting in patient stratification, and contributing to predicting treatment response. The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is expressed in high-grade gliomas, while its expression is comparatively low in normal brain. In addition, the evidence of elevated TSPO in neoplastic cells has led to studies investigating TSPO as a transporter of anticancer drugs for brain delivery and a selective target for tumour tissue...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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