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Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738629/the-sentinel-node-approach-in-gynaecological-malignancies
#1
Angela Collarino, Sergi Vidal-Sicart, Germano Perotti, Renato A Valdés Olmos
This review discusses the state-of-the-art of sentinel lymph node mapping in gynaecological malignancies, including cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, and vulvar cancer, with an emphasis on new technological advances. For this objective, PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for relevant studies about the sentinel lymph node procedure in gynaecology. In particular, the use of preoperative lymphatic mapping with lymphoscintigraphy and single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) was identified in 18 studies...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738628/beyond-penile-cancer-is-there-a-role-for-sentinel-node-biopsy-in-urological-malignancies
#2
O R Brouwer, H G van der Poel, R F Bevers, E J van Gennep, S Horenblas
This review aims to discuss the current state-of-the-art of sentinel node (SN) mapping in urological malignancies. The principles and methodological aspects of lymphatic mapping and SN biopsy in urological malignancies are reviewed. Literature search was restricted to English language. The references of the retrieved articles were examined to identify additional articles. The review also includes meta-analyses published in the past 5 years. SN biopsy for penile cancer is recommended by the European Association of Urology as the preferred staging tool for clinically node-negative patients with at least T1G2 tumours (level of evidence 2a, Grade B)...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738627/methodological-aspects-of-99m-tc-sestamibi-guided-biopsy-in-breast-cancer
#3
A Collarino, R A Valdés Olmos, A F van der Hoeven, L M Pereira Arias-Bouda
PURPOSE: This review aims to discuss the methodological aspects of dedicated molecular breast imaging (MBI) using (99m)Tc-sestamibi as radiotracer to guide biopsy of occult or unclear breast lesions on mammography (MG) and ultrasound (US) that are suspicious on MBI (BI-RADS criteria 4 and 5), including its advantages, limitations and future clinical applications. METHODS: Literature search was performed using the PubMed/MEDLINE database and "(99m)Tc-sestamibi", "biopsy" and "breast cancer" as keywords...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738626/cerenkov-luminescence-imaging-cli-for-image-guided-cancer-surgery
#4
M R Grootendorst, M Cariati, A Kothari, D S Tuch, A Purushotham
Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is a novel molecular optical imaging technique based on the detection of optical Cerenkov photons emitted by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents. The ability to use clinically approved tumour-targeted tracers in combination with small-sized imaging equipment makes CLI a particularly interesting technique for image-guided cancer surgery. The past few years have witnessed a rapid increase in proof-of-concept preclinical studies in this field, and several clinical trials are currently underway...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512689/the-role-of-90-y-radioembolization-in-downstaging-primary-and-secondary-hepatic-malignancies-a-systematic-review
#5
M N G J A Braat, M Samim, M A A J van den Bosch, M G E H Lam
Radioembolization (RE) is an emerging treatment strategy for patients with primary hepatic malignancies and metastatic liver disease. Though RE is primarily performed in the palliative setting, a shift toward the curative setting is seen. Currently, hepatic resection and in selected cases liver transplantation are the only curative options for patients with a hepatic malignancy. Unfortunately, at diagnosis most patients are not eligible for liver surgery due to the imbalance between the necessary liver resection and the remaining liver remnant...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512688/preclinical-studies-and-prospective-clinical-applications-for-bacteria-targeted-imaging-the-future-is-bright
#6
Marjolein Heuker, Anna Gomes, Jan Maarten van Dijl, Gooitzen M van Dam, Alexander W Friedrich, Bhanu Sinha, Marleen van Oosten
Bacterial infections are a frequently occurring and major complication in human healthcare, in particular due to the rapid increase of antimicrobial resistance and the emergence of pan-drug-resistant microbes. Current anatomical and functional imaging modalities are insufficiently capable of distinguishing sites of bacterial infection from sterile inflammation. Therefore, definitive diagnosis of an infection can often only be obtained by tissue biopsy and subsequent culture and, occasionally, a definite diagnosis even appears to be impossible...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512687/imaging-bacteria-with-radiolabelled-quinolones-cephalosporins-and-siderophores-for-imaging-infection-a-systematic-review
#7
S Auletta, F Galli, C Lauri, D Martinelli, I Santino, Alberto Signore
Bacterial infections are still one of the main causes of patient morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nowadays, many imaging techniques, like computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, are used to identify inflammatory processes, but, although they recognize anatomical modifications, they cannot easily distinguish bacterial infective foci from non bacterial infections. In nuclear medicine, many efforts have been made to develop specific radiopharmaceuticals to discriminate infection from sterile inflammation...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340650/tspo-imaging-in-parkinsonian-disorders
#8
Alexander Gerhard
Microglial activation is a key aspect of the neuroinflammatory process in neurodegenerative disorders including idiopathic and atypical parkinsonian disorders. With positron emission tomography (PET) it has become possible to image this phenomenon in vivo and over the last years patterns of microglia activation corresponding with the known distribution of neuropathological changes in these disorders have been demonstrated using this technique. In addition the effects of interventions aimed at suppressing microglia activation as part of interventional trials have successfully been demonstrated...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340649/optical-imaging-of-bacterial-infections
#9
Bethany Mills, Mark Bradley, Kevin Dhaliwal
The rise in multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has become a global crisis. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of infection will facilitate antibiotic stewardship and preserve our ability to treat and cure patients from bacterial infection. Direct in situ imaging of bacteria offers the prospect of accurately diagnosing disease and monitoring patient outcomes and response to treatment in real-time. There have been many recent advances in the field of optical imaging of infection; namely in specific probe and fluorophore design...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27077070/imaging-latent-tuberculosis-infection-with-radiolabeled-nitroimidazoles
#10
Alfred O Ankrah, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Mike M Sathekge, Hans C Klein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27077069/tspo-expression-in-brain-tumours-is-tspo-a-target-for-brain-tumour-imaging
#11
Federico Roncaroli, Zhangjie Su, Karl Herholz, Alexander Gerhard, Federico E Turkheimer
Positron emission tomography (PET) alone or in combination with MRI is increasingly assuming a central role in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for brain tumours with the aim of addressing tumour heterogeneity, assisting in patient stratification, and contributing to predicting treatment response. The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is expressed in high-grade gliomas, while its expression is comparatively low in normal brain. In addition, the evidence of elevated TSPO in neoplastic cells has led to studies investigating TSPO as a transporter of anticancer drugs for brain delivery and a selective target for tumour tissue...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27077068/pet-ct-imaging-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#12
Alfred O Ankrah, Tjip S van der Werf, Erik F J de Vries, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Mike M Sathekge, Andor W J M Glaudemans
Tuberculosis has a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has a complex pathophysiology; it is an aerobic bacillus capable of surviving in anaerobic conditions in a latent state for a very long time before reactivation to active disease. In the latent tuberculosis infection, the individual has no clinical evidence of active disease, but exhibits a hypersensitive response to proteins of Mtb. Only some 5-10 % of latently infected individuals appear to have reactivation of tuberculosis at any one time point after infection, and neither imaging nor immune tests have been shown to predict tuberculosis reactivation reliably...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26913275/imaging-fungal-infections-in-children
#13
Alfred O Ankrah, Mike M Sathekge, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Andor W J M Glaudemans
Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of high-resolution computer tomography (HR CT) has helped in early diagnosis making; however, it lacks both sensitivity and specificity. Metabolic changes precede anatomical changes and hybrid imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) integrated with imaging modalities with high anatomical resolution such as CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is likely to detect these infections at an earlier stage with higher diagnostic accuracy rates...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26855936/brain-aerobic-glycolysis-functions-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Andrei G Vlassenko, Marcus E Raichle
Genetic, biochemical, pathological, and biomarker data demonstrate that Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, including the initiation and progressive buildup of insoluble forms of beta-amyloid (Aβ), appears to begin ~ 10-15 years prior to the onset of cognitive decline associated with AD. Metabolic dysfunction, a prominent feature of the evolving brain pathology, is reflected in a decline of total glucose utilization. Despite decades of interest in declining glucose use in AD no detailed consideration had been given to the possibility that this decline is not just a decline in energy consumption but rather in glycolysis alone...
February 1, 2015: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25745616/imaging-amyloidopathy-in-parkinson-disease-and-parkinsonian-dementia-syndromes
#15
Kirk A Frey, Myria Petrou
Dementia arising in patients with Parkinson disease or parkinsonian neurodegeneration comprises a heterogeneous neuropathology. Clinical labeling of patients with both dementia and Parkinson disease is dichotomous, depending on the temporal development of cognitive impairment and motor parkinsonism. Patients with dementia arising first (or within the first year of PD) are classified as dementia with Lewy bodies; patients with PD for more than one year before cognitive decline are classified as Parkinson disease with dementia...
February 1, 2015: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27331049/imaging-neuroinflammation-in-multiple-sclerosis-using-tspo-pet
#16
Laura Airas, Eero Rissanen, Juha O Rinne
Conventional MR imaging (MRI) techniques form the cornerstone of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnostics and clinical follow-up today. MRI is sensitive in demonstrating focal inflammatory lesions and diffuse atrophy. However, especially in progressive MS, there is increasingly widespread diffuse pathology also outside the plaques, often related to microglial activation and neurodegeneration. This cannot be detected using conventional MRI. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) binding radioligands has recently shown promise as a tool to detect this diffuse pathology in vivo, and for the first time allows one to follow its development longitudinally...
2015: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26705534/mri-mrs-in-neuroinflammation-methodology-and-applications
#17
Mario Quarantelli
Neuroinflammation encompasses a wide range of humoral and cellular responses, not only enabling the CNS to fight various noxious events, including infections and trauma, but also playing a critical role in autoimmune as well as in neurodegenerative diseases. The complex interactions of immune, endothelial, and neuronal cells that take place during inflammation require an equivalent complexity of imaging approaches to be appropriately explored in vivo. Magnetic Resonance provides several complementary techniques that allow to study most mechanisms underlying the brain/immune interaction...
2015: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457274/cardiac-sympathetic-activity-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-and-tako-tsubo-cardiomyopathy
#18
Derk O Verschure, Berthe L F van Eck-Smit, G Aernout Somsen, Hein J Verberne
(123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-mIBG) scintigraphy has been established as an important technique to evaluate cardiac sympathetic function and it has been shown to be of clinical value, especially for the assessment of prognosis, in many cardiac diseases. The majority of (123)I-mIBG scintigraphy studies have focused on patients with cardiac dysfunction due to hypertension, ischemic heart disease, or valvular disease. However less is known about the role of (123)I-mIBG scintigraphy in primary cardiomyopathies...
2015: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457273/pet-imaging-of-the-autonomic-myocardial-function-methods-and-interpretation
#19
Walter Noordzij, Riemer H J A Slart
Cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) is mainly applied in myocardial perfusion and viability detection. Noninvasive imaging of myocardial innervation using PET is a valuable additional methodology in cardiac imaging. Novel methods and different PET ligands have been developed to measure presynaptic and postsynaptic function of the cardiac neuronal system. Obtained PET data can be analysed quantitatively or interpreted qualitatively. Thus far, PET is not a widely used clinical application in autonomic heart imaging; however, due to its technical advantages, the excellent properties of the imaging agents, and the availability of tools for quantification, it deserves a better position in the clinic...
2015: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25741489/amyloid-pet-imaging-applications-beyond-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Ana M Catafau, Santiago Bullich
As a biomarker of beta-amyloid, positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid imaging offers a unique opportunity to detect the presence of this protein in the human body during life. Besides Alzheimer's disease (AD), deposits of beta-amyloid in the brain are also present in other neurodegenerative diseases associated to dementia, such as Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, as well as in other processes affecting brain function, such as cerebral amyloid angiopathy, brain trauma, Down's syndrome and meningiomas, as shown by post-mortem pathology studies...
2015: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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