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Frontiers in Pediatrics

Giuliana Giardino, Vera Gallo, Rosaria Prencipe, Giovanni Gaudino, Roberta Romano, Marco De Cataldis, Paola Lorello, Loredana Palamaro, Chiara Di Giacomo, Donatella Capalbo, Emilia Cirillo, Roberta D'Assante, Claudio Pignata
Increased risk of developing autoimmune manifestations has been identified in different primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). In such conditions, autoimmunity and immune deficiency represent intertwined phenomena that reflect inadequate immune function. Autoimmunity in PIDs may be caused by different mechanisms, including defects of tolerance to self-antigens and persistent stimulation as a result of the inability to eradicate antigens. This general immune dysregulation leads to compensatory and exaggerated chronic inflammatory responses that lead to tissue damage and autoimmunity...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Clara Sampaio, Ariane Sampaio Sousa, Luis Gustavo A Fraga, Maria Luiza Veiga, José Murillo Bastos Netto, Ubirajara Barroso
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between constipation and lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and nocturnal enuresis in a population-based study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. The criteria for inclusion were children and adolescents of between 5 and 17 years and who agreed to sign the informed consent form. The study excluded students with neurological problems or who had documented abnormalities of the urinary tract. To identify the presence and severity of LUTD, we used the Voiding Dysfunction Symptom Score (DVSS)...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Utpal S Bhalala, Elumalai Appachi, Muhammad Ali Mumtaz
Many known risk factors for adverse cardiovascular and neurological outcomes in children with congenital heart defects (CHD) are not modifiable; however, the temperature and blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), are two risk factors, which may be altered in an attempt to improve long-term neurological outcomes. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, traditionally used for aortic arch repair, has been associated with short-term and long-term neurologic sequelae. Therefore, there is a rising interest in using moderate hypothermia with selective antegrade cerebral blood flow on CPB during aortic arch repair...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
François Olivier, Sophie Nadeau, Georges Caouette, Bruno Piedboeuf
BACKGROUND: Late preterm infants (34-36 weeks' gestation) remain a population at risk for apnea of prematurity (AOP). As infants affected by respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) have immature lungs, they might also have immature control of breathing. Our hypothesis is that an association exists between RDS and AOP in late preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to assess the association between RDS and AOP in late preterm infants. The secondary objective was to evaluate if an association exists between apparent RDS severity and AOP...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Antoine Tanet, Annik Hubert-Barthelemy, Graciela C Crespin, Nicolas Bodeau, David Cohen, Catherine Saint-Georges
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who also exhibit severe-to-moderate ranges of intellectual disability (ID) still face many challenges (i.e., less evidence-based trials, less inclusion in school with peers). METHODS: We implemented a novel model called the "Developmental and Sequenced One-to-One Educational Intervention" (DS1-EI) in 5- to 9-year-old children with co-occurring ASD and ID. The treatment protocol was adapted for school implementation by designing it using an educational agenda...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Joud Hajjar, Sana Hasan, Lisa R Forbes, Vagish Hemmige, Jordan S Orange
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Carla Frescura, Gaetano Thiene
Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a cardiac condition in which the arterial trunks arise from the inappropriate ventricle: the aorta from the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk from the left ventricle [discordant ventriculo-arterial (VA) connection]. In complete TGA, the discordant VA connection is associated with situs solitus or inversus and concordant atrioventricular (AV) connection. The hemodynamic consequence of these combined connections is that systemic and pulmonary circulations function in "parallel" rather than in "series"...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Giulia Ottaviani
Crib death, or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), is the most frequent form of death in the first year of life, striking one baby in every 1,700-2,000. Yet, despite advances in maternal-infant care, sudden intrauterine unexplained/unexpected death syndrome (SIUDS) has a sixfold to eightfold greater incidence than that of SIDS. Frequent congenital abnormalities, likely morphological substrates for SIDS-SIUDS, were detected, mainly represented by alterations of the cardiac conduction system, such as accessory pathways and abnormal resorptive degeneration, and hypoplasia/agenesis of the vital brainstem structures...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Jean-Marc Guilé, Christophe Huynh, Jean-Jacques Breton, Sébastien Garny De La Rivière, Claude Berthiaume, Marie St-Georges, Réal Labelle
INTRODUCTION: Chart review is a low-cost, but highly informative, method to describe symptoms, treatment, and risk factors associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and to adapt screening and intervention to clinical reality. Previous chart review studies report more aggressiveness/anger and psychotic features in youths with BPD. They show that adverse family environment and parental psychopathology constitute important factors for BPD pathology. OBJECTIVES: To examine clinical characteristics of depressed BPD adolescents (12-17 years old) outpatients according to gender and to explore variables which are associated with BPD traits...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Shahrzad Bakhtiar, Frank Ruemmele, Fabienne Charbit-Henrion, Eva Lévy, Frédéric Rieux-Laucat, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan, Peter Bader, Ulrich Paetow
Monogenic primary immunodeficiency syndromes can affect one or more endocrine organs by autoimmunity during childhood. Clinical manifestations include type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and vitiligo. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency was described in 2012 as a novel primary immunodeficiency, predominantly causing immune dysregulation and early onset enteropathy. We describe the heterogeneous clinical course of LRBA deficiency in two siblings, mimicking an autoimmune polyendocrine disorder in one of them in presence of the same underlying genetic mutation...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Stavros Giaglis, Sinuhe Hahn, Paul Hasler
Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation represents a form of cell death distinct from apoptosis or necrosis, by which invading pathogens are simultaneously entangled and potentially eliminated. Increased NET formation is observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated small vessel vasculitis, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), and psoriasis. NETs contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity by exposing cryptic autoepitopes, which may facilitate the generation of autoantibodies, induce the production of interferons, and activate the complement cascade...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Reeba M Jacob, Austin T Mudd, Lindsey S Alexander, Chron-Si Lai, Ryan N Dilger
INTRODUCTION: Provision of adequate nutrients is critical for proper growth and development of the neonate, yet the impact of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on neural maturation has to be fully determined. Using the piglet as a model for the human infant, our objective was to compare neurodevelopment of piglets that were either sow-reared (SR) or artificially reared (AR) in an artificial setting. METHODS: Over a 25-day feeding study, piglets (1.5 ± 0...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
William B Miller
All eukaryotic organisms are holobionts representing complex collaborations between the entire microbiome of each eukaryote and its innate cells. These linked constituencies form complex localized and interlocking ecologies in which the specific microbial constituents and their relative abundance differ substantially according to age and environmental exposures. Rapid advances in microbiology and genetic research techniques have uncovered a significant previous underestimate of the extent of that microbial contribution and its metabolic and developmental impact on holobionts...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Claudia Carvalho-Queiroz, Maria A Johansson, Jan-Olov Persson, Evelina Jörtsö, Torbjörn Kjerstadius, Caroline Nilsson, Shanie Saghafian-Hedengren, Eva Sverremark-Ekström
Early-life infections with persistent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are delayed in affluent countries, probably due to alterations in early environmental exposures, such as maternal age, siblings, and day-care attendance. We have previously reported that the timing of EBV and CMV contraction is related both to allergic sensitization and changes in functional competence of immune cells, while the presence/absence of lactobacilli [Lactobacillus (L.) casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus] or Staphylococcus (S...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Kevin M Valentine, Ajit A Sarnaik, Hitesh S Sandhu, Ashok P Sarnaik
OBJECTIVE: To describe the utility of high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) as a rescue therapy in patients with respiratory failure secondary to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) that was refractory to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV). DESIGN: Descriptive study by retrospective review. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit at a tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: Infants on mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure due to RSV...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Daniel Garros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Shikha Shukla, Srikanta Basu, Michael L Moritz
AIM: To evaluate maintenance intravenous fluid-prescribing practices and the incidence of hospital-acquired hyponatremia in children admitted to a general pediatric ward. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study conducted over a 2-month period in children ages 2 months to 5 years who were admitted to a general pediatric ward and who were receiving maintenance intravenous fluids. The composition, rate, and duration of intravenous fluids were chosen at the discretion of the treating physician...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Nienke J Vet, Niina Kleiber, Erwin Ista, Matthijs de Hoog, Saskia N de Wildt
This article discusses the rationale of sedation in respiratory failure, sedation goals, how to assess the need for sedation as well as effectiveness of interventions in critically ill children, with validated observational sedation scales. The drugs and non-pharmacological approaches used for optimal sedation in ventilated children are reviewed, and specifically the rationale for drug selection, including short- and long-term efficacy and safety aspects of the selected drugs. The specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of sedative drugs in the critically ill child and consequences for dosing are presented...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Chiara Magni, Laura Veneroni, Matteo Silva, Michela Casanova, Stefano Chiaravalli, Maura Massimino, Carlo Alfredo Clerici, Andrea Ferrari
Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called "no man's land" between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients' needs...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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