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Frontiers in Pediatrics

Ceyda Oksel, Sadia Haider, Sara Fontanella, Clement Frainay, Adnan Custovic
Advances in big data analytics have created an opportunity for a step change in unraveling mechanisms underlying the development of complex diseases such as asthma, providing valuable insights that drive better diagnostic decision-making in clinical practice, and opening up paths to individualized treatment plans. However, translating findings from data-driven analyses into meaningful insights and actionable solutions requires approaches and tools which move beyond mining and patterning longitudinal data. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in phenotyping of asthma, to discuss key hurdles currently hampering the translation of phenotypic variation into mechanistic insights and clinical setting, and to suggest potential solutions that may address these limitations and accelerate moving discoveries into practice...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Thomas J C Ruffles, Ryan Black, Wayne Nicholls, Barbara Laing, Alan Isles
Introduction: We describe the case of a 16-year old male with cystic fiborosis (CF) who presented with an osteosarcoma of his right distal tibia. Case Report: Treatment consisted of neoadjuvant chemotherapy of cisplatin, doxorubicin and high dose methotrexate followed by distal tibial resection and free fibula flap reconstruction and consolidation chemotherapy. Treatment was complicated by a pulmonary exacerbation, where Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PsA) and Staphylococcus aureus were grown on sputum culture which was treated with a 2-week course of intravenous piptazobactam and tobramycin...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Wei Wang, Wei Jing, Qingbin Liu
Objective: To explore the effects of Astragalus oral solution (AOS) on allergic asthma in children by investigating relative contents of CD4+ CD25high CD127low Treg cells. Methods: The contents of Astragaloside A in AOS were detected by using HPLC. Eighty children with allergic asthma were recruited from February 2016 to June 2017, and randomly assigned into the control group (received placebo, 0.1% quinine chloride in deionized water, daily) and the AOS group (received 10 mL AOS daily). After 6-month treatment, therapeutic results were compared between the two groups...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Haifa Mtaweh, Lori Tuira, Alejandro A Floh, Christopher S Parshuram
Measurement of energy expenditure is important in order to determine basal metabolic rate and inform energy prescription provided. Indirect calorimetry is the reference standard and clinically recommended means to measure energy expenditure. This article reviews the historical development, technical, and logistic challenges of indirect calorimetry measurement, and provides case examples for practicing clinicians. Formulae to estimate energy expenditure are highly inaccurate and reinforce the role of the indirect calorimetry and the importance of understanding the strength and limitation of the method and its application...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Karen J Campoverde Reyes, Madhusmita Misra, Hang Lee, Fatima Cody Stanford
Introduction: Obesity is associated with early co-morbidities and higher mortality. Even though weight loss surgery (WLS) in adolescents with severe obesity reliably achieves safe and lasting improvement in BMI and superior resolution of comorbid diseases, its utilization among young patients in the clinical practice stands unclear. Objective: To show the prevalence of weight loss surgery utilization rates in adolescents and young adults among several healthcare institutions in the United States. Method: WLS in 14-25 years old between 2000 and 2017 was obtained from Washington University, Morehouse Medical, University of Texas, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston Medical Center, and Partners Healthcare using the Shared Health Research Information Network (SHRINE) and Research Patient Data Registry (RPDR) web-based query tools...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Stefano Ghirardello, Beatrice L Crippa, Valeria Cortesi, Elena Di Francesco, Dario Consonni, Lorenzo Colombo, Monica Fumagalli, Arjan B Te Pas, Fabio Mosca
Objective: To compare the effect of Delayed Cord Clamping (DCC) to Immediate Cord Clamping (ICC) on phototherapy treatment in a cohort of cesarean-delivered newborns with AB0-alloimmunization. Study Design: In a retrospective cohort study neonates with Gestational Age (GA) ≥ 35 weeks and diagnosed with AB0-alloimmunization before implementation of DCC (ICC group) were compared with neonates born after implementation (DCC group). The primary outcome was the need for phototherapy. Secondary outcomes included hospital stay, readmission rate, need for extra intravenous fluids, maximum bilirubin concentration, and hours of life at bilirubin peak...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Neha Gupta, Robert Richter, Stephen Robert, Michele Kong
Sepsis in children is typically presumed to be bacterial in origin until proven otherwise, but frequently bacterial cultures ultimately return negative. Although viruses may be important causative agents of culture-negative sepsis worldwide, the incidence, disease burden and mortality of viral-induced sepsis is poorly elucidated. Consideration of viral sepsis is critical as its recognition carries implications on appropriate use of antibacterial agents, infection control measures, and, in some cases, specific, time-sensitive antiviral therapies...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Meeryo C Choe, Andrew J Gregory, Tamara M Haegerich
Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a growing health concern, with over half a million TBI-related emergency department (ED) visits annually. However, this is likely an underestimate of the true incidence, with many children presenting to their pediatrician. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published a guideline on the diagnosis and management of pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We outline key points and a decision checklist for pediatricians based on this evidence-based guideline...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Evanthia Perikleous, Paschalis Steiropoulos, Evangelia Nena, Maria Iordanidou, Argyrios Tzouvelekis, Athanasios Chatzimichael, Emmanouil Paraskakis
Objective: Asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) are the most common chronic conditions in childhood and have previously been linked to sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD). Aim of the study was to examine the association between SRBD risk and asthma control in children with asthma and with or without AR. Methods: The assessment of FeNO and pulmonary function tests were performed in 140 children (65 with asthma, 57 with both asthma, and AR, 18 with only AR). Children with asthma completed the childhood Asthma Control Test (c-ACT), and the Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder scale, extracted from the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ)...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Jose Antonio Tavares de Albuquerque, Edgar Borges de Oliveira Junior, Nuria Bengala Zurro, Paola Vendramini, Edson Kiyotaka Ishizuka, Daniela de Souza Paiva Borgli, Monica Soares de Souza, Antonio Condino-Neto
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an innate immune deficiency of phagocytic cells caused by mutations that affect components of the NADPH oxidase system, with resulting impairment in reactive oxygen species production. Patients with CGD are susceptible to recurrent infections and hyperinflammatory responses. Mutations in CYBB lead to the X-linked form of CGD and are responsible for ~ 70% of cases. In this study, we report the case of a 2.5-year-old male patient with recurrent pneumonia and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin infection (BCGitis)...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Melania M Bembea, Aparna Hoskote, Anne-Marie Guerguerian
The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in the pediatric age has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the complexity of cases and the variety of indications outside of the neonatal age. However, no randomized controlled trials have been attempted to date to test ECMO as an intervention in non-neonatal pediatric patients with critical illness. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the history of clinical research in pediatric ECMO and discuss methodological challenges including heterogeneity of ages and diagnoses in the pediatric ECMO population, rapid advances in technology and clinical practice related to ECMO, feasibility of enrolling critically ill children on ECMO in clinical research studies, and variability in ECMO management across institutions and countries...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Veronica Ayechu-Muruzabal, Arthur H van Stigt, Marko Mank, Linette E M Willemsen, Bernd Stahl, Johan Garssen, Belinda Van't Land
One of the well-known features of human milk, is the capacity to protect against the risk and impact of neonatal infections, as well as to influence the onset of allergic and metabolic disease manifestations. The major objective of this review is to provide a detailed overview regarding the role of human milk, more specifically the diversity in human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS), on early life immune development. Novel insights in immune modulatory effects of HMOS obtained by in vitro as well as in vivo studies, adds to the understanding on how early life nutrition may impact immune development...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Xiaonan Mao, Jie Qiu, Li Zhao, Junjie Xu, Jiao Yin, Yang Yang, Mingshun Zhang, Rui Cheng
Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency and inflammation are involved with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm neonates; however, the clinical evidence still remains scarce. We hypothesized that vitamin D and inflammatory cytokines may be risk factors for BPD in infants. Methods: Preterm infants born between 28 and 31 weeks' gestation were recruited between January 2016 and 2017. Blood samples were all collected at corresponding time points. Vitamin D was measured using an automatic biochemical analyzer, and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10) were measured using ELISA...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Alessandro Simonini, Etrusca Brogi, Brunella Gily, Mariangela Tosca, Claudia Barbieri, Francesca Antonini, Genny Del Zotto
During general anesthesia, while muscle relaxants, latex and antibiotics are normally considered as very common causes of anaphylactic reactions, there are no documented cases of anaphylaxis due to inhalational agents. We report the case of a 6-year-old child scheduled for adenotonsillectomy who had an anaphylactic shock reaction due to Sevoflurane. Several allergic tests were performed to detect the trigger. Drugs used during operation were tested on both patient and three matched controls. While controls were negative, the patient displayed a positive reaction to Sevoflurane...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Jan Müller, Leopold Röttgers, Rhoia C Neidenbach, Renate Oberhoffer, Peter Ewert, Alfred Hager
Objective: In many patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) arterial blood flow to the arms is inhibited due to shunt surgery in infancy. This study investigates the handgrip strength of patients with CHD in regard to previous shunt procedures. Patients and Methods: Handgrip was evaluated in 424 patients with various CHD (189 female, age 28.1 ± 13.4 years) including 63 with shunt procedures in infancy; and 123 controls (51 female, 35.6 ± 14.2 years) using a Jamar dynamometer adjusted for hand size. The best of three repetitions was recorded for each side and the right-to-left hand ratio was calculated...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Aleksandar Sovtic, Predrag Minic, Gordana Markovic-Sovtic, Goran Z Trajkovic
Introduction: Decreased respiratory muscle strength in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) may cause progressive exercise intolerance during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), and may contribute to the development of chronic respiratory insufficiency. The aim of this study is to evaluate exercise tolerance during CPET of children and adults with clinically stable CF who exhibit different respiratory muscle strength. Methods: Sixty-nine clinically stable CF subjects aged 8-33 years underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, CPET, and respiratory muscle strength measurement...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Timothy M Maul, Jennifer S Nelson, Peter D Wearden
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) is a resource intensive, life-preserving support system that has seen ever-expanding clinical indications as technology and collective experience has matured. Clinicians caring for patients who develop pulmonary failure secondary to cardiac failure can find themselves in unique situations where traditional ECMO may not be the ideal clinical solution. Existing paracorporeal ventricular assist device (VAD) technology or unique patient physiologies offer the opportunity for thinking "outside the box...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Staci Stevens, Chris Snell, Jared Stevens, Betsy Keller, J Mark VanNess
Background: Concise methodological directions for administration of serial cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) are needed for testing of patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS). Maximal CPET is used to evaluate the coordinated metabolic, muscular, respiratory and cardiac contributions to energy production in patients with ME/CFS. In this patient population, CPET also elicits a robust post-exertional symptom flare (termed, post-exertional malaise); a cardinal symptom of the disease...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Elise Hennaut, Hong P Duong, Benedetta Chiodini, Brigitte Adams, Ksenija Lolin, Sophie Blumental, Karl M Wissing, Khalid Ismaili
Aims: To assess the safety and efficacy of ambulatory oral cefuroxime-axetil treatment in children presenting with first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in terms of resolution of fever, antibiotics tolerance, bacterial resistance, and loss to ambulatory follow-up. Methods: Two-year prospective single-center evaluation of the local protocol of oral ambulatory treatment of children presenting first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Results: From October 2013 to October 2015, 82 children were treated ambulatory with oral cefuroxime-axetil...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Daniel Klotz, Stefanie Jansen, Corinna Gebauer, Hans Fuchs
Background: Breast milk (BM) for premature infants is subjected to multiple steps of processing, storage and distribution. These steps may influence the quality and safety of BM. Guidelines concerning the use of mother's own milk are either not available or limited to specific aspects of BM handling and are based on evidence of variable strength. This may result in diverse BM handling routines by health care professionals. Objective: We surveyed neonatal units to increase the knowledge about the current practice of BM handling routines of mother's own milk and to identify controversial aspects that could give directions for future research...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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