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Frontiers in Pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203561/comparative-prospective-case-control-study-of-open-versus-laparoscopic-pyeloplasty-in-children-with-ureteropelvic-junction-obstruction-long-term-results
#1
Lisandro A Piaggio, Juan P Corbetta, Santiago Weller, Ricardo Augusto Dingevan, Víctor Duran, Javier Ruiz, Juan C Lopez
INTRODUCTION: We compare open pyeloplasty (OP) versus laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP) in children in a multicenter, prospective, case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2007 to March 2009, a program was established at Hospital Garrahan, the reference center, to perform LP with a mentoring surgeon that would attend the institution once a month. Every new case of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) diagnosed in the reference institution was offered to participate in the study...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194395/gender-differences-in-respiratory-morbidity-and-mortality-of-preterm-neonates
#2
REVIEW
Courtney Denise Townsel, Sawyer F Emmer, Winston A Campbell, Naveed Hussain
For the past century, researchers have underscored the "disadvantage" observed in respiratory morbidity and mortality of male newborns. In this contemporary review, we examine gender differences in preterm infant respiratory morbidity and mortality specifically appraising differences in the very low birth weight (VLBW) population as well as the late preterm (LPT) population. In the era of postnatal surfactant and antenatal corticosteroids, the gender gap in neonatal outcomes has not narrowed. Structural, physiologic, and hormonal sex differences may be at the root of this disparity...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184368/prevention-of-hospital-acquired-venous-thromboembolism-in-children-a-review-of-published-guidelines
#3
REVIEW
E Vincent S Faustino, Leslie J Raffini
Venous thromboembolism, which includes deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a potentially preventable condition in children. In adults, pharmacologic prophylaxis has been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism in distinct patient cohorts. However, pediatric randomized controlled trials have failed to demonstrate the efficacy of pharmacologic prophylaxis against thrombosis associated with central venous catheters, the most important risk factor for venous thromboembolism in children...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184367/novel-immunotherapies-for-autoimmune-hepatitis
#4
REVIEW
Shamir Cassim, Marc Bilodeau, Catherine Vincent, Pascal Lapierre
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by a loss of immunological tolerance against liver autoantigens resulting in the progressive destruction of the hepatic parenchyma. Current treatments are based on non-specific immunosuppressive drugs. Although tremendous progress has been made using specific biological agents in other inflammatory diseases, progress has been slow to come for AIH patients. While current treatments are successful in the majority of patients, treatment discontinuation is difficult to achieve, and relapses are frequent...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180127/impact-of-fecal-calprotectin-measurement-on-decision-making-in-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Wael El-Matary, Esmail Abej, Vini Deora, Harminder Singh, Charles N Bernstein
BACKGROUND: The use of fecal calprotectin (FCal) as a marker of intestinal inflammation, in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of FCal measurements on decision-making and clinical care of children with IBD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, FCal, clinical activity indices, and blood markers were measured in children with established diagnoses of IBD. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was performed to examine association between FCal and other markers...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180126/providing-a-placental-transfusion-in-newborns-who-need-resuscitation
#6
REVIEW
Anup C Katheria, Melissa K Brown, Wade Rich, Kathy Arnell
Over the past decade, there have been several studies and reviews on the importance of providing a placental transfusion to the newborn. Allowing a placental transfusion to occur by delaying the clamping of the umbilical cord is an extremely effective method of enhancing arterial oxygen content, increasing cardiac output, and improving oxygen delivery. However, premature and term newborns who require resuscitation have impaired transitional hemodynamics and may warrant different methods to actively provide a placental transfusion while still allowing for resuscitation...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168186/the-impact-of-central-venous-catheters-on-pediatric-venous-thromboembolism
#7
REVIEW
Julie Jaffray, Mary Bauman, Patti Massicotte
The use of central venous catheters (CVCs) in children is escalating, which is likely linked to the increased incidence of pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE). In order to better understand the specific risk factors associated with CVC-VTE in children, as well as available prevention methods, a literature review was performed. The overall incidence of CVC-VTE was found to range from 0 to 74%, depending on the patient population, CVC type, imaging modality, and study design. Throughout the available literature, there was not a consistent determination regarding whether a particular type of central line (tunneled vs...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168185/optimal-chest-compression-rate-and-compression-to-ventilation-ratio-in-delivery-room-resuscitation-evidence-from-newborn-piglets-and-neonatal-manikins
#8
REVIEW
Anne Lee Solevåg, Georg M Schmölzer
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) duration until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) influences survival and neurologic outcomes after delivery room (DR) CPR. High quality chest compressions (CC) improve cerebral and myocardial perfusion. Improved myocardial perfusion increases the likelihood of a faster ROSC. Thus, optimizing CC quality may improve outcomes both by preserving cerebral blood flow during CPR and by reducing the recovery time. CC quality is determined by rate, CC to ventilation (C:V) ratio, and applied force, which are influenced by the CC provider...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168184/airway-clearance-techniques-in-children-and-adolescents-with-chronic-suppurative-lung-disease-and-bronchiectasis
#9
REVIEW
Annemarie L Lee, Brenda M Button, Esta-Lee Tannenbaum
Common symptoms of chronic suppurative lung disease or bronchiectasis in children and adolescents are chronic cough with sputum production, retention of excess secretions in dilated airways, and a history of recurrent infections. Clinical management includes the prescription of airway-clearance techniques (ACTs) to facilitate mucociliary clearance, optimize sputum expectoration, relieve symptoms, and improve well-being. A wide range of ACTs are available for selection, and these strategies may be applied in isolation or in combination...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191454/how-should-oxygen-supplementation-be-guided-by-pulse-oximetry-in-children-do-we-know-the-level
#10
REVIEW
Ross Langley, Steve Cunningham
Supplemental oxygen is one of the most commonly prescribed therapies to children in hospital, but one of the least studied therapeutics. This review considers oxygen from a range of perspectives; discovery and early use; estimation of oxygenation in the human body-both clinically and by medical device; the effects of illness on oxygen utilization; the cellular consequences of low oxygen; and finally, how clinical studies currently inform our approach to targeting supplementing oxygen in those with lower than normal oxygen saturation...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119904/oxygen-use-in-neonatal-care-a-two-edged-sword
#11
REVIEW
Serafina Perrone, Carlotta Bracciali, Nicola Di Virgilio, Giuseppe Buonocore
In the neonatal period, the clinical use of oxygen should be taken into consideration for its beneficial and toxicity effects. Oxygen toxicity is due to the development of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as OH(•) that is one of the strongest oxidants in nature. Of note, generation of ROS is a normal occurrence in human and it is involved in a myriad of physiological reactions. Anyway an imbalance between production of oxidant species and antioxidant defenses, called oxidative stress, could affect various aspect of organisms' physiology and it could determine pathological consequences to living beings...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119903/anatomic-thoracoscopic-repair-of-esophageal-atresia
#12
Joana Fonte, Catarina Barroso, Ruben Lamas-Pinheiro, Ana R Silva, Jorge Correia-Pinto
BACKGROUND: The thoracoscopic approach to repair esophageal atresia (EA) with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) provides excellent view, allowing the most skillful surgeons to spare the azygos vein by performing the esophageal anastomosis over (on the right side) the azygos vein. Seeking the most anatomic repair, we started to perform the esophageal anastomosis underneath (on the left side) the azygos vein: anatomic thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia (ATREA). We aim to compare results of ATREA with the classic thoracoscopic repair...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119902/rapid-cd8-function-is-critical-for-protection-of-neonatal-mice-from-an-extracellular-bacterial-enteropathogen
#13
David T Siefker, Becky Adkins
Both human and murine neonates are characteristically highly susceptible to bacterial infections. However, we recently discovered that neonatal mice are surprisingly highly resistant to oral infection with Yersinia enterocolitica. This resistance was linked with activation of both innate and adaptive responses, involving innate phagocytes, CD4(+) cells, and B cells. We have now extended these studies and found that CD8(+) cells also contribute importantly to neonatal protection from Y. enterocolitica. Strikingly, neonatal CD8(+) cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) are rapidly mobilized, increasing in proportion, number, and IFNγ production as early as 48 h post infection...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111624/microbiome-gut-brain-axis-a-pathway-for-improving-brainstem-serotonin-homeostasis-and-successful-autoresuscitation-in-sids-a-novel-hypothesis
#14
Vijayakumar Praveen, Shama Praveen
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) continues to be a major public health issue. Following its major decline since the "Back to Sleep" campaign, the incidence of SIDS has plateaued, with an annual incidence of about 1,500 SIDS-related deaths in the United States and thousands more throughout the world. The etiology of SIDS, the major cause of postneonatal mortality in the western world, is still poorly understood. Although sleeping in prone position is a major risk factor, SIDS continues to occur even in the supine sleeping position...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083527/mechanotransduction-as-an-adaptation-to-gravity
#15
REVIEW
Tanbir Najrana, Juan Sanchez-Esteban
Gravity has played a critical role in the development of terrestrial life. A key event in evolution has been the development of mechanisms to sense and transduce gravitational force into biological signals. The objective of this manuscript is to review how living organisms on Earth use mechanotransduction as an adaptation to gravity. Certain cells have evolved specialized structures, such as otoliths in hair cells of the inner ear and statoliths in plants, to respond directly to the force of gravity. By conducting studies in the reduced gravity of spaceflight (microgravity) or simulating microgravity in the laboratory, we have gained insights into how gravity might have changed life on Earth...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083526/intestinal-bacterial-colonization-in-the-first-2%C3%A2-weeks-of-life-of-nigerian-neonates-using-standard-culture-methods
#16
Allan Kigbu, Adebola E Orimadegun, Olukemi O Tongo, Georgina N Odaibo, David O Olaleye, Olusegun O Akinyinka
OBJECTIVE: The pattern and timing of development of intestinal microflora in Nigerian infants have been scarcely researched. This study was carried out to investigate the bacteria flora in the rectum of healthy neonates in Ibadan, Nigeria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this hospital-based longitudinal study, rectal swabs of 70 neonates were taken within 6-12 h of birth (day 1) and subsequently on days 3, 9, and 14. Information collected included maternal sociodemographic characteristics, antibiotic use for the neonates, and type of feeding during the first 14 days of life...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066751/killing-two-cells-with-one-stone-pharmacologic-bcl-2-family-targeting-for-cancer-cell-death-and-immune-modulation
#17
REVIEW
Lindsey M Ludwig, Michele L Nassin, Abbas Hadji, James L LaBelle
A crucial component of regulating organismal homeostasis is maintaining proper cell number and eliminating damaged or potentially malignant cells. Apoptosis, or programed cell death, is the mechanism responsible for this equilibrium. The intrinsic apoptotic pathway is also especially important in the development and maintenance of the immune system. Apoptosis is essential for proper positive and negative selection during B- and T-cell development and for efficient contraction of expanded lymphocytes following an immune response...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066750/influences-and-barriers-on-physical-activity-in-pediatric-oncology-patients
#18
REVIEW
Larrilyn Yelton, Shalini Forbis
OBJECTIVES: To determine the influence of family, peers, school, and physicians on exercise in pediatric oncology patients and evaluate the barriers to physical activity (PA) levels in this population. METHODS: A search of PubMed and Google Scholar resulted in 12 related articles. The articles were assessed for the influence of school systems, family, peers, self-efficacy, and physicians on exercise. Additionally, barriers and interventions to PA were also assessed...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018896/factors-influencing-neurodevelopment-after-cardiac-surgery-during-infancy
#19
REVIEW
Hedwig Hubertine Hövels-Gürich
Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND) disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life, and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018895/regional-differences-in-end-diastolic-volumes-between-3d-echo-and-cmr-in-hlhs-patients
#20
Alberto Gomez, Ozan Oktay, Daniel Rueckert, Graeme P Penney, Julia A Schnabel, John M Simpson, Kuberan Pushparajah
Ultrasound is commonly thought to underestimate ventricular volumes compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), although the reason for this and the spatial distribution of the volume difference is not well understood. In this paper, we use landmark-based image registration to spatially align MRI and ultrasound images from patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and carry out a qualitative and quantitative spatial comparison of manual segmentations of the ventricular volume obtained from the respective modalities...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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