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Frontiers in Pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450194/avoiding-arterial-hypotension-in-preterm-neonates-ahip-a-single-center-randomised-controlled-study-investigating-simultaneous-near-infrared-spectroscopy-measurements-of-cerebral-and-peripheral-regional-tissue-oxygenation-and-dedicated-interventions
#1
Gerhard Pichler, Nina Höller, Nariae Baik-Schneditz, Bernhard Schwaberger, Lukas Mileder, Jasmin Stadler, Alexander Avian, Jasmin Pansy, Berndt Urlesberger
Introduction: Up to 50% of preterm infants admitted to intensive care units require cardiocirculatory support. The aim of the present study was to assess whether simultaneous monitoring of cerebral tissue oxygenation index (cTOI) and peripheral tissue oxygenation index (pTOI) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in combination with dedicated intervention guidelines may help avoiding arterial hypotension and catecholamine administration in preterm neonates. Study design: Preterm neonates <37 weeks of gestation were included in a single center randomized controlled study...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441343/construct-validity-of-the-movement-assessment-battery-for-children-second-edition-test-in-preschool-children-with-respect-to-age-and-gender
#2
Jakub Kokštejn, Martin Musálek, James J Tufano
Background: The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-second edition (MABC-2) Age Band 1 is widely used to identify preschoolers with motor difficulties. Despite unsatisfactory construct validity of the original three-factor model, MABC-2 (manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance), previous research has not considered possible age and gender differences throughout the entire preschool period. Aim: The aim of this study was to verify the construct validity of the MABC-2 Age Band 1 in a population of Czech preschoolers with respect to age and gender...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435440/basement-membrane-defects-in-genetic-kidney-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Christine Chew, Rachel Lennon
The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a specialized structure with a significant role in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier. This GBM is formed from the fusion of two basement membranes during development and its function in the filtration barrier is achieved by key extracellular matrix components including type IV collagen, laminins, nidogens, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The characteristics of specific matrix isoforms such as laminin-521 (α5β2γ1) and the α3α4α5 chain of type IV collagen are essential for the formation of a mature GBM and the restricted tissue distribution of these isoforms makes the GBM a unique structure...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435439/extracellular-calcium-dictates-onset-severity-and-recovery-of-diarrhea-in-a-child-with-immune-mediated-enteropathy
#4
Johnathan Fraebel, Regino Gonzalez-Peralta, Maryann Maximos, Genie L Beasley, Christopher Douglas Jolley, Sam Xianjun Cheng
Diarrhea causes monovalent and divalent ion losses that can influence clinical outcome. Unlike the losses of monovalent ions, such as Na+, K+, Cl-, and [Formula: see text], which are generally large in quantity (osmoles) and therefore determine the severity of diarrhea, the losses of divalent ions are relatively small in osmoles and are often overlooked during diarrheal treatment. Studies now suggest that despite divalent ions being small in osmoles, their effects are large due to the presence of divalent ion-sensing receptors and their amplifying effects in the gut...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435438/feasibility-of-physical-activity-assessment-with-wearable-devices-in-children-aged-4-10-years-a-pilot-study
#5
Jan Müller, Anna-Maria Hoch, Vanessa Zoller, Renate Oberhoffer
Objective: Physical activity (PA) is associated with multiple beneficial health outcomes. Unfortunately, current studies report an alarming decrease of PA throughout all age groups. This study aims to assess general feasibility and PA levels of kindergarten and primary school children with wearable technology specifically manufactured for young children. Patients and methods: From April 2017 to August 2017, a total of 59 children (7.1 ± 1.7 years, 34 girls) recorded their PA for seven consecutive day wearing a wearable bracelet (Garmin vivofit jr)...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423394/a-program-for-weaning-children-from-enteral-feeding-in-a-general-pediatric-unit-how-for-whom-and-with-what-results
#6
Justine Mirete, Béatrice Thouvenin, Gaelle Malecot, Morgane Le-Gouëz, Christel Chalouhi, Catherine du Fraysseix, Aurélie Royer, Anais Leon, Clément Vachey, Véronique Abadie
Objective: To describe a series of children who were hospitalized for a tube-weaning program in the general pediatric ward of a pediatric tertiary university hospital: describe our method, to determine the success rate of our inpatient pediatric tube weaning program, and search for relevant factors linked to its success or failure. Method: We analyzed the medical files of consecutive children who were hospitalized for gastric-tube weaning over an 8-year period. We analyzed outcomes in terms of feeding and growth with at least 2 years of data...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423393/commentary-fear-of-massive-deportations-in-the-united-states-social-implications-on-deprived-pediatric-communities
#7
COMMENT
Chris Fradkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423392/neurochemical-alterations-in-sudden-unexplained-perinatal-deaths-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Nazeer Muhammad, Muhammad Sharif, Javeria Amin, Riffat Mehboob, Syed Amir Gilani, Nargis Bibi, Hasnain Javed, Naseer Ahmed
Sudden unexpected perinatal collapse is a major trauma for the parents of victims. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is unexpected and mysterious death of an apparently healthy neonate from birth till 1 year of age without any known causes, even after thorough postmortem investigations. However, the incidence of sudden intrauterine unexplained death syndrome (SIUDS) is seven times higher as compared with SIDS. This observation is approximated 40-80%. Stillbirth is defined as death of a fetus after 20th week of gestation or just before delivery at full term without a known reason...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410951/a-review-of-the-integrated-model-of-care-an-opportunity-to-respond-to-extensive-palliative-care-needs-in-pediatric-intensive-care-units-in-under-resourced-settings
#9
REVIEW
Michelle Grunauer, Caley Mikesell
It is estimated that 6.3 million children who die annually need pediatric palliative care (PPC) and that only about 10% of them receive the attention they need because about 98% of them live in under-resourced settings where PPC is not accessible. The consultative model and the integrated model of care (IMOC) are the most common strategies used to make PPC available to critically ill children. In the consultative model, the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) team, the patient, or their family must request a palliative care (PC) consultation with the external PC team for a PICU patient to be evaluated for special care needs...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410950/tsen54-gene-related-pontocerebellar-hypoplasia-type-2-could-mimic-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy-with-severe-psychomotor-retardation
#10
Iliyana Hristova Pacheva, Tihomir Todorov, Ivan Ivanov, Desislava Tartova, Katerina Gaberova, Albena Todorova, Diana Dimitrova
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) type 2 is a very rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with prenatal onset that disrupts brain development. We present three patients (two siblings and one unrelated child) with PCH 2 linked to the most common mutation c.919G > T (p.Ala307Ser) in TSEN54 gene. The disease started soon after birth with feeding difficulties, extrapyramidal symptoms, psychomotor retardation, progressive microcephaly. Two of the patients were diagnosed with dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP) at first...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404312/advances-in-diagnosis-and-management-of-hemodynamic-instability-in-neonatal-shock
#11
REVIEW
Yogen Singh, Anup C Katheria, Farha Vora
Shock in newborn infants has unique etiopathologic origins that require careful assessment to direct specific interventions. Early diagnosis is key to successful management. Unlike adults and pediatric patients, shock in newborn infants is often recognized in the uncompensated phase by the presence of hypotension, which may be too late. The routine methods of evaluation used in the adult and pediatric population are often invasive and less feasible. We aim to discuss the pathophysiology in shock in newborn infants, including the transitional changes at birth and unique features that contribute to the challenges in early identification...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410949/opiate-drugs-with-abuse-liability-hijack-the-endogenous-opioid-system-to-disrupt-neuronal-and-glial-maturation-in-the-central-nervous-system
#12
REVIEW
Kurt F Hauser, Pamela E Knapp
The endogenous opioid system, comprised of multiple opioid neuropeptide and receptor gene families, is highly expressed by developing neural cells and can significantly influence neuronal and glial maturation. In many central nervous system (CNS) regions, the expression of opioid peptides and receptors occurs only transiently during development, effectively disappearing with subsequent maturation only to reemerge under pathologic conditions, such as with inflammation or injury. Opiate drugs with abuse liability act to modify growth and development by mimicking the actions of endogenous opioids...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404311/the-value-of-fecal-markers-in-predicting-relapse-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Bianca J Galgut, Daniel A Lemberg, Andrew S Day, Steven T Leach
The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are lifelong chronic illnesses that place an immense burden on patients. The primary aim of therapy is to reduce disease burden and prevent relapse. However, the occurrence of relapses is often unpredictable. Current disease monitoring is primarily by way of clinical indices, with relapses often only recognized once the inflammatory episode is established with subsequent symptoms and gut damage. The window between initial upregulation of the inflammatory response and the recognition of symptoms may provide an opportunity to prevent the relapse and associated morbidity...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404310/is-it-ethical-to-test-apparently-healthy-children-for-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-and-risk-medicalizing-thousands
#14
Tess Harris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404309/genetic-programming-of-hypertension
#15
REVIEW
Sun-Young Ahn, Charu Gupta
The heritability of hypertension (HTN) is widely recognized and as a result, extensive studies ranging from genetic linkage analyses to genome-wide association studies are actively ongoing to elucidate the etiology of both monogenic and polygenic forms of HTN. Due to the complex nature of essential HTN, however, single genes affecting blood pressure (BP) variability remain difficult to isolate and identify and have rendered the development of single-gene targeted therapies challenging. The roles of other causative factors in modulating BP, such as gene-environment interactions and epigenetic factors, are increasingly being brought to the forefront...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404308/current-status-of-tissue-engineering-in-the-management-of-severe-hypospadias
#16
REVIEW
Tariq O Abbas, Elsadig Mahdi, Anwarul Hasan, Abdulla AlAnsari, Cristian Pablo Pennisi
Hypospadias, characterized by misplacement of the urinary meatus in the lower side of the penis, is a frequent birth defect in male children. Because of the huge variation in the anatomic presentation of hypospadias, no single urethroplasty procedure is suitable for all situations. Hence, many surgical techniques have emerged to address the shortage of tissues required to bridge the gap in the urethra particularly in the severe forms of hypospadias. However, the rate of postoperative complications of currently available surgical procedures reaches up to one-fourth of the patients having severe hypospadias...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387682/modified-ride-on-cars-and-young-children-with-disabilities-effects-of-combining-mobility-and-social-training
#17
Hsiang-Han Huang, Yi-Mei Chen, Hsuan-Wen Huang, Ming-Ke Shih, Yu-Hsin Hsieh, Chia-Ling Chen
Background: Research has shown that the use of power mobility devices is safe and beneficial for motor and cognitive development in children with motor disabilities; nevertheless, strong evidence of the benefits for social skill development is limited. This study aimed to examine the effects of combining ride-on car training with an adult-directed, social interaction program in a hospital-based environment on mobility and social functions in young children with motor disabilities. Methods: This study used a prospective, nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387681/evaluation-of-a-direct-instruction-intervention-to-improve-movement-and-preliteracy-skills-among-young-children-a-within-subject-repeated-measures-design
#18
Chloe Bedard, Emily Bremer, Wenonah Campbell, John Cairney
Objective: School readiness involves the development of foundational skills such as emergent literacy and fundamental movement skills as well as the capacity to attentively engage in instructional situations. Children do not develop these skills naturally; therefore, they need the opportunity to develop these skills in their early years prior to entering school. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of a direct-instruction movement and preliteracy intervention in children aged 3-4 years...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387680/effects-of-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-and-high-flow-nasal-cannula-on-sucking-swallowing-and-breathing-during-bottle-feeding-in-lambs
#19
Nathalie Samson, Charlène Nadeau, Laurence Vincent, Danny Cantin, Jean-Paul Praud
The use of prolonged respiratory support under the form of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) or nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is frequent in newborn infants. Introduction of oral feeding under such nasal respiratory support is, however, highly controversial among neonatologists, due to the fear that it could disrupt sucking, swallowing, and breathing coordination and in turn induce cardiorespiratory events. The recent observation of tracheal aspirations during bottle-feeding in preterm infants under nCPAP justifies the use of animal models to perform more comprehensive physiological studies on the subject, in order to gain further insights for clinical studies...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379779/long-term-associations-of-an-early-corrected-ventricular-septal-defect-and-stress-systems-of-child-and-mother-at-primary-school-age
#20
Valeska Stonawski, Laura Vollmer, Nicola Köhler-Jonas, Nicolas Rohleder, Yulia Golub, Ariawan Purbojo, Gunther H Moll, Hartmut Heinrich, Robert A Cesnjevar, Oliver Kratz, Anna Eichler
Introduction: Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most common congenital heart defect, with larger VSDs typically being corrected with an open-heart surgery during infancy. Long-term consequences of a VSD-corrective surgery on stress systems of child and mother are still unknown. The aim of the present study is to investigate the associations of an early corrected VSD and diurnal cortisol release of child and mother. Methods: 26 children (12 boys) between 6 and 9 years old, who underwent surgery for an isolated VSD within the first 3 years of life, and their mothers participated in the study...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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