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Jonathan Pansieri, Matthieu Gerstenmayer, François Lux, Sebastien Mériaux, Olivier Tillement, Vincent Forge, Benoit Larrat, Christel Marquette
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential in biomedical and clinical applications because of their many unique properties. This contribution provides an overview of the MNPs mainly used in the field of amyloid diseases. The first part discusses their use in understanding the amyloid mechanisms of fibrillation, with emphasis on their ability to control aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins. The second part deals with the functionalization by various moieties of numerous MNPs' surfaces (molecules, peptides, antibody fragments, or whole antibodies of MNPs) for the detection and the quantification of amyloid aggregates...
September 18, 2018: Nanomaterials
Hiroki Itasaka, Ken-Ichi Mimura, Kazumi Kato
Assembly of nanocrystals into ordered two- or three-dimensional arrays is an essential technology to achieve their application in novel functional devices. Among a variety of assembly techniques, evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) is one of the prospective approaches because of its simplicity. Although EISA has shown its potential to form highly ordered nanocrystal arrays, the formation of uniform nanocrystal arrays over large areas remains a challenging subject. Here, we introduce a new EISA method and demonstrate the formation of large-scale highly ordered monolayers of barium titanate (BaTiO₃, BT) nanocubes at the air-water interface...
September 18, 2018: Nanomaterials
Monika Kwoka, Barbara Lyson-Sypien, Anna Kulis, Dario Zappa, Elisabetta Comini
The surface chemistry and the morphology of SnO₂ nanowires of average length and diameter of several µm and around 100 nm, respectively, deposited by vapor phase deposition (VPD) method on Au-covered Si substrate, were studied before and after subsequent air exposure. For this purpose, surface-sensitive methods, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were applied. The studies presented within this paper allowed to determine their surface non-stoichiometry combined with the presence of carbon contaminations, in a good correlation with their surface morphology...
September 18, 2018: Nanomaterials
Alexander Halim, Qing Luo, Yang Ju, Guanbin Song
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can give rise to any types of cells in our body. Hence, they have been utilized for various applications, such as drug testing and disease modeling. However, for the successful of those applications, the survival and differentiation of stem cells into specialized lineages should be well controlled. Growth factors and chemical agents are the most common signals to promote the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. However, those approaches holds several drawbacks such as the negative side effects, degradation or denaturation, and expensive...
September 18, 2018: Nanomaterials
Bum Jun Kim, Byung Joo Jeong, Seungbae Oh, Sudong Chae, Kyung Hwan Choi, Tuqeer Nasir, Sang Hoon Lee, Kwan-Woo Kim, Hyung Kyu Lim, Ik Jun Choi, Ji-Yun Moon, Hak Ki Yu, Jae-Hyun Lee, Jae-Young Choi
Mass production of one-dimensional, V₂Se₉ crystals, was successfully synthesized using the solid-state reaction of vanadium and selenium. Through the mechanical exfoliation method, the bulk V₂Se₉ crystal was easily separated to nanoribbon structure and we have confirmed that as-grown V₂Se₉ crystals consist of innumerable single V₂Se₉ chains linked by van der Waals interaction. The exfoliated V₂Se₉ flakes can be controlled thickness by the repeated-peeling method. In addition, atomic thick nanoribbon structure of V₂Se₉ was also obtained on a 300 nm SiO₂/Si substrate...
September 18, 2018: Nanomaterials
Ghulam Hussain, Anthony P O'Mullane, Debbie S Silvester
Electrochemical gas sensors are often used for identifying and quantifying redox-active analyte gases in the atmosphere. However, for amperometric sensors, the current signal is usually dependent on the electroactive surface area, which can become small when using microelectrodes and miniaturized devices. Microarray thin-film electrodes (MATFEs) are commercially available, low-cost devices that give enhanced current densities compared to mm-sized electrodes, but still give low current responses (e.g., less than one nanoamp), when detecting low concentrations of gases...
September 17, 2018: Nanomaterials
Seong Baek Yang, Eun Hee Kim, Seung Hee Kim, Young Hun Kim, Weontae Oh, Jin-Tae Lee, Young-Ah Jang, Yeasmin Sabina, Byung Chul Ji, Jeong Hyun Yeum
Coptis chinensis (CC) is used in conventional Chinese medicine. The main active components of CC are isoquinoline alkaloids, including berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and magnoflorine; all these are known to have several pharmacological properties. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is a well-known synthetic biocompatible polymer suitable for a range of pharmaceutical uses; it can be used as a matrix for the incorporation of functional materials and has a wide range of applications in the cosmetics, food, pharmaceutical, and packaging industries...
September 17, 2018: Nanomaterials
Rui Zhang, Xue Dong, Lechao Peng, Wenjun Kang, Haibo Li
Manganese monoxide (MnO) is a promising anode material in the lithium-ion battery for its high capacity, low operation potential, and environmental benignity. However, its application is impeded by poor rate capability and rapid capacity fading. In this work, a MnO/carbon hybrid material, in which small-sized MnO nanoparticles are tightly anchored on carbon fibers (denoted as MnO@CFs), was prepared by annealing the electrospun precursor fibers at 650 °C. When applied as the anode material of the Li-ion battery, the small size of MnO shortens the Li-ion diffusion path, and the carbon fibers not only greatly improve the conductivity but also efficiently buffer the MnO structure strain during the charge⁻discharge process, endowing the MnO@CFs electrode with a good rate capability (185 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1 ) and cyclic stability (406 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at 1...
September 17, 2018: Nanomaterials
Yu Pei, Hongmei Zhong, Mengyu Wang, Peng Zhang, Yang Zhao
Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays are promising candidates for advanced thermal interface materials (TIMs) since they possess high mechanical compliance and high intrinsic thermal conductivity. Some of the previous works indicate that the CNT arrays in direct dry contact with the target surface possess low contact thermal conductance, which is the dominant thermal resistance. Using a phase sensitive transient thermo-reflectance (PSTTR) technique, we measure the thermal conductance between CNT arrays and copper (Cu) surfaces under different pressures...
September 17, 2018: Nanomaterials
Daniela Pelclova, Vladimir Zdimal, Martin Komarc, Stepanka Vlckova, Zdenka Fenclova, Jakub Ondracek, Jaroslav Schwarz, Martin Kostejn, Petr Kacer, Stepanka Dvorackova, Alexey Popov, Pavlina Klusackova, Sergey Zakharov, Dhimiter Bello
Thousands of researchers and workers worldwide are employed in nanocomposites manufacturing, yet little is known about their respiratory health. Aerosol exposures were characterized using real time and integrated instruments. Aerosol mass concentration ranged from 0.120 mg/m³ to 1.840 mg/m³ during nanocomposite machining processes; median particle number concentration ranged from 4.8 × 10⁴ to 5.4 × 10⁵ particles/cm³. The proportion of nanoparticles varied by process from 40 to 95%. Twenty employees, working in nanocomposite materials research were examined pre-shift and post-shift using spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in parallel with 21 controls...
September 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Min Jia, Shenmiao Li, Liguo Zang, Xiaonan Lu, Hongyan Zhang
Analyzing biomolecules is essential for disease diagnostics, food safety inspection, environmental monitoring and pharmaceutical development. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful tool for detecting biomolecules due to its high sensitivity, rapidness and specificity in identifying molecular structures. This review focuses on the SERS analysis of biomolecules originated from humans, animals, plants and microorganisms, combined with nanomaterials as SERS substrates and nanotags. Recent advances in SERS detection of target molecules were summarized with different detection strategies including label-free and label-mediated types...
September 15, 2018: Nanomaterials
Feng Li, Xiaosong Jiang, Zhenyi Shao, Degui Zhu, Zhiping Luo
Nano-carbon reinforced titanium matrix/hydroxyapatite (HA) biocomposites were successfully prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructure, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and the relationship between microstructure and properties of biocomposites were systematically investigated. Results showed there are some new phases in sintered composites, such as β-Ti, TiO₃, ZrO₂, etc. Moreover, a small amount of Ti17 P10 , CaTiO₃, Ca₃(PO₄)₂ were also detected. The reaction that may occur during the preparation process is suppressed to some extent, which is because that the addition of second phases can prevent the direct contact of titanium with HA and reduce the contact areas...
September 15, 2018: Nanomaterials
Duy Khuong Mai, Joomin Lee, Ilgi Min, Temmy Pegarro Vales, Kyong-Hoon Choi, Bong Joo Park, Sung Cho, Ho-Joong Kim
In this study, a series of rationally designed emissive phenanthrene derivatives were synthesized and their aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties in tetrahydrofuran (THF)/water mixtures were investigated. Two tetraphenylethene (TPE) segments were conjugated to both ends of the phenanthrene core at the para -positions and meta -positions, resulting in pTPEP and mTPEP derivatives, respectively. While the TPE-conjugated phenanthrene derivatives did not show any emission when dissolved in pure THF, they showed strong sky-blue emissions in water-THF mixtures, which is attributed to the restriction of intramolecular motions of TPE segments by aggregation...
September 15, 2018: Nanomaterials
Pavel Horky, Sylvie Skalickova, Daria Baholet, Jiri Skladanka
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain filamentous fungi. The occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed causes negative health impacts on both humans and animals. Clay binders, yeast cell walls, or antioxidant additives are the most widely used products for mycotoxin elimination to reduce their impact. Although conventional methods are constantly improving, current research trends are looking for innovative solutions. Nanotechnology approaches seem to be a promising, effective, and low-cost way to minimize the health effects of mycotoxins...
September 14, 2018: Nanomaterials
Hoseong Han, Sunghun Cho
Silica-conducting polymer (SiO₂-CP) has the advantages of high electrical conductivity, structural stability, and the facile formation of thin-film. This work deals with the preparation and optimization of polypyrrole (PPy)-encapsulated silica nanoparticles (SiO₂ NPs) using an ex situ method. The SiO₂-PPy core-shell NPs prepared by the ex situ method are well dispersed in water and facilitate the mass production of thin-film electrodes with improved electrical and electrochemical performances using a simple solution process...
September 14, 2018: Nanomaterials
Yue Niu, Sergio Gonzalez-Abad, Riccardo Frisenda, Philipp Marauhn, Matthias Drüppel, Patricia Gant, Robert Schmidt, Najme S Taghavi, David Barcons, Aday J Molina-Mendoza, Steffen Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Rudolf Bratschitsch, David Perez De Lara, Michael Rohlfing, Andres Castellanos-Gomez
The research field of two dimensional (2D) materials strongly relies on optical microscopy characterization tools to identify atomically thin materials and to determine their number of layers. Moreover, optical microscopy-based techniques opened the door to study the optical properties of these nanomaterials. We presented a comprehensive study of the differential reflectance spectra of 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), MoS₂, MoSe₂, WS₂, and WSe₂, with thickness ranging from one layer up to six layers...
September 14, 2018: Nanomaterials
Bingkai Han, Meixin Pan, Jiexin Zhou, Yingying Wang, Zihua Wang, Jun Jiao, Cong Zhang, Qiang Chen
The use of graphene has leapt forward the materials field and the functional modification of graphene has not stopped. In this work, β-lactoglobulin (BLG) was used to functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) based on its amphiphilic properties. Also, trimetallic PtAuPd nanoparticles were reduced to the surface of BLG-functionalized RGO and formed BLG-PtAuPd-RGO nanocomposite using facile synthesis. Transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to characterize the nanocomposite...
September 13, 2018: Nanomaterials
Johannes Bott, Roland Franz
In this study, the migration potential of laponite, a small synthetic nanoclay, from nanocomposites into foods was investigated. First, a laponite/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) masterbatch was compounded several times and then extruded into thin low-density polyethylene (LDPE) based films. This way, intercalation and partial exfoliation of the smallest type of clay was achieved. Migration of laponite was investigated using Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) with Multi-Angle Laser Light Scattering (MALLS) detection...
September 13, 2018: Nanomaterials
Kyong-Hoon Choi, Ki Chang Nam, Guangsup Cho, Jin-Seung Jung, Bong Joo Park
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative to conventional cancer treatment methods. Nonetheless, improvement of in vivo light penetration and cancer cell-targeting efficiency remain major challenges in clinical photodynamic therapy. This study aimed to develop multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with a photosensitizer (PS) and cancer-targeting molecules via a simple surface modification process for PDT. To selectively target cancer cells and PDT functionality, core magnetic (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles were covalently bound with chlorin e6 (Ce6) as a PS and folic acid (FA)...
September 13, 2018: Nanomaterials
Filippo Farina, Giorgio Ercolano, Sara Cavaliere, Deborah J Jones, Jacques Rozière
Continuous thin platinum nanoplatelet networks and thin films were obtained on the flat surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) by high overpotential electrodeposition. By increasing the deposition time, the morphology of the Pt deposits can be progressively tuned from isolated nanoplatelets, interconnected nanostructures, and thin large flat islands. The deposition is surface-limited and the thickness of the deposits, equivalent to 5 to 12 Pt monolayers, is not time dependent. The presence of Pt (111) facets is confirmed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and evidence for the early formation of a platinum monolayer is provided by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-rays Spectroscopy (STEM-EDX) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis...
September 13, 2018: Nanomaterials
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