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Amit Choudhary, Thomas F George, Guoqiang Li
The established role of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) in the recent rapid development of displays has motivated researchers to modulate the electro-optical properties of LCs. Furthermore, adding nanomaterials into NLCs has led to enhancements of the properties of NLCs, like reduced threshold of the operating voltage, variation in pretilt angle, reduced switching time, etc. These enhanced properties, due to interfacial dynamics, are enabling wider applications of NLCs and nanomaterials. The recent literature of nanomaterial-doped NLCs is rich with various kinds of nanomaterials in a variety of NLCs...
July 14, 2018: Biosensors
Elisabetta M Zanetti, Giulia Pascoletti, Michele Calì, Cristina Bignardi, Giordano Franceschini
The optimization of loading protocols following dental implant insertion requires setting up patient-specific protocols, customized according to the actual implant osseointegration, measured through quantitative, objective methods. Various devices for the assessment of implant stability as an indirect measure of implant osseointegration have been developed. They are analyzed here, introducing the respective physical models, outlining major advantages and critical aspects, and reporting their clinical performance...
July 13, 2018: Biosensors
Jingyi Qiu, Bailey Keyser, Zuan-Tao Lin, Tianfu Wu
Breast cancer is a major cause of mortality in women; however, technologies for early stage screening and diagnosis (e.g., mammography and other imaging technologies) are not optimal for the accurate detection of cancer. This creates demand for a more effective diagnostic means to replace or be complementary to existing technologies for early discovery of breast cancer. Cancer neoantigens could reflect tumorigenesis, but they are hardly detectable at the early stage. Autoantibodies, however, are biologically amplified and hence may be measurable early on, making them promising biomarkers to discriminate breast cancer from healthy tissue accurately...
July 13, 2018: Biosensors
Beatriz Jurado-Sánchez
The emerge of nanotechnology along with the success of the microelectronics industry has motivated the miniaturization of biosensors into the nano/microscale. This Special Issue highlights recent advances in microscale and nanoscale biosensors, including self-propelled micromotors: their materials, fabrication, and applications. A total of seven papers (five research and two review papers) are included. Different but related topics are covered, from biosensor design (paper strips and digital microfluidic chips) to integrated configurations that monitor metabolites in cellular environments...
July 6, 2018: Biosensors
Benoît Piro, Giorgio Mattana, Steeve Reisberg
We review here the chemical sensors for pH, glucose, lactate, and neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine or glutamate, made of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), including organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and electrolyte-gated OFETs (EGOFETs), for the monitoring of cell activity. First, the various chemicals that are produced by living cells and are susceptible to be sensed in-situ in a cell culture medium are reviewed. Then, we discuss the various materials used to make the substrate onto which cells can be grown, as well as the materials used for making the transistors...
July 4, 2018: Biosensors
Laverne D Robilliard, Dan T Kho, Rebecca H Johnson, Akshata Anchan, Simon J O'Carroll, Euan Scott Graham
In this paper, we demonstrate the application of electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technology for measuring differences in the formation of a strong and durable endothelial barrier model. In addition, we highlight the capacity of ECIS technology to model the parameters of the physical barrier associated with (I) the paracellular space (referred to as Rb ) and (II) the basal adhesion of the endothelial cells (α, alpha). Physiologically, both parameters are very important for the correct formation of endothelial barriers...
July 4, 2018: Biosensors
Nuvia M Saucedo, Yingning Gao, Tung Pham, Ashok Mulchandani
Improvement upon, and expansion of, diagnostic tools for clinical infections have been increasing in recent years. The simplicity and rapidity of techniques are imperative for their adoption and widespread usage at point-of-care. The fabrication and evaluation of such a device is reported in this work. The use of a small bioreceptor array (based on lectin-carbohydrate binding) resulted in a unique response profile, which has the potential to be used for pathogen identification, as demonstrated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA)...
June 29, 2018: Biosensors
Krishna Kant, Sara Abalde-Cela
Raman scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy have demonstrated their potential as ultrasensitive detection techniques in the past decades. Specifically, and as a result of the flourishing of nanotechnology, SERS is nowadays one of the most powerful sensing techniques, not only because of the low detection limits that it can achieve, but also for the structural information that it offers and its capability of multiplexing. Similarly, microfluidics technology is having an increased presence not only in fundamental research, but also in the industry...
June 29, 2018: Biosensors
Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli, Dimitrios P Nikolelis, Christina G Siontorou, Stephanos Karapetis, Marianna-Thalia Nikolelis
Lipid assemblies in the form of two dimensional films have been used extensively as biosensing platforms. These films exhibit certain similarities with cell membranes, thus providing a suitable means for the immobilization of proteinaceous moieties and, further, a number of intrinsic signal amplification mechanisms. Their implementation in the detection of toxins yielded reliable and fast detectors for in field analyses of environmental and clinical samples. Some examples are presented herein, including aflatoxin and cholera toxin detection...
June 26, 2018: Biosensors
Stavros Ntalampiras, Ilyas Potamitis
Human activities are accompanied by characteristic sound events, the processing of which might provide valuable information for automated human activity recognition. This paper presents a novel approach addressing the case where one or more human activities are associated with limited audio data, resulting in a potentially highly imbalanced dataset. Data augmentation is based on transfer learning; more specifically, the proposed method: (a) identifies the classes which are statistically close to the ones associated with limited data; (b) learns a multiple input, multiple output transformation; and (c) transforms the data of the closest classes so that it can be used for modeling the ones associated with limited data...
June 25, 2018: Biosensors
Beatriz Jurado-Sánchez
This review provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments (2016⁻2018 period) in the nano and micromotors field for biosensing applications. Nano and micromotor designs, functionalization, propulsion modes and transduction mechanism are described. A second important part of the review is devoted to novel in vitro and in vivo biosensing schemes. The potential and future prospect of such moving nanoscale biosensors are given in the conclusions.
June 25, 2018: Biosensors
(no author information available yet)
The Biosensors Editorial Office wishes to correct the following errors in this paper [...].
June 22, 2018: Biosensors
Kevin C Honeychurch, Martina Piano
In recent years, great progress has been made in the development of sensors and biosensors to meet the demands of environmental and food analysis. In this Special Issue, the state of art and the future trends in the field of environmental and food analyses have been explored. A total of seven papers (three research and four review papers) are included. These are focused on the fabrication and detection of contaminates such as heavy metals, pesticides and food components, including uric acid and 3-hydroxybutyrate...
June 22, 2018: Biosensors
Amir Shamloo, Saba Ahmad, Maede Momeni
Being the second cause of mortality across the globe, there is now a persistent effort to establish new cancer medication and therapies. Any accomplishment in treating cancers entails the existence of accurate identification systems empowering the early diagnosis. Recent studies indicate CTCs’ potential in cancer prognosis as well as therapy monitoring. The chief shortcoming with CTCs is that they are exceedingly rare cells in their clinically relevant concentration. Here, we simulated a microfluidic construct devised for immunomagnetic separation of the particles of interest from the background cells...
June 18, 2018: Biosensors
Tibor Pasinszki, Melinda Krebsz
Celiac disease is a chronic gluten-initiated autoimmune disorder that predominantly damages the mucosa of the small intestine in genetically-susceptible individuals. It affects a large and increasing number of the world’s population. The diagnosis of this disease and monitoring the response of patients to the therapy, which is currently a life-long gluten-free diet, require the application of reliable, rapid, sensitive, selective, simple, and cost-effective analytical tools. Celiac disease biomarker detection in full blood, serum, or plasma offers a non-invasive way to do this and is well-suited to being the first step of diagnosis...
June 16, 2018: Biosensors
Asol Mehlhorn, Parvaneh Rahimi, Yvonne Joseph
Antibiotic resistance and, accordingly, their pollution because of uncontrolled usage has emerged as a serious problem in recent years. Hence, there is an increased demand to develop robust, easy, and sensitive methods for rapid evaluation of antibiotics and their residues. Among different analytical methods, the aptamer-based biosensors (aptasensors) have attracted considerable attention because of good selectivity, specificity, and sensitivity. This review gives an overview about recently-developed aptasensors for antibiotic detection...
June 11, 2018: Biosensors
Alejandro García-Miranda Ferrari, Christopher W Foster, Peter J Kelly, Dale A C Brownson, Craig E Banks
Screen-printed electrochemical sensing platforms, due to their scales of economy and high reproducibility, can provide a useful approach to translate laboratory-based electrochemistry into the field. An important factor when utilising screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) is the determination of their real electrochemical surface area, which allows for the benchmarking of these SPEs and is an important parameter in quality control. In this paper, we consider the use of cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry to allow for the determination of the real electrochemical area of screen-printed electrochemical sensing platforms, highlighting to experimentalists the various parameters that need to be diligently considered and controlled in order to obtain useful measurements of the real electroactive area...
June 8, 2018: Biosensors
Adnan Mujahid, Ghulam Mustafa, Franz L Dickert
Modern diagnostic tools and immunoassay protocols urges direct analyte recognition based on its intrinsic behavior without using any labeling indicator. This not only improves the detection reliability, but also reduces sample preparation time and complexity involved during labeling step. Label-free biosensor devices are capable of monitoring analyte physiochemical properties such as binding sensitivity and selectivity, affinity constants and other dynamics of molecular recognition. The interface of a typical biosensor could range from natural antibodies to synthetic receptors for example molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs)...
June 1, 2018: Biosensors
Lukáš Matějovský, Vladimír Pitschmann
Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used as pesticides in agriculture, but also form a group of organophosphates known as nerve chemical warfare agents. This calls for close attention regarding their detection, including the use of various biosensors. One such biosensor made in the Czech Republic is the Detehit, which is based on a cholinesterase reaction that is assessed using a colour indicator-the Ellman's reagent-which is anchored on cellulose filter paper together with the substrate. With the use of this biosensor, detection is simple, quick, and sensitive...
May 30, 2018: Biosensors
Patrick Schrangl, Florian Reiterer, Lutz Heinemann, Guido Freckmann, Luigi Del Re
Systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) are evolving quickly, and the data obtained are expected to become the basis for clinical decisions for many patients with diabetes in the near future. However, this requires that their analytical accuracy is sufficient. This accuracy is usually determined with clinical studies by comparing the data obtained by the given CGM system with blood glucose (BG) point measurements made with a so-called reference method. The latter is assumed to indicate the correct value of the target quantity...
May 18, 2018: Biosensors
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