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Food Science & Nutrition

Elisabeth Uhlig, Crister Olsson, Jiayi He, Therese Stark, Zuzanna Sadowska, Göran Molin, Siv Ahrné, Beatrix Alsanius, Åsa Håkansson
Customer demands for fresh salads are increasing, but leafy green vegetables have also been linked to food-borne illness due to pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. As a safety measure, consumers often wash leafy vegetables in water before consumption. In this study, we analyzed the efficiency of household washing to reduce the bacterial content. Romaine lettuce and ready-to-eat mixed salad were washed several times in flowing water at different rates and by immersing the leaves in water. Lettuce was also inoculated with E...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Olamide A Akande, Dorothy Nakimbugwe, Ivan M Mukisa
Malnutrition is one of the foremost causes of death among children below 5 years in developing countries. Development of nutrient-dense food formulations using locally available crops has been proposed as a means to combat this menace. This study optimized the extrusion process for the production of a nutritious amaranth-based porridge flour. Least cost formulations containing grain amaranth, groundnut, iron-rich beans, pumpkin, orange-fleshed sweet potato, carrot, and maize were developed and evaluated by a sensory panel (n = 30) for acceptability using the 9-point hedonic scale...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Katrina Flaskerud, Michael Bukowski, Mikhail Golovko, LuAnn Johnson, Stephen Brose, Ashrifa Ali, Beth Cleveland, Matthew Picklo, Susan Raatz
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various cooking techniques on the fatty acid and oxylipin content of farmed rainbow trout. Rainbow trout is an excellent source of long-chain omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which have beneficial health effects. Fillets of 2-year-old farmed rainbow trout were baked, broiled, microwaved, or pan-fried in corn (CO), canola (CaO), peanut (PO), or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Fatty acids and oxidized lipids were extracted from these samples and their respective raw fillet samples...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Carlos Cardoso, Andrea Ripol, Cláudia Afonso, Margarida Freire, João Varela, Hugo Quental-Ferreira, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, Narcisa Bandarra
The lipid composition of five species of green seaweeds (Chaetomorpha linum, Rhizoclonium riparium, Ulva intestinalis, Ulva lactuca, and Ulva prolifera) grown in fish pond aquaculture systems was studied. In particular, the overall fatty acid (FA) profile and the FA profile of each main lipid class found in these seaweed species were thoroughly analyzed. It was found that every seaweed had a specific FA profile, whose specificities were rendered more obvious with the study of the FA profile per lipid class...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Solomon A Makanjuola
The influence of particle size and extraction solvent on the antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of tea (Camellia sinensis), ginger (Zingiber officinale), and tea-ginger (2:1) blend was investigated. The powder sizes studied were 0.425, 0.710, and 1.180 mm. Extracts were analyzed for DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, total phenol content (TPC), iron chelating activity, total flavonoid content, and peroxide scavenging activity. The powder with the lowest particle size of 0...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
David O Iyenagbe, Sunday A Malomo, Atinuke O Idowu, Adebanjo A Badejo, Tayo N Fagbemi
Conophor nut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) was processed using different heat treatments to explore its full potential as food ingredients. The raw, boiled, and toasted nuts were defatted and the proteins isolated by alkaline solubilization and isoelectric precipitation. The variously processed nuts were analyzed for the proximate and amino acid compositions, and functional properties. The protein contents of the isolate ranges between 86.86 g/100g and 87.74 g/100 g, about 1.5-fold higher than those of the defatted flour samples...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Toyin E Akinwale, Taofik A Shittu, Abdul-Razaq A Adebowale, Sheriff Adewuyi, Adebayo B Abass
Fortification of custard powder (CP) with protein from cheap sources such as soybean could potentially improve its nutritive value but may alter its functional and sensory properties. This study was therefore conducted to determine the effect of soy protein isolate (SPI) inclusion (0%-20%) on some functional and sensory properties of cassava starch-based CP. Functional, pasting, and sensory acceptability were determined using standard methods. Increase in soy protein isolate significantly (p < .05) decreased dispersibility, packed bulk density, swelling power, peak, trough, breakdown, final, and setback viscosities, but increased least gelation concentration, water absorption capacity, and solubility index...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Mahama Saaka, Jeremiah Oladele, Asamoah Larbi, Irmgard Hoeschle-Zeledon
There is limited information on the magnitude and determinants of household food insecurity (HFI) and how it relates to the nutritional status of pregnant women in Northern Ghana. The magnitude, determinants of HFI, and how it relates to the nutritional status of pregnant women were evaluated in the Africa RISING West Africa project intervention communities in Northern Ghana. The prevalence of moderate and severe household hunger was 25.9% (95% CI: 19.0, 34.3) and 6.8% (95% CI: 4.2, 10.9) respectively. The independent predictors of maternal thinness were region of residence, gestational age and maternal age...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Umar L Ssonko, Florence I Muranga
The SEM of starch from five EAHB cultivars showed a mixture of irregular granule shapes with smooth surfaces. The starches' average diameter size ranged between 16.31 and 21.98 μm. The moisture, protein, and ash content of the starches were: 11.12%-11.84%, 0.1% and 0.23%-0.47% respectively. The amylose content of these starches was between 11% and 13%. The starches peak viscosity ranged between 488.42 and 558.66 RVU. The EAHB starches exhibited relatively low pasting temperatures (<75°C), a high peak viscosity (488...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Korotimi Traoré, Charles Parkouda, Aly Savadogo, Fatoumata Ba/Hama, Regine Kamga, Yves Traoré
The study assessed changes in nutritional content of some commonly consumed traditional vegetables subjected to postharvest processes. Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.), black nightshade (Solanum scabrum Mill.) and jute mallow (Corchorus olitorius L.) leaves used as vegetables were subjected to blanching, boiling and drying. The proximate composition and β-carotene content of fresh and processed leaves were determined. Amaranth, black nightshade and jute mallow leaves had 25.21%, 39.74% and 29.18% of protein, respectively...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Jason Levy, Renee R Boyer, Andrew P Neilson, Sean F O'Keefe, Hyun Sik S Chu, Robert C Williams, Melanie R Dorenkott, Katheryn M Goodrich
Peanut skin extract (PSE) and grape seed extract (GSE) are derived from waste products in the wine and peanut industries, respectively. Both have high concentrations of polyphenols, known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. PSE primarily contains "A-type" procyanidins, while GSE primarily contains "B-type" procyanidins. These differ structurally, but are both isomers of epicatechin dimers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of PSE containing A-type procyanidins and GSE containing B-type procyanidins against select foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Typhimurium)...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Kinuthia U Muthai, Mbuthia S Karori, Alice Muchugi, Abwao S Indieka, Catherine Dembele, Simon Mng'omba, Ramni Jamnadass
Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) is an indigenous fruit tree associated with the Savannah drylands of sub-Saharan Africa. Local communities mainly utilize the leaves, pulp, and seeds of baobab as a source of food and for income generation. The present study was conducted to determine the nutritive attributes of baobab fruit pulp and seeds across provenances in east, west, and southern Africa and to determine whether the nutrient content varied with the provenance of origin. Pulp and seed proximate composition and mineral element concentration were determined using the AOAC 1984 methods and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), respectively...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Olumide S Fawale, Saka O Gbadamosi, Meshach M Ige, Oseni Kadiri
The effects of natural fermentation and cooking on kariya seeds functional properties, chemical composition, and antinutritional properties were evaluated. Result showed a reduction in antinutritional properties and improvement in protein content which were observed to increase with cooking (at 100°C) and fermentation period (24-96 hr). Functional analyses showed an increase in foaming and emulsion properties, while water absorption capacity and swelling power were observed to likewise increase with an increasing temperature between 60°C and 90°C...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Phoebe P Kaddumukasa, Samuel M Imathiu, Julius M Mathara, Jesca L Nakavuma
Fresh juices rich in health and nutritional benefits are valued for their fresh flavor, taste, and aroma. These juices' quality however is affected by factors like temperature, light, and microbiological contamination significantly changing physicochemical parameters and storage stability. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses of passion fruit, pineapple, and mango juices in dark and light bottles at 24°C and 4°C were conducted in Kampala, Uganda for 12 days. Physicochemical parameters significantly reduced (p < ...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Agnes Nabubuya, Agnes Namutebi, Yusuf Byaruhanga, Judith Narvhus, Trude Wicklund
Changes in total starch and reducing sugar content in five sweetpotato varieties were investigated weekly during root development and following subjection of the roots to different postharvest handling and storage conditions. Freshly harvested (noncured) roots and cured roots (spread under the sun for 4 days at 29-31°C and 63-65% relative humidity [RH]) were separately stored at ambient conditions (23°C-26°C and 70-80% RH) and in a semiunderground pit (19-21°C and 90-95% RH). Changes in pasting properties of flour from sweetpotato roots during storage were analyzed at 14-day intervals...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Anna Citta, Alessandra Folda, Valeria Scalcon, Guido Scutari, Alberto Bindoli, Marco Bellamio, Emiliano Feller, Maria Pia Rigobello
Oxidation processes in milk and yogurt during the shelf life can result in an alteration of protein and lipid constituents. Therefore, the antioxidant properties of yogurt in standard conditions of preservation were evaluated. Total phenols, free radical scavenger activity, degree of lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation were determined in plain and skim yogurts with or without fruit puree. After production, plain, skim, plain berries, and skim berries yogurts were compared during the shelf life up to 9 weeks...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Agnes Nabubuya, Agnes Namutebi, Yusuf Byaruhanga, Reidar B Schuller, Judith Narvhus, Trude Wicklund
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) roots contain amylolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze starch thus having the potential to affect the viscosity of sweet potato porridges provided the appropriate working conditions for the enzymes are attained. In this study, the effect of sweet potato variety, postharvest handling conditions, freshly harvested and room/ambient stored roots (3 weeks), and slurry solids content on the viscoelastic properties of complementary porridges prepared using amylase enzyme activation technique were investigated...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Si-Yin Chung, Christopher P Mattison, Casey C Grimm, Shawndrika Reed
Whole peanut or cashew extracts are usually used in immunotherapy. Reducing major allergen(s) in the extracts may lessen their side effects. Three methods were evaluated to reduce major allergens in peanut extracts: (1) p-aminobenzamidine; (2) magnetic agarose beads; and (3) extraction of a commercial peanut flour at pH 7, respectively. The first two methods were also used to reduce major allergens in cashew extracts. After treatments, samples were evaluated by SDS-PAGE. pABA-treated samples were also analyzed for IgE binding in western blot...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Reza Farahmandfar, Maedeh Mohseni, Maryam Asnaashari
Due to early deterioration of banana in drying process, almond, quince seed, and tragacanth gums as edible coatings were determined. For this purpose, banana slices were coated in 0.7% solution of each gum and one group remained uncoated as the control. The samples were examined at specific times considering the weight loss, color analyzing (a*, b*, and L*) through the method computer vision, color difference index, browning index, and rehydration after the samples being dried. The results showed that the weight loss of the coated samples was significantly (p < ...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Gioacchino Bono, Charles Odilichukwu R Okpala, Sergio Vitale, Vincenzo Ferrantelli, Annamaria Di Noto, Antonella Costa, Calogero Di Bella, Daniela Lo Monaco
Combining different preservative treatments for improving quality and safety of fishery products increasingly receives global research attention. Consistent with this pursuit, the current research was undertaken to determine the effects of different ozonized slurry-ice treatments and superchilling (-1°C) storage on microbial spoilage of European anchovy (Eugraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus), which are two commercially important pelagic fish species. After the catch (within <5 hr) and at defined scheduled storage times, ozone has been discharged once on sardine (herein referred to as "One-T") and repeatedly/sequentially on European anchovy (herein referred to as "Seq-T")...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
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