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Food Science & Nutrition

Oyindamola Oguntowo, Adewale O Obadina, Olajide P Sobukola, Mojisola O Adegunwa
The effects of blanching time and temperature on the sensory and textural properties of frozen cocoyam strips were studied for cocoyam varieties. The most preferred variety after sensory evaluation was blanched at 90°C for 5 min, reproduced, and frozen at a temperature of -18°C for storage studies over a period of 12 weeks with Irish potato as control. Sensory evaluation and instrumental texture analysis of frozen fried samples were conducted at 3 weeks intervals for 12 weeks. Sensory evaluation during storage showed no significant difference (P < 0...
November 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Viacheslav Liato, Steve Labrie, Marzouk Benali, Mohammed Aider
Tinplate cans were used to study if electro-activated brine solution (EAS) is more corrosive than conventional one by ICP analysis. The results showed different effects of EAS on cans, alone or filled with product. Acidic EAS (pH 2-3) and Redox +900 to +1200 mV highly reacted with the cans. The concentrations of Zn, Fe, and Cu in the solution were 0.028, 28.81, and 0.022 ppm, respectively. No Sn migration was observed in this case. When neutral or acidic chlorine-free EAS was used, no significant difference was observed in comparison with the corrosivity of standard NaCl brine...
November 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Georgina S A Trapp, Karina L Allen, Lucinda J Black, Gina L Ambrosini, Peter Jacoby, Susan Byrne, Karen E Martin, Wendy H Oddy
Investigating protective and risk factors that influence mental health in young people is a high priority. While previous cross-sectional studies have reported associations between diet and mental health among adolescents, few prospective studies exist. The aim of this study was to examine prospective relationships between dietary patterns and mental health among adolescents participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess indicators of mental health (Youth Self-Report externalizing/internalizing T-scores) and Western and Healthy dietary patterns (identified using factor analysis) at 14 (2003-2005) and 17 years (2006-2008)...
November 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
J Stephen Guffey, William C Payne, Susan D Motts, Pam Towery, Todd Hobson, Grafton Harrell, Logan Meurer, Kristoffer Lancaster
Foodborne illness resulting from infectious organisms occurring in vegetables and processed meat is a serious health concern in the United States. Improved and cost-effective techniques for disinfection are needed. Visible light in the blue range (405 nm) was administered to processed meat that had been inoculated with Escherichia coli. One application of light energy at doses of 10, 30, 60, and 100 J/cm(2) was applied, in vitro. In the case of vegetables contaminated with Salmonella (cucumbers), 464 nm light was used at 6, 12, and 18 J/cm(2)...
November 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Shan He, Trung T Nguyen, Peng Su, Wei Zhang
Lobster protein hydrolysates (LPH) were produced by an enzymatic process using a proteinase Alcalase, and a chemical process at strong alkaline condition (pH of 14), from rock lobster head (RLH), respectively. The chemical process recovered about 30% more protein than the enzymatic process (84.9% recovery of total protein in RLH by the chemical process and 54.5% recovery of total protein in RLH by the enzymatic process). The emulsifying capacity of LPH produced by the chemical process (69.7 m(2)/g) was significantly higher than the emulsifying capacity of the LPH produced by the enzymatic process (20...
November 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Li Liu, Mei-Ling Ji, Min Chen, Ming-Yue Sun, Xi-Ling Fu, Ling Li, Dong-Sheng Gao, Cui-Ying Zhu
Strawberry fruits (cv. Benihoppe, Tochiotome, Sachinoka, and Guimeiren) were harvested and evaluated the flavor and nutritional parameters. By principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis, differences were observed based on the volatile compounds composition, sugar and acid concentration, sweetness, and total soluble sugars/total organic acids of the four varieties. A total of 37, 48, 65, and 74 volatile compounds were identified and determined in cv. Benihoppe, Tochiotome, Sachinoka, and Guimeiren strawberry fruits extracted by head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), respectively...
November 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Ochuko L Erukainure, Jane N C Okafor, Akinyele Ogunji, Happiness Ukazu, Ebele N Okafor, Ijeoma L Eboagwu
The rheological behavior and functional properties of doughs from bambara-wheat composite flour was investigated. Bambara-wheat composite flour was prepared by substituting wheat with 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of bambara flour. The rheological behavior of their dough was analyzed with Mixolab. Breads produced from the flour were analyzed for physical characteristics. Organoleptic analysis was carried out by 20 panelists. Mixolab analysis revealed, except for stability time, depreciating values for dough consistency (C1), protein weakening (C2), starch gelatinization (C3), amylase activity (C4), and retrogradation (C5) as the inclusion of bambara flour increased...
November 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Julia Clark, Nikki Holgan, Leone Craig, Heather Morgan, Peter Danielian, Graham Devereux
Low maternal vitamin E intake during pregnancy is associated with childhood asthma and a trial is required to test whether increasing maternal vitamin E intake reduces childhood asthma. This study investigated whether such a trial is possible using food to increase vitamin E intake. Three soup varieties with enhanced vitamin E content (16-19 mg/can) from food ingredients were developed. Near identical retail versions (vitamin E 1-4 mg/can) acted as placebo. In a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial, pregnant women were randomized 1:1 to enhanced or placebo soups (three tins/week) from 12 weeks gestation to delivery...
November 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Yonas A Gezahegn, Shimelis A Emire, Sisay F Asfaw
The quality of Shea butter is highly affected by processing factors. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of conditioning duration (CD), moisture content (MC), and die temperature (DT) of screw expeller on Shea butter quality. A combination of 3(3) full factorial design and response surface methodology was used for this investigation. Response variables were refractive index, acid value, and peroxide value. The model enabled to identify the optimum operating settings (CD = 28-30 min, MC = 3-5 g/100 g, and DT = 65-70°C) for maximize refractive index and minimum acid value...
November 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Emmanuel A Irondi, Ganiyu Oboh, Afolabi A Akindahunsi
Our previous report showed that Mangifera indica kernel flour (MIKF) is a rich source of pharmacologically important flavonoids and phenolic acids; and that its methanolic extract inhibits some key enzymes linked to the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in vitro. Hence, this study evaluated the antidiabetic effects of 10% and 20% MIKF-supplemented diets in T2D in rats. T2D was induced in rats using a high-fat diet (HFD), low-dose streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) model, by feeding the rats with HFD for 2 weeks followed by single dose administration of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally)...
November 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Adewale Obadina, Hannah Ashimolowo, Ifeoluwa Olotu
Cocoyam tubers were subjected to two processing methods (fermentation and parboiling) and milled into flour. The samples were stored at 25°C, 35°C, and 45°C and analyzed at 2 weeks interval for 8 weeks for their nutritional, functional, and pasting properties. Data obtained were subjected to multiple analysis of variance. Storage period and its interactive effect with the processing methods had significant (P < 0.05) effects on all the nutritional composition of the flour except for the fat content...
November 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Minori Uchimiya, Xinzhi Ni, Ming Li Wang
Polyphenolic structures are the putative cause of a variety of seed functions including bird/insect resistance and antioxidant activity. Structure-reactivity relationships are necessary to understand the influence of polyphenolic chromophore structures on the tannin content and free radical quenching ability determined by the traditional calorimetric methods. This study investigated the relationships between the structural attributes of fluorescent chromophore and the following seed characterization methods: procyanidin (by acid-butanol assay) and flavonoid (by vanillin assay) contents, radical quenching (by DPPH assay), electron-donating capacity (by Fe(III) reduction), and λmax (by UV/visible spectrophotometry)...
November 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Hilaire Macaire Womeni, Fabrice Tonfack Djikeng, Naga Satya Surya Prabhakar Iruku, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi Karuna, Rachapudi Badari Narayana Prasad, Michel Linder
This study investigates the effect of soursop flowers methanolic extract on the physicochemical characteristics of palm olein during accelerated storage. After analysis of the extract by determining its total phenolic content by colorimetry and identification of some of its phenolic antioxidants by HPLC-DAD(Diode Array Detector), preliminary antioxidants tests have been done. After that, the extract was added in palm olein at concentrations 200-1800 ppm. BHT, at 200 ppm served as standard besides the Control...
November 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Mariam K Mtunguja, Henry S Laswai, Edward Kanju, Joseph Ndunguru, Yasinta C Muzanila
High starch yield is the most important trait for commercialized cassava starch production. Furthermore, cyanide present in cassava roots poses a health challenge in the use of cassava for food. Cassava genotypes have varying maturity periods that are also environmental dependent. This study aimed at identifying suitable cultivars and optimum time of harvest to maximize starch production across three environments. The study found significant difference between genotypes, locations, harvest period, and all the interactions (P ≤ 0...
November 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Ryo Aoki, Sayaka Tsuchida, Yuri Arai, Konatsu Ohno, Tomohiko Nishijima, Takashi Mawatari, Yumiko Mikami, Kazunari Ushida
Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis GCL2505 has been shown to proliferate in the human intestine. The intestinal dynamics and physiological effects of GCL2505 as well as the mechanism underlying proliferation in the gut were investigated. GCL2505 showed markedly higher resistance to free bile acids (cholic and deoxycholic acids) than other bifidobacterial species. The intestinal dynamics of GCL2505 and B. longum ssp. longum JCM1217(T) was compared. The level of B. animalis ssp. lactis in the GCL2505-administered group was remarkably higher than that of B...
November 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Nneka N Uchegbu, Charles N Ishiwu
This work studied the antioxidant activity of extract of germinated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Germination was carried out in a dark chamber under room temperature (28°C). The total phenolic, 1,1,diphenyl-2-picrylhy-drazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase were done in vitro and blood glucose levels of the animal were investigated. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic and DPPH scavenging activity increased by 30% and 63%, respectively, after germinating pigeon pea...
September 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Karishma Moktan, Pravin Ojha
Horse gram was germinated at 90% RH at 25°C for 72 h after 24 h soaking and then grinded to pass through 150 μm mesh size screens. The germination of horse gram result in increased protein, fiber, total polyphenol content, and antioxidant activity of horse gram flour whereas fat, ash, carbohydrate, iron, calcium, tannin, phytate, and oxalate were reduced due to germination. Bread was prepared by the incorporation of (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) germinated horse gram flour (GHF) by a straight dough method. The loaf volume and specific volume decreased with an increased use of percentage of GHF...
September 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Yetunde Yemisi Popoola, Rahman Akinoso, Akeem Olayemi Raji
Gourd seeds have been identified as a source of edible oil, but there is sparse literature on the effect of processing factors on the characteristics of oil extracted from any Lagenaria spp. Optimization of oil extraction with the aid of expeller was achieved by applying response surface methodology. The variables were roasting temperature (87.70-172.0°C) and roasting duration (7.93-22.07 min), while the responses were oil yield and oil quality (free fatty acid, color, specific gravity, saponification value, moisture, and refractive index)...
September 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Md Fuad Hossain, R R Ratnayake, Kirisnashamy Meerajini, K L Wasantha Kumara
Phytonutrients and pigments present in cyanobacteria act as antioxidants, which facilitate the formation of body's defense mechanism against free radical damage to cells. The aim of this investigation was to study the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity, phycobiliproteins (PBPs), and active compounds in four cyanobacterial species, that is, Oscillatoria sp., Lyngbya sp., Microcystis sp., and Spirulina sp. isolated from fresh water bodies of Sri Lanka. In this study, Lyngbya sp...
September 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Jungmin Lee
Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed, their anthocyanin profiles (based on high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] separation) indicated if products' fruit origin listings were authentic. Over 30% of the Vaccinium fruit (cranberry, lingonberry, bilberry, and blueberry; 14 of 45) products available as dietary supplements did not contain the fruit listed as ingredients...
September 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
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