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Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine

Zhouxian Bai, Xiangdong Kong
BACKGROUND: Congenital aniridia is a severe autosomal dominant binocular developmental disorder, the primary feature of which is congenital absence or hypoplasia of the iris. PAX6 is the main disease-causing gene of congenital aniridia; inheritance is autosomal dominant. But the current mutations do not fully explain this disorder. METHODS: We investigated the mutation profile of genes related in three Chinese families with congenital aniridia through targeted sequencing technology...
October 17, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Paloma Bravo, Hossein Darvish, Abbas Tafakhori, Luis J Azcona, Amir Hossein Johari, Faezeh Jamali, Coro Paisán-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common inherited form of parkinsonism, with the PRKN gene being the most frequently identified mutated. Exon rearrangements, identified in about 43.2% of the reported PD patients and with higher frequency in specific ethnicities, are the most prevalent PRKN mutations reported to date in PD patients. METHODS: In this study, three consanguineous families with early-onset PD were subjected to whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses that were followed by Sanger sequencing and droplet digital PCR to validate and confirm the disease segregation of the identified genomic variations and to determine their parental origin...
October 16, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Nancy Niguidula, Christina Alamillo, Layla Shahmirzadi Mowlavi, Zöe Powis, Julie S Cohen, Kelly D Farwell Hagman
BACKGROUND: Clinical diagnostic whole-exome sequencing (WES) is a powerful tool for patients with undiagnosed genetic disorders. To demonstrate the clinical utility, we surveyed healthcare providers (HCP) about changes in medical management and treatment, diagnostic testing, reproductive planning, and use of educational services subsequent to WES testing. METHODS: For a period of 18 months, an 18-question survey was sent to HCPs attached to the WES reports. We analyzed the molecular diagnosis, patient clinical features, and the medical management changes reported in the returned surveys...
October 14, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Pierre Vande Perre, Daniel Toledano, Carole Corsini, Elsa Escriba, Marine Laporte, Helena Bertet, Kevin Yauy, Alain Toledano, Virginie Galibert, Karen Baudry, Lucie Clotet, Elodie Million, Marie-Christine Picot, David Geneviève, Pascal Pujol
BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) have an increasing role in referring patients with putative mutation in BRCA1/2 genes for genetics consultation and for long-term follow-up of mutation carriers. METHODS: We compared the expectations of the GPs' role according to BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and to GPs themselves. RESULTS: Overall, 38% (58/152) of eligible GPs and 70% (176/252) of eligible patients were surveyed. Although 81% of GPs collected the family history, only 24% considered that they know criteria indicating genetics consultation and 39% sufficient knowledge of BRCA1/2 guidelines to answer patients' questions...
October 11, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Elizabeth Hatfield, Jane S Green, Michael O Woods, Geoff Warden, Patrick S Parfrey
BACKGROUND: Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal cancer is caused by Lynch Syndrome (LS; an autosomal dominant condition) or by Familial Colorectal Cancer Type-X (FCCTX; a condition of high family risk that fulfills Amsterdam criteria). The lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) in FCCTX family members is high and CRC occurs later than in LS. METHODS: To determine the impact of primary prevention colonoscopic screening in asymptomatic first-degree relatives of incident CRC cases in 20 families with FCCTX, we compared cancer incidence and survival in 79 males and 83 females, assumed to be at 50% risk of inheriting a genetic CRC susceptibility factor, who entered screening to an unscreened control group from the families, matched for age at entry into screening and for sex...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Pratibha Nair, Sandra Sabbagh, Hicham Mansour, Ali Fawaz, Ghassan Hmaimess, Peter Noun, Rawane Dagher, Hala Megarbane, Sayeeda Hana, Saada Alame, Maher Lamaa, Dana Hasbini, Roula Farah, Mariam Rajab, Samantha Stora, Oulfat El-Tourjuman, Pauline Abou Jaoude, Gihad Chalouhi, Rony Sayad, Anne-Celine Gillart, Mahmoud Al-Ali, Valerie Delague, Stephany El-Hayek, André Mégarbané
BACKGROUND: According to the Catalogue of Transmission Genetics in Arabs, less than half of diseases reported in Lebanese patients are mapped. In the recent years, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques have significantly improved clinical diagnosis, compared to traditional sequencing methods. METHODS: A total of 213 analyses by NGS (167 by whole exome sequencing (WES) and 46 by multigene panels tests) were performed on pediatric patients across different regions of Lebanon over a period of two years (December 2015-December 2017)...
October 7, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Sara C M Stoof, Rogier Kersseboom, Femke A T de Vries, Marieke J H A Kruip, Anneke J A Kievit, Frank W G Leebeek
BACKGROUND: Hemophilia B is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in the F9 on Xq27.1. Mainly males are affected but about 20% of female carriers have clotting factor IX activity below 0.40 IU/ml and bleeding problems. Fragile-X syndrome (FMR1) and FRAXE syndrome (AFF2) are well-known causes of X-linked recessive intellectual disability. Simultaneous deletion of both FMR1 and AFF2 in males results in severe intellectual disability. In females the phenotype is more variable...
September 27, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Farzaneh Pouya, Afsaneh Mojtabanezhad Shariatpanahi, Kamran Ghaffarzadegan, Seyed Abbas Tabatabaee Yazdi, Hamed Golmohammadzadeh, Ghodratollah Soltani, Kian Aminian Toosi, Mohammad Amin Kerachian
BACKGROUND: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a familial colorectal cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by the development of numerous colorectal polyps, which is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. FAP is caused by germ line mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Here, we described the identification of a causative APC gene deletion associated with FAP in an Iranian family. METHODS: Diagnosis of FAP was based on clinical findings, family history, and medical records (colonoscopy and histopathological data) after the patients were referred to Reza Radiotherapy and Oncology Center, Iran, for colonoscopy...
September 26, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Preeti Prakash, Tanya N Eble, Shweta U Dhar
BACKGROUND: Genetic providers face the challenge of having adequate time to conduct a comprehensive evaluation. Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos (hEDS) syndrome has a complex array of symptoms. An initial visit can involve approximately 60-80 min and an additional 45 min for the check-in and checkout process. We propose a model to improve clinic flow and patient satisfaction by using: (a) pre-appointment questionnaire (b) disease information sheet outlining basic management and (c) itinerary detailing the visit...
September 26, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Dan Zhao, Ailu Cai, Bing Wang, Xiaodan Lu, Lu Meng
BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study was to compare the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities of fetuses with isolated fetal ventriculomegaly (VM) to that of fetuses with the sole risk factor of being born to mothers of advanced age. METHOD: This prospective study included two groups. Group 1 included fetuses with isolated VM and were further categorized according to maternal age, fetal gender, laterality of VM (unilateral or bilateral), evolution of VM (resolved or persistent or progressive), and the gestational age at the time of diagnosis (<28w or ≥28w)...
September 19, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Hsiang-Yu Lin, Chung-Lin Lee, Yun-Ting Lo, Tuan-Jen Wang, Sung-Fa Huang, Tzu-Lin Chen, Yu-Shan Wang, Dau-Ming Niu, Chih-Kuang Chuang, Shuan-Pei Lin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to use the liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantitate levels of three urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs; dermatan sulfate [DS], heparan sulfate [HS], and keratan sulfate [KS]) to help make a correct diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). METHODS: We analyzed the relationships between phenotypes and levels of urinary GAGs of 79 patients with different types of MPS. RESULTS: The patients with mental retardation (n = 21) had significantly higher levels of HS than those without mental retardation (n = 58; 328...
September 16, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Zahra Shanesazzade, Maryam Peymani, Kamran Ghaedi, Mohammad Hossein Nasr Esfahani
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder which mainly affects the elderly population of various societies. The main hallmark of this disease is the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. So far, numerous studies have implied the role of microRNAs in fine-tuning cellular processes including apoptosis. Studies have also shown that miR-34a is mainly involved in age-related disorders including Alzheimer's disease, and its expression is usually higher in the brain sample patients...
September 16, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Saad Warraich, Aven Sidhu, Michelle Hou, Osamah Alenezi
BACKGROUND: A relationship between hypovitaminosis D and infection with HIV and HCV has been established in the scientific literature. Studies comparing these illnesses to other risk factors for development of hypovitaminosis D, such as being of Middle Eastern origin, have been lacking. The goals of this study were: (a) to document vitamin D levels in groups of individuals at high risk of developing its deficiency, (b) analyze the data collected to numerically determine which group had the lowest average vitamin D levels, and (c) discuss the impact of the findings and offer possible explanations...
September 13, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Hui Sun, Pingdong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of skin cancer. The underlying mechanism leading to BCC formation is not fully uncovered. The aim of this study was to characterize miRNA-451a as a novel tumor suppressor in cutaneous BCC. METHODS: We first evaluated miRNA-451a level in human BCC clinical tissues and inducible BCC mouse model. Then we studied the impact of overexpressing or inhibiting miR-451a in cell proliferation, colony formation potential, and cell cycle pattern...
September 13, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Denise F R Rawcliffe, Lennart Österman, Angelica Nordin, Monica Holmberg
BACKGROUND: Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis (HML) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by an intron mutation in the iron-sulfur cluster assembly (ISCU) gene. The mutation results in aberrant splicing, where part of the intron is retained in the final mRNA transcript, giving rise to a truncated nonfunctional ISCU protein. Using an ISCU mini-gene system, we have previously shown that PTBP1 can act as a repressor of the mis-splicing of ISCU, where overexpression of PTBP1 resulted in a decrease of the incorrect splicing...
September 12, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Felicity K Boardman, Rachel Hale
BACKGROUND: Genomic medicine is rapidly evolving, particularly in the domain of reproduction. Population carrier screening for a range of disorders is becoming possible using whole genome/exome sequencing. However, very little is known about the views of genetically disabled adults toward selective reproduction. METHODS: Forty-three in-depth qualitative interviews were carried out with adults living with different types of genetic condition, recruited through support groups and clinics...
September 9, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Kazuki Takeda, Ikuyo Kou, Shuji Mizumoto, Shuhei Yamada, Noriaki Kawakami, Masahiro Nakajima, Nao Otomo, Yoji Ogura, Noriko Miyake, Naomichi Matsumoto, Toshiaki Kotani, Hideki Sudo, Ikuho Yonezawa, Koki Uno, Hiroshi Taneichi, Kei Watanabe, Hideki Shigematsu, Ryo Sugawara, Yuki Taniguchi, Shohei Minami, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Kota Watanabe, Shiro Ikegawa
BACKGROUND: Congenital scoliosis (CS) is defined as a lateral curvature of the spine due to the vertebral malformations and has an incidence of 0.5-1/1,000 births. We previously examined TBX6 in Japanese CS patients and revealed that approximately 10% of CS was caused by TBX6 mutations. However, the genetic cause of remaining CS is unknown. METHODS: We recruited 78 CS patients without TBX6 mutations and major comorbidities, and investigated the genes previously reported to be associated with CS and congenital vertebral malformations by whole-exome sequencing...
September 9, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
John E Richter, Michael T Zimmermann, Patrick R Blackburn, Ahmed N Mohammad, Eric W Klee, Laura M Pollard, Colleen F Macmurdo, Paldeep S Atwal, Thomas R Caulfield
BACKGROUND: Beta-galactosidase-1 (GLB1) is a lysosomal hydrolase that is responsible for breaking down specific glycoconjugates, particularly GM1 (monosialotetrahexosylganglioside). Pathogenic variants in GLB1 cause two different lysosomal storage disorders: GM1 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type IVB. In GM1 gangliosidosis, decreased β-galactosidase-1 enzymatic activity leads to the accumulation of GM1 gangliosides, predominantly within the CNS. We present a 22-month-old proband with GM1 gangliosidosis type II (late-infantile form) in whom a novel homozygous in-frame deletion (c...
September 5, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Khalid Moumad, Wafa Khaali, Abdellatif Benider, Wided Ben Ayoub, Mokhtar Hamdi-Cherif, Kada Boualga, Elham Hassen, El Khalil Ben Driss, Marilys Corbex, Meriem Khyatti
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a higher incidence in North Africa than in most parts of the world. In addition to environmental factors such as Epstein-Barr virus infection and chemical carcinogen exposure, genetic susceptibility has been reported to play a key role in the development of NPC. NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 is a cytosolic enzyme that protects cells from oxidative damage. A C to T transition at position 609 in the NQO1 gene (OMIM: 125860) has been shown to alter the enzymatic activity of the enzyme and has been associated with increased risk to several cancers...
August 29, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Devin M Cox, Katherine L Nelson, Meera Clytone, Debra L Collins
BACKGROUND: Historically, three founder mutations in the BRCA1/2 (OMIM 113705; OMIM 600185) genes have been the focus of cancer risks within the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population. However, there are several additional mutations associated with increased susceptibility to cancer in individuals of AJ ancestry. METHODS: We report three patients who exemplify the need to keep these additional founder mutations in mind when pursuing hereditary cancer genetic testing of individuals in this population...
August 27, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
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