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Journal of Addiction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607798/caregiver-burden-in-alcohol-dependence-syndrome
#1
Ramanujam Vaishnavi, Murugan Selvaraj Karthik, Ramasamy Balakrishnan, Ramanathan Sathianathan
BACKGROUND: Alcoholism is a major threat to the individual as well as the society and the maximum burden of the illness is borne by the family. AIM: The study is aimed at assessing the pattern of burden on the caregivers of alcohol dependent patients and at assessing the relationship between the severity of dependence and the burden on caregivers. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute...
2017: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458942/a-prototypical-first-generation-electronic-cigarette-does-not-reduce-reports-of-tobacco-urges-or-withdrawal-symptoms-among-cigarette-smokers
#2
Arit M Harvanko, Catherine A Martin, Richard J Kryscio, William W Stoops, Joshua A Lile, Thomas H Kelly
It is unknown whether first-generation electronic cigarettes reduce smoking urges and withdrawal symptoms following a 24 h deprivation period. This study tested whether a first-generation electronic cigarette reduces smoking urges and withdrawal symptoms in cigarette smokers. Following 24 h of tobacco deprivation, using a within-subjects design, eight nontreatment seeking tobacco cigarette smokers (3 females) administered 10 puffs from a conventional cigarette or a first-generation electronic cigarette containing liquid with 0, 8 or 16 mg/ml nicotine...
2017: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367351/predicting-inpatient-detoxification-outcome-of-alcohol-and-drug-dependent-patients-the-influence-of-sociodemographic-environment-motivation-impulsivity-and-medical-comorbidities
#3
Yvonne Sofin, Heidi Danker-Hopfe, Tina Gooren, Peter Neu
Aims. This prospective study aims to identify patient characteristics as predictors for treatment outcome during inpatient detoxification treatment for drug and alcohol dependent patients. Methods. A mixed gender sample of 832 consecutively admitted drug and alcohol dependent patients were interviewed by an experienced physician. The impact of a variety of factors concerning social environment, therapy motivation, impulsivity related variables, medical history, and addiction severity on treatment outcome was examined...
2017: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097037/nonmedical-use-of-antihistaminergic-anxiolytics-and-other-prescription-drugs-among-persons-with-opioid-dependence
#4
Disa Dahlman, Tove Abrahamsson, Alex H Kral, Anders Hakansson
Background. Nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU) is an increasing problem, insufficiently studied among people in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). This study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with NMPDU for drug classes insufficiently described in opioid-dependent populations, including antihistaminergic anxiolytics and central stimulants. Methods. Study participants were recruited at two OMT clinics in Malmo, Sweden, between October 2014 and December 2015 (N = 73) and interviewed about their use, motivations for use, and acquisition and administration of prescription drugs...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044121/investigation-of-cognitive-improvement-in-alcohol-dependent-inpatients-using-the-montreal-cognitive-assessment-moca-score
#5
Stéphanie Pelletier, Bertrand Nalpas, Régis Alarcon, Hélène Rigole, Pascal Perney
Background. Cognitive dysfunction is a common feature in alcohol use disorders. Its persistence following alcohol detoxification may impair quality of life and increase the risk of relapse. We analyzed cognitive impairment changes using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score in a large sample of alcohol-dependent inpatients hospitalized for at least 4 weeks. Method. This was an observational longitudinal survey. Inclusion criteria were alcohol dependence (DSM-IV) and alcohol abstinence for at least one week...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994907/the-impact-of-social-structures-on-deviant-behaviors-the-study-of-402-high-risk-street-drug-users-in-iran
#6
Maryam Mehrabi, Sharareh Eskandarieh, Mahmoud Khodadost, Maneli Sadeghi, Ali Nikfarjam, Ahmad Hajebi
This study is a sociological analysis of the three dimensions of social structure including institutional, relational, and embodied structures that have an impact on the individuals' deviant behaviors in the society. The authors used a mix method to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data of 402 high risk abandoned substance users in 2008 in Tehran, capital city of Iran. The leading reasons of substance use were categorized into four fundamental themes as follows: stress, deviant social networks, and low social capital and weak social support sources...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891289/nor-bni-antagonism-of-kappa-opioid-agonist-induced-reinstatement-of-ethanol-seeking-behavior
#7
Erin Harshberger, Emily A Gilson, Kelli Gillett, Jasmine H Stone, Laila El Amrani, Glenn R Valdez
Recent work suggests that the dynorphin (DYN)/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system may be a key mediator in the behavioral effects of alcohol. The objective of the present study was to examine the ability of the KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI) to attenuate relapse to ethanol seeking due to priming injections of the KOR agonist U50,488 at time points consistent with KOR selectivity. Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer a 10% ethanol solution, and then responding was extinguished. Following extinction, rats were injected with U50,488 (0...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847671/heavy-alcohol-drinking-associated-akathisia-and-management-with-quetiapine-xr-in-alcohol-dependent-patients
#8
Zimple Kurlawala, Vatsalya Vatsalya
Heavy drinking contributes to involuntary body movements such as akathisia. Quetiapine has been shown to alleviate symptoms of akathisia; however, its efficacy in the alcohol dependent population is not well established. Thus, we aimed to identify efficacy of Quetiapine in treating akathisia in very heavy drinking alcohol dependent patients. 108 male and female heavy alcohol consuming study participants received 13 weeks of Quetiapine XR. Drinking history (Timeline Followback, TLFB), depression (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS), and movement (Barnes Akathisia Scale, BARS) measures were collected at baseline (0 W), week 6 (6 W), and week 12 (12 W)...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840765/substance-use-disorders-in-elderly-admissions-to-an-academic-psychiatric-inpatient-service-over-a-10-year-period
#9
Dennis Dombrowski, Nelly Norrell, Suzanne Holroyd
Objective. There is a paucity of research on substance use disorders (SUDs) in the elderly psychiatric population. This study examines SUDs in a geriatric psychiatry inpatient service over a 10-year period. Methods. Data from 1788 elderly psychiatric inpatients from a ten-year period was collected. Variables collected included psychiatric diagnoses, SUD, number of psychiatric admissions, and length of stay. Those with and without a SUD were compared using Chi-Square or Student's t-test as appropriate using SPSS...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800208/family-based-intervention-program-for-parents-of-substance-abusing-youth-and-adolescents
#10
David Bisetto Pons, Remedios González Barrón, Álvaro Botella Guijarro
The use of drugs among adolescents/youth often results in a high degree of distress for the family members who live with them. This in turn can lead to a deterioration of mental (psychological) health, hindering any attempt to successfully cope with the situation. The goal of our research was to study the effect of the Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) program on parents of adolescents/young adult drug users. Study volunteers (n = 50) were parents from Valencia (Spain) that were divided into two groups...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752388/the-prevalence-of-and-factors-associated-with-alcohol-related-problems-in-a-community-sample-of-african-american-women
#11
Hugh Klein, Claire E Sterk, Kirk W Elifson
Purpose. This study examines the prevalence of alcohol-related problems, the factors underlying these problems, and whether or not there is evidence of syndemic effects in a community population of southern, urban African American women. Methods. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 817 women, all African American, from 80 targeted census block groups in Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Most of the alcohol users (67.8%) experienced at least one problem as a result of their alcohol (ab)use, with most women experiencing two or more such problems...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747130/cross-sectional-survey-on-quitting-attempts-among-adolescent-smokers-in-dharan-eastern-nepal
#12
Pranil Man Singh Pradhan, Kedar Marahatta
Background. Adolescents frequently attempt smoking cessation but are unable to maintain long term abstinence because they are dependent on nicotine and experience withdrawal symptoms. Objectives. This study aimed to explore the quitting attempts among adolescent smokers in Dharan Municipality of Eastern Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey to assess current smokers and quitting attempts among 1312 adolescent students in middle (14-15 years) and late adolescence (16-19 years)...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722007/predictors-of-relapse-after-inpatient-opioid-detoxification-during-1-year-follow-up
#13
Harsh Chalana, Tanu Kundal, Varun Gupta, Amandeep Singh Malhari
Introduction. Relapse rate after opioid detoxification is very high. We studied the possibility that predetoxification patient characteristics might predict relapse at follow-up and thus conducted this 1-year follow-up study to assess the predictors of relapse after inpatient opioid detoxification. Materials and Methods. We conducted this study in our tertiary care institute in India over two-year time period (1 Jan 2014 to 31 Dec 2015). Out of 581 patients admitted, 466 patients were considered for study. Results and Discussion...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672475/effects-of-a-comprehensive-multiple-risky-behavior-prevention-program-on-high-school-students
#14
Crystal Collier, Anthony J Onwuegbuzie, Alicia LaChapelle, Jessica Davison
The purpose of this research study was to examine the effect of a multiple risky behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The noncurriculum prevention program was created based upon the key elements of effective prevention programming and the need to address the growing variety of risky behaviors that the youth face today. Results (n = 469 to 614) indicated that 7 out of 15 risky behaviors statistically significantly decreased throughout the 4-year study, with 6 behaviors involving alcohol and drugs...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635278/mid-adolescent-predictors-of-adult-drinking-levels-in-early-adulthood-and-gender-differences-longitudinal-analyses-based-on-the-south-australian-school-leavers-study
#15
Paul H Delfabbro, Helen R Winefield, Anthony H Winefield, Anne Hammarström
There is considerable public health interest in understanding what factors during adolescence predict longer-term drinking patterns in adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in the age 15 social and psychological predictors of less healthy drinking patterns in early adulthood. The study investigates the relative importance of internalising problems, other risky health behaviours, and peer relationships after controlling for family background characteristics. A sample of 812 young people who provided complete alcohol consumption data from the age of 15 to 20 years (5 measurement points) were drawn from South Australian secondary schools and given a detailed survey concerning their psychological and social wellbeing...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630784/tobacco-and-alcohol-use-and-the-impact-of-school-based-antitobacco-education-for-knowledge-enhancement-among-adolescent-students-of-rural-kerala-india
#16
Radhakrishnan Jayakrishnan, Seema Geetha, Jagathnath Krishna Kumara Pillai Mohanan Nair, Gigi Thomas, Paul Sebastian
Objectives. Limited information is available on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in rural Kerala, the southernmost state in India. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among adolescent school students and further to understand the extent of knowledge pertaining to tobacco before and after conducting awareness programmes in schools. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 government schools of rural Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala state based on a multistaged sampling design...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446626/the-impact-of-an-implementation-project-on-primary-care-staff-perceptions-of-delivering-brief-alcohol-advice
#17
Hanna Reinholdz, Preben Bendtsen, Fredrik Spak, Ulrika Müssener
Objective. To explore how the perceptions and experiences of working with risky drinkers change over time among primary health care staff during a systematic implementation project. Methods. Qualitative focus group interviews took place before and after the implementation of the project. Results. The staff displayed a positive change during the implementation period with regard to awareness, knowledge, and confidence that led to a change in routine practice. Throughout the project, staff were committed to engaging with risky drinkers and appeared to have been learning-by-doing...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213075/availability-of-medical-and-recreational-marijuana-stores-and-neighborhood-characteristics-in-colorado
#18
Yuyan Shi, Kristin Meseck, Marta M Jankowska
Objective. To examine the availability of marijuana stores in Colorado and associations with neighborhood characteristics. Methods. The addresses for 650 medical and recreational marijuana stores were geocoded and linked to the characteristics of 1249 census tracts in Colorado. Accounting for spatial autocorrelations, autologistic regressions were used to quantify the associations of census tract socioeconomic characteristics with the availability of marijuana stores. Results. Regardless of store types, marijuana stores were more likely to locate in neighborhoods that had a lower proportion of young people, had a higher proportion of racial and ethnic minority population, had a lower household income, had a higher crime rate, or had a greater density of on-premise alcohol outlets...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195170/prevalence-and-correlates-of-alcohol-use-among-a-sample-of-nigerian-semirural-community-dwellers-in-nigeria
#19
Victor Olufolahan Lasebikan, Bolanle Adeyemi Ola
Objective. To determine the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use among a sample of Nigerian semirural community dwellers in Nigeria. Methods. In a single arm nonrandomized intervention study, the assessment of baseline hazardous and harmful alcohol use and associated risk factors was conducted in two semirural local government areas of Oyo State, Nigeria, with the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Participants included 1203 subjects 15 years and older, recruited between October 2010 and April 2011...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27119040/dually-diagnosed-patients-with-arrests-for-violent-and-nonviolent-offenses-two-year-treatment-outcomes
#20
Christine Timko, Andrea Finlay, Nicole R Schultz, Daniel M Blonigen
The purpose of this study was to examine the history of arrests among dually diagnosed patients entering treatment, compare groups with different histories on use of treatment and mutual-help groups and functioning, at intake to treatment and six-month, one-year, and two-year follow-ups, and examine correlates and predictors of legal functioning at the study endpoint. At treatment intake, 9.2% of patients had no arrest history, 56.3% had been arrested for nonviolent offenses only, and 34.5% had been arrested for violent offenses...
2016: Journal of Addiction
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