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Translation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090423/fusion-proteins-of-arabidopsis-cap-binding-proteins-cautionary-tails-of-woe
#1
Elizabeth Levins, Ching-Ying Tseng, Ryan M Patrick, Laura K Mayberry, Nicola Cole, Karen S Browning
The use of fluorescent proteins fused to other proteins has been very useful in revealing the location and function of many proteins. However, it is very important to show that the fusion of these reporter proteins does not impact the function of the protein of interest. Plants have 2 forms of the cap-binding protein that function in initiation of translation, eIF4E and a plant specific form, eIFiso4E. In an attempt to determine the cellular localization of eIFiso4E, fusions to GFP were made, but were found to not be competent to rescue the lethal phenotype of plants lacking eIF4E and eIFiso4E...
2016: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090422/elevated-levels-of-ribosomal-proteins-el36-and-el42-control-expression-of-hsp90-in-rhabdomyosarcoma
#2
Sarah Shaikho, Christine C Dobson, Thet Naing, Bahram Samanfar, Houman Moteshareie, Maryam Hajikarimloo, Ashkan Golshani, Martin Holcik
Mammalian 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) is a ubiquitous molecular chaperone whose expression is selectively upregulated during stress, although the precise control mechanism of this increase is yet to be fully elucidated. We used polysome profiling to show that Hsp90α mRNA is selectively translated, while global translation is inhibited during heat stress. Furthermore, we have identified 2 ribosomal proteins, eL36 and eL42 that modulate Hsp90α expression under both normal and heat shock conditions. Importantly, we noted that expression of eL36 and eL42 is elevated in a panel of human rhabdomyosarcomas where it drives high expression of Hsp90 and modulates sensitivity of these cells to an Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG...
2016: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090421/rna-g-quadruplexes-and-their-potential-regulatory-roles-in-translation
#3
REVIEW
Jingwen Song, Jean-Pierre Perreault, Ivan Topisirovic, Stéphane Richard
DNA guanine (G)-rich 4-stranded helical nucleic acid structures called G-quadruplexes (G4), have been extensively studied during the last decades. However, emerging evidence reveals that 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (5'- and 3'-UTRs) as well as open reading frames (ORFs) contain putative RNA G-quadruplexes. These stable secondary structures play key roles in telomere homeostasis and RNA metabolism including pre-mRNA splicing, polyadenylation, mRNA targeting and translation. Interestingly, multiple RNA binding proteins such as nucleolin, FMRP, DHX36, and Aven were identified to bind RNA G-quadruplexes...
2016: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090420/the-periodic-table-of-the-genetic-code-a-new-way-to-look-at-the-code-and-the-decoding-process
#4
Anton A Komar
Henri Grosjean and Eric Westhof recently presented an information-rich, alternative view of the genetic code, which takes into account current knowledge of the decoding process, including the complex nature of interactions between mRNA, tRNA and rRNA that take place during protein synthesis on the ribosome, and it also better reflects the evolution of the code. The new asymmetrical circular genetic code has a number of advantages over the traditional codon table and the previous circular diagrams (with a symmetrical/clockwise arrangement of the U, C, A, G bases)...
2016: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090419/the-eukaryotic-translation-initiation-factor-eif4e-wears-a-cap-for-many-occasions
#5
Katherine L B Borden
The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E plays important roles in controlling the composition of the proteome. Indeed, dysregulation of eIF4E is associated with poor prognosis cancers. The traditional view has been that eIF4E acts solely in translation. However, over the last ∼25 years, eIF4E was found in the nucleus where it acts in mRNA export and in the last ∼10 years, eIF4E was found in cytoplasmic processing bodies (P-bodies) where it functions in mRNA sequestration and stability. The common biochemical thread for these activities is the ability of eIF4E to bind the 7-methylguanosine cap on the 5' end of mRNAs...
2016: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335724/corrigendum
#6
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.4161/21690731.2014.988538.].
January 2016: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335723/trna-wobble-modifications-and-protein-homeostasis
#7
REVIEW
Namit Ranjan, Marina V Rodnina
tRNA is a central component of the protein synthesis machinery in the cell. In living cells, tRNAs undergo numerous post-transcriptional modifications. In particular, modifications at the anticodon loop play an important role in ensuring efficient protein synthesis, maintaining protein homeostasis, and helping cell adaptation and survival. Hypo-modification of the wobble position of the tRNA anticodon loop is of particular relevance for translation regulation and is implicated in various human diseases. In this review we summarize recent evidence of how methyl and thiol modifications in eukaryotic tRNA at position 34 affect cellular fitness and modulate regulatory circuits at normal conditions and under stress...
January 2016: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335722/characterizing-inactive-ribosomes-in-translational-profiling
#8
Botao Liu, Shu-Bing Qian
The broad impact of translational regulation has emerged explosively in the last few years in part due to the technological advance in genome-wide interrogation of gene expression. During mRNA translation, the majority of actively translating ribosomes exist as polysomes in cells with multiple ribosomes loaded on a single transcript. The importance of the monosome, however, has been less appreciated in translational profiling analysis. Here we report that the monosome fraction isolated by sucrose sedimentation contains a large quantity of inactive ribosomes that do not engage on mRNAs to direct translation...
January 2016: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335721/hippuristanol-a-potent-steroid-inhibitor-of-eukaryotic-initiation-factor-4a
#9
REVIEW
Regina Cencic, Jerry Pelletier
Protein synthesis and its regulatory signaling pathways play essential roles in the initiation and maintenance of the cancer phenotype. Insight obtained over the last 3 decades on the mechanisms regulating translation in normal and transformed cells have revealed that perturbed control in cancer cells may offer an Achilles' heel for the development of novel anti-neoplastic agents. Several small molecule inhibitors have been identified and characterized that target translation initiation - more specifically, the rate-limiting step where ribosomes are recruited to mRNA templates...
January 2016: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824030/working-hard-at-the-nexus-between-cell-signaling-and-the-ribosomal-machinery-an-insight-into-the-roles-of-rack1-in-translational-regulation
#10
REVIEW
Simone Gallo, Nicola Manfrini
RACK1 is a ribosome-associated protein which functions as a receptor for activated PKCs. It also acts as a scaffold for many other proteins involved in diverse signaling pathways, e.g. Src, JNK, PDE4D and FAK signaling. With such a broad interactome, RACK1 has been suggested to function as a linker between cell signaling and the translation machinery. Accordingly, RACK1 modulates translation at different levels in several model organisms. For instance, it regulates ribosome stalling and mRNA quality control in yeasts and promotes translation efficiency downstream of specific cellular stimuli in mammals...
July 2015: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824029/ribosomal-protein-us19-mutants-reveal-its-role-in-coordinating-ribosome-structure-and-function
#11
Alicia M Bowen, Sharmishtha Musalgaonkar, Christine A Moomau, Suna P Gulay, Mary Mirvis, Jonathan D Dinman
Prior studies identified allosteric information pathways connecting functional centers in the large ribosomal subunit to the decoding center in the small subunit through the B1a and B1b/c intersubunit bridges in yeast. In prokaryotes a single SSU protein, uS13, partners with H38 (the A-site finger) and uL5 to form the B1a and B1b/c bridges respectively. In eukaryotes, the SSU component was split into 2 separate proteins during the course of evolution. One, also known as uS13, participates in B1b/c bridge with uL5 in eukaryotes...
July 2015: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824028/introducing-a-class-of-standardized-and-interchangeable-parts-utilizing-programmed-ribosomal-frameshifts-for-synthetic-biology-applications
#12
Harland E Brandon, Jenna R Friedt, Graeme D Glaister, Suneet K Kharey, Dustin D Smith, Zak K Stinson, Hans-Joachim Wieden
Synthetic biology and the rational design of biological devices depend on the availability of standardized and interchangeable biological parts with diverse range of functions. Reliable access to different reading frames during translation has largely been overlooked as functionality for bioengineering applications. Here we report the construction and initial characterization of the first member of such a class of biological parts that conforms to the BioBrick Standard (RFC25), allowing its interchangeable use in biological devices...
July 2015: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26781362/corrigendum
#13
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.4161/2169074X.2014.960242.].
January 2015: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779416/eukaryote-specific-extensions-in-ribosomal-proteins-of-the-small-subunit-structure-and-function
#14
REVIEW
Arnab Ghosh, Anton A Komar
High-resolution structures of yeast ribosomes have improved our understanding of the architecture and organization of eukaryotic rRNA and proteins, as well as eukaryote-specific extensions present in some conserved ribosomal proteins. Despite this progress, assignment of specific functions to individual proteins and/or eukaryote-specific protein extensions remains challenging. It has been suggested that eukaryote-specific extensions of conserved proteins from the small ribosomal subunit may facilitate eukaryote-specific reactions in the initiation phase of protein synthesis...
January 2015: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779415/efficient-preparation-and-properties-of-mrnas-containing-a-fluorescent-cap-analog-anthraniloyl-m-7-gpppg
#15
Dilantha Gunawardana, Artem V Domashevskiy, Ken R Gayler, Dixie J Goss
A method has been developed for synthesising fluorescently labeled capped mRNA. The method incorporates a single fluorescent molecule as part of the 5'-mRNA or oligonucleotide cap site. The fluorescent molecule, Ant-m(7)GTP is specifically incorporated into the cap site to yield Ant-m(7)GpppG-capped mRNA or oligonucleotide. Efficient capping was observed with 60-100% of the RNA transcripts capped with the fluorescent molecule. The Ant-m(7)G derivative, which has been previously shown to interact with the eukaryotic cap binding protein eIF4E, is shown in this paper to be a substrate for the Vaccinia capping enzyme and the DCP2 decapping enzyme from Arabidopsis...
January 2015: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779414/regulation-of-global-and-specific-mrna-translation-by-the-mtor-signaling-pathway
#16
REVIEW
Neethi Nandagopal, Philippe P Roux
The translation of mRNA into polypeptides is a key step in eukaryotic gene expression. Translation is mostly controlled at the level of initiation, which is partly regulated by the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Whereas mTOR controls global protein synthesis through specific effector proteins, its role in the translation of select groups of mRNAs, such as those harboring a terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) tract at their 5' end, remains more enigmatic. In this article, we describe the current knowledge on the role of mTOR in global mRNA translation, but also focus on the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of specific translational programs...
January 2015: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779413/paradigms-of-ribosome-synthesis-lessons-learned-from-ribosomal-proteins
#17
REVIEW
Michael Gamalinda, John L Woolford
The proteome in all cells is manufactured via the intricate process of translation by multimolecular factories called ribosomes. Nevertheless, these ribonucleoprotein particles, the largest of their kind, also have an elaborate assembly line of their own. Groundbreaking discoveries that bacterial ribosomal subunits can be self-assembled in vitro jumpstarted studies on how ribosomes are constructed. Until recently, ribosome assembly has been investigated almost entirely in vitro with bacterial small subunits under equilibrium conditions...
January 2015: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779412/modifying-the-maker-oxygenases-target-ribosome-biology
#18
Qinqin Zhuang, Tianshu Feng, Mathew L Coleman
The complexity of the eukaryotic protein synthesis machinery is partly driven by extensive and diverse modifications to associated proteins and RNAs. These modifications can have important roles in regulating translation factor activity and ribosome biogenesis and function. Further investigation of 'translational modifications' is warranted considering the growing evidence implicating protein synthesis as a critical point of gene expression control that is commonly deregulated in disease. New evidence suggests that translation is a major new target for oxidative modifications, specifically hydroxylations and demethylations, which generally are catalyzed by a family of emerging oxygenase enzymes that act at the interface of nutrient availability and metabolism...
January 2015: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779411/trans-prof-db-a-new-resource-for-sharing-translational-profiles
#19
Ruth V Spriggs, Anne E Willis
The translational efficiency of individual mRNAs can be measured on a genome-wide scale using translational profiling techniques. Data from such experiments are an enormously important resource in the quest to understand the impact of cellular state on gene expression. To improve our understanding of these data, we have created TRANS PROF DB, a manually curated resource containing the translational status of human mRNAs under defined conditions. Results are provided at the level of an annotated conclusion for each gene, e...
September 1, 2014: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779410/translation-initiation-of-the-hiv-1-mrna
#20
REVIEW
Théophile Ohlmann, Chloé Mengardi, Marcelo López-Lastra
Translation initiation of the full-length mRNA of the human immunodeficiency virus can occur via several different mechanisms to maintain production of viral structural proteins throughout the replication cycle. HIV-1 viral protein synthesis can occur by the use of both a cap-dependant and IRES-driven mechanism depending on the physiological conditions of the cell and the status of the ongoing infection. For both of these mechanisms there is a need for several viral and cellular co-factors for optimal translation of the viral mRNA...
September 1, 2014: Translation
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