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International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife

Tetiana A Kuzmina, Terry R Spraker, Olena Kudlai, Olga I Lisitsyna, Svitlana O Zabludovskaja, Grzegosz Karbowiak, Christine Fontaine, Roman Kuchta
The population of California sea lion Zalophus californianus (CSL) has steadily increased during the last several decades. Despite extensive research addressing CSL biology and ecology performed during the last decades, there has been a minimal number of published papers documenting their parasite fauna. Our objective was to analyze the actual list of the metazoan parasites reported from CSLs and add new data on the age-related differences in the prevalence and biodiversity of the parasite community. There have been 33 species recorded but this study considers only 24 of them valid...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Jan Votýpka, Barbora Pafčo, David Modrý, Donald Mbohli, Nikki Tagg, Klára J Petrželková
Charismatic great apes have been used widely and effectively as flagship species in conservation campaigns for decades. These iconic representatives of their ecosystems could also play a role as reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases. Recently it was demonstrated that African great apes can host Leishmania parasites (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae). Given that this finding raised a strong negative reaction from leishmania experts and the subsequent discussion did not lead to a clear resolution, we decided to analyze wild gorilla ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla ) and chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes troglodytes ) fecal samples collected from the same area in Cameroon as in the original study...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Monica L Mazuz, Gema Alvarez-García, Roni King, Igor Savisky, Varda Shkap, Luis M Ortega-Mora, Daniel Gutiérrez-Expósito
Neosporosis and besnoitiosis, caused by cyst-forming protozoa Neospora caninum and Besnoitia besnoiti , respectively, are parasitic infestations of livestock in Israel. These parasites cause significant economic losses in cattle due to reproductive and productive disorders. Both parasites have been detected in several wild ruminant species throughout other regions of the world, while the existence of a sylvatic life cycle in Israel remains uncertain. Thus, a wide panel of 871 sera from two wild carnivores and nine wild ruminant species were tested...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Alessandro Massolo, Davide Valli, Marion Wassermann, Serena Cavallero, Stefano D'Amelio, Alberto Meriggi, Elisa Torretta, Matteo Serafini, Adriano Casulli, Laura Zambon, Chiara Benedetta Boni, Marika Ori, Thomas Romig, Fabio Macchioni
The European distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis has been reported to be expanding east and north, whereas its southern limits are deemed stable. During a study on Echinococcus granulosus s.l. infections in wolves and dogs in the Italian Maritime Alps, we unexpectedly detected the presence of E. multilocularis eggs in four fecal samples from at least two shepherd dogs, and in five wolf fecal samples. This finding, in an area about 130 km south of the southernmost E. multilocularis report in the Alps, may suggest a rapid expansion southward...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
William C Dube, Amanda K Hund, Sheela P Turbek, Rebecca J Safran
Parasite populations are never evenly distributed among the hosts they infect. Avian nest ectoparasites, such as mites, are no exception, as their distribution across the landscape is highly aggregated. It remains unclear if this pattern is driven by differences in transmission events alone, or if the environment that parasites inhabit after transmission also plays a role. Here, we experimentally examined the influence of the post-transmission microclimate, nest characteristics, and host condition on ectoparasite population growth in a bird-ectoparasite system...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Christopher A Cleveland, Kayla B Garrett, Rebecca A Cozad, Brianna M Williams, Maureen H Murray, Michael J Yabsley
Nematodes are an extremely diverse and speciose group of parasites. Adult dracunculoid nematodes (Superfamily Dracunculoidea) occur in the tissues and serous cavities of mammals, fish, reptiles, amphibians and birds. Of the dracunculid group, perhaps best known is Dracunculus medinensis , the human Guinea Worm. Considerable work has been done on D. medinensis ; however recent infections in peri-domestic dogs and the finding of naturally-infected paratenic hosts (previously unreported for D. medinensis ) indicate we still have much to learn about these parasites...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Eric P Hoberg, Kathleen Burek-Huntington, Kimberlee Beckmen, Lauren E Camp, Steven A Nadler
Larval Baylisascaris nematodes (L3), resulting from transuterine infection and neural migration, were discovered in the cerebrum of sibling moose calves ( Alces alces gigas ) near 1-3 days in age from Alaska. We provide the first definitive identification, linking morphology, biogeography, and molecular phylogenetics, of Baylisascaris transfuga in naturally infected ungulates. Life history and involvement of paratenic hosts across a broader assemblage of mammals, from rodents to ungulates, in the transmission of B...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Amy S Northover, Aileen D Elliot, Sarah Keatley, Ziyuan Lim, Adriana Botero, Amanda Ash, Alan J Lymbery, Adrian F Wayne, Stephanie S Godfrey, R C Andrew Thompson
During monitoring of critically endangered woylie ( Bettongia penicillata ) populations within the south-west of Western Australia, an adult female woylie was euthanased after being found in extremely poor body condition with diffuse alopecia, debilitating skin lesions and severe ectoparasite infestation. Trypanosoma copemani G2 and Sarcocystis sp. were detected molecularly within tissue samples collected post-mortem. Potorostrongylus woyliei and Paraustrostrongylus sp. nematodes were present within the stomach and small intestine, respectively...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Toshihiro Tokiwa, Ai Ohnuki, Rie Kubota, Kenichi Tamukai, Kazunori Ike
In this study, we provide the first description of Cystoisospora infection in Asian small-clawed otters ( Aonyx cinereus ). In July 2017, three juvenile otters recently imported from the Republic of Indonesia showed severe diarrhea and were diagnosed with coccidial infection; two of them eventually died. Fecal examination revealed the presence of numerous oocysts. Sporulated oocysts showed typical Cystoisospora features, measuring 24.6 ± 1.6 (22.0-27.0) × 21.8 ± 1.4 (19.0-25.0) μm, with an oocyst length/width ratio of 1...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Krysta H Rogers, Yvette A Girard, Leslie W Woods, Christine K Johnson
Avian trichomonosis is an upper digestive tract disease of birds typically caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae . In California (U.S.A), trichomonosis is known to cause periodic epidemics in the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon ( Patagioenas fasciata monolis ), a migratory upland game bird. We summarize the mortality events that occurred during winter 2014-2015 including the duration, estimated mortality, pathology, and genetic identity of infecting parasites. Increased mortality was reported from locations in 25 counties between November 2014 and June 2015...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Mauricio Seguel, Francisco Muñoz, Diego Perez-Venegas, Ananda Müller, Hector Paves, Elizabeth Howerth, Nicole Gottdenker
The strategies that parasites use to exploit their hosts can lead to adverse effects on human and animal populations. Here, we describe the life cycle, epidemiology, and consequences of hookworm ( Uncinaria sp. ) disease in South American fur seals ( Arctocephalus australis ), and propose that hookworm adaptation to fur seal life history traits has led to maximizing transmission at high levels of parasite-induced anemia and mortality. Fur seal pups acquire hookworms during their first days of life through their mothers' colostrum and most adult hookworms are expelled from the pups' intestine 30-65 days later...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Makoto Matsubayashi, Sayaka Tsuchida, Atsushi Kobayashi, Tomoyuki Shibahara, Hiroshi Nakamura, Koichi Murata, Kazunari Ushida
Thus far, two types of Eimeria parasites ( E. uekii and type B) have been morphologically identified in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, Lagopus muta japonica . Although high prevalences were reported for these parasites, genetic analyses have not been conducted. We first clarified the phylogenetic positions of two eimerian isolates using genetic analyses of 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene regions. Consequently, of 61 samples examined, 21 and 11 samples were positive for E. uekii and type B, respectively...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Ralph E T Vanstreels, Michael J Yabsley, Liandrie Swanepoel, Kim L Stevens, Tegan Carpenter-Kling, Peter G Ryan, Pierre A Pistorius
The Prince Edward Islands are Subantarctic islands in the southwest Indian Ocean that are of global importance as seabird nesting sites, and are breeding grounds for five species of albatrosses (Procellariiformes: Diomedeidae). In March-April 2016 numerous chicks of one of these species, the grey-headed albatross ( Thalassarche chrysostoma ), were found dead at colonies on Marion Island (46°57'S 37°42'E), the larger of the two Prince Edward Islands. Affected chicks were weak, prostrated, apathetic, had drooping wings, and many eventually died while sitting on the nest...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
John L Ubels, Randall J DeJong, Brittany Hoolsema, Amy Wurzberger, Thuy-Tien Nguyen, Harvey D Blankespoor, Curtis L Blankespoor
Histologic studies of fish from Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County, Michigan, USA show that Diplostomum spp. infect the lens of spottail shiners ( Notropis hudsonius ) and common shiners ( Luxilus cornutus ). In contrast, infection was confined to the choroidal vasculature of yellow perch ( Perca flavescens ), and the morphology of the pigment epithelium and retina in regions adjacent to the metacercariae was abnormal. The difference in location of metacercariae within the host suggested that different Diplostomum species may infect shiners and perch in Douglas Lake...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Paula S Marcotegui, Martin M Montes, Jorge Barneche, Walter Ferrari, Sergio Martorelli
This study reports a new Trichodinidae, Trichodina bellottii n. sp., parasitizing the pearly fish Austrolebias bellottii from Buenos Aires, Argentina. Its small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rDNA) was sequenced for the first time. Based on the results from morphological identification, SSU rDNA sequencing, and Elliptical Fourier analysis, the new species was identified and compared with similar species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the genetic distances among the new species and similar species reached interspecific levels, furthermore, the phylogenetic study also validated the identification of T...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Siew-May Loh, Siobhon Egan, Amber Gillett, Peter B Banks, Una M Ryan, Peter J Irwin, Charlotte L Oskam
Natural landscape alterations as a consequence of urbanisation are one of the main drivers in the movements of wildlife into metropolitan and peri-urban areas. Worldwide, these wildlife species are highly adaptable and may be responsible for the transmission of tick-borne pathogens including piroplasms ( Babesia , Theileria and Cytauxzoon spp.) that cause piroplasmosis in animals and occasionally in humans. Little is known about piroplasms in the ticks of urban wildlife in Australia. Ticks from long-nosed bandicoots ( Perameles nasuta ; n = 71), eastern-barred bandicoots ( Perameles gunnii ; n = 41), northern-brown bandicoots ( Isoodon macrourus ; n = 19), southern-brown bandicoots ( Isoodon obesulus ; n = 4), bandicoot sp...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Christina Lynggaard, Ian David Woolsey, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman Al-Sabi, Nicolas Bertram, Per Moestrup Jensen
Vertebrates are hosts to numerous parasites, belonging to many different taxa. These parasites differ in transmission, being through either direct contact, a faecal-oral route, ingestion of particular food items, vertical or sexual transmission, or by a vector. Assessing the impact of diet on parasitism can be difficult because analysis of faecal and stomach content are uncertain and labourious; and as with molecular methods, do not provide diet information over a longer period of time. We here explored whether the analysis of stable isotopes in hair provides insight into the impact of diet and the presence of parasites in the rodent Myodes glareolus...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Makoto Matsubayashi, Sayaka Tsuchida, Kazunari Ushida, Koichi Murata
The Japanese rock ptarmigan, Lagopus muta japonica , inhabits the alpine zone of mountainous areas at 3000 m above sea level. Since L. m. japonica is endangered due to a decline in the overall population, controlling infectious diseases such as those caused by protozoan parasites is a critical factor in the conservation of this species. Although Eimeria spp. are considered to have a negative impact on Japanese rock ptarmigan populations, the ecological interactions between the parasites and their hosts have not yet been fully clarified...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Mary M Merrill, Raoul K Boughton, Cynthia C Lord, Katherine A Sayler, Bethany Wight, Wesley M Anderson, Samantha M Wisely
As a result of shifts in the habitable range of ticks due to climate change and the ongoing threat of exotic tick species introductions, efficient surveillance tools for these pests and disease vectors are needed. Wild pigs are habitat generalists, distributed throughout most of the United States, and often hunted recreationally or removed as part of management programs, making them potentially useful sentinel hosts for ticks. We compared ticks collected from captured wild pigs and standard tick dragging methods on a south-central Florida cattle ranch from May 2015-August 2017...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Andrea Cotes-Perdomo, Adriana Santodomingo, Lyda R Castro
The toads Rhinella spp. are in constant contact with humans and domestic animals and are commonly parasitized by ticks, which are also potential vectors of pathogenic microorganisms, such as apicomplexans and rickettsia. However, little is known about microorganisms associated with toad ticks. In this work, we molecularly evaluated the presence of Rickettsia spp. and hemogregarines in ticks of Rhinella horribilis and R. humboldti in the Colombian Caribbean, finding two different species of Rickettsia : the colombianensi strain and one close to R...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
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