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International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife

Anson V Koehler, Tao Wang, Shane R Haydon, Robin B Gasser
Cryptosporidium viatorum is a globally distributed pathogenic species of Cryptosporidium that has only ever been recorded from humans, until now. For the first time, we molecularly characterised a novel subtype of C. viatorum (subtype XVbA2G1) from the endemic Australian swamp rat ( Rattus lutreolus ) using the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA ( SSU ) gene and then subtyped it using the 60-kilodalton glycoprotein ( gp60 ) gene. In total, faecal samples from 21 swamp rats (three were positive for C. viatorum ), three broad toothed rats ( Mastacomys fuscus ) and two bush rats ( Rattus fuscipes ) were tested for Cryptosporidium ...
April 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Antonella C Falconaro, Rocío M Vega, Gustavo P Viozzi
Most of the studies on chiropteran endoparasites in Argentina come from the Central and Northeast regions of the country, and there is only one parasitological study of bats from the Argentinean Patagonia. The aim of this study is to describe the helminth fauna of 42 Myotis chiloensis, comparing the composition and the structure of the endoparasite communities between two populations, inhabiting different environments in Andean humid forest and the ecotone between forest and Patagonian steppe. A total of 697 helminths were recovered from 33 bats: five species of trematodes, Ochoterenatrema sp...
April 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Geneviève Turgeon, Susan J Kutz, Manigandan Lejeune, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent, Fanie Pelletier
The Atlantic-Gaspésie caribou ( Rangifer tarandus caribou ) population is a small isolated relict herd considered endangered according to the Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA). This population has low recruitment and survival rates but the potential role of parasites on individual fitness is unknown. In this context, we explored the parasite status of this population with the aim of 1) assessing the occurrence and intensity of parasite infections and the spatial, temporal and individual variations, 2) quantifying parasite richness and investigating factors such as sex and host body condition that may be associated with this variable and 3) evaluating the effects of parasite infections on survival in the Atlantic-Gaspésie caribou population...
April 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Patrick Waindok, Kristina Lehnert, Ursula Siebert, Iwona Pawliczka, Christina Strube
Harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina ) and grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus ) are final hosts of acanthocephalans in the German North and Baltic Seas. Parasitic infections in seals can cause pathological changes, which may result in deteriorated health of the host. Common gastrointestinal parasites of harbour and grey seals are acanthocephalans and a number of 275 of 2460 (11.2%) investigated seals from 1996 to 2013 were infected with Corynosoma spp. (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae). The prevalence showed a wave-like pattern: it increased from 1...
April 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Bjørn Gjerde, Turid Vikøren, Inger Sofie Hamnes
An emaciated white-tailed sea eagle ( Haliaeetus albicilla ) from Western Norway was found and nursed briefly before it died. The necropsy revealed that the principal cause of death was an inflammation and occlusion of the bile ducts. A secondary finding was the presence in the intestinal mucosa of numerous sporulated Sarcocystis oocysts measuring 21.8-22.8 × 16.0-17.0 μm. The aim of this study was to identify these oocysts to species level using molecular methods. Genomic DNA was extracted from 10 mucosal scrapings containing oocysts and subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing of four DNA regions: the 18S and 28S rRNA genes, the ITS1 region and the cox1 gene...
April 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Mizuki Yamamoto, Toshihiro Tokiwa, Miki Tobiume, Shigeru Akamatsu, Kayoko Matsuo, Junji Moribe, Kazunori Ike
Hepatozoon apri n. sp. is described from Japanese wild boars Sus scrofa leucomystax in Japan. The gamonts in the peripheral blood leukocytes were 11.6 ± 1.4 × 6.7 ± 1.3 μm in size. The meronts in the muscle tissues were 35.0-47.5 μm in length and 26.5-30 μm in width. A high rate (53.0%) of infection was found by nested PCR using muscle specimens from 181 wild boars captured in Tokushima, Japan. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that H. apri n. sp. detected in wild boars is closely related to Hepatozoon spp...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Nina Gillis-Germitsch, Marta B Manser, Monika Hilbe, Manuela Schnyder
Angiostronglyus vasorum is a cardiopulmonary nematode infecting mainly canids such as dogs ( Canis familiaris ) and foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ). Natural infections have also been reported in mustelids and red pandas ( Ailurus fulgens fulgens ). We report the occurrence of natural A. vasorum infections in a group of captive meerkats ( Suricata suricatta ), housed at a university facility in Switzerland. A. vasorum first-stage larvae (L1) were initially identified in a pooled faecal sample. Individual samples, investigated with the Baermann-Wetzel technique, revealed that 41% (7/17) of the meerkats were infected, with ranges of 2-125 L1/g faeces...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Deborah Fogel, José Luis Fuentes, Luz Marina Soto, Wilson Lafuente, Rodrigo Moncayo-Estrada, Carlos López
We analyzed the infestation of the attached copepod species Lepeophtheirus sp on a wild population of Sciades herzbergii . The infestation and occurrence of attached copepods were related to body size, maturity and sex of host and the presence of lesions on fish skin were described. In 61 fish specimens (37 males and 24 females), total of 218 ectoparasitic copepods, including 204 mature and 14 immature stages were found. Copepods were attached to different regions of fish body without any regular pattern. The prevalence of infestation was 80...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Sarah M Coker, Sonia M Hernandez, Whitney M Kistler, Shannon E Curry, Catharine N Welch, Heather W Barron, Stefan Harsch, Maureen H Murray, Michael J Yabsley
Relatively few studies on hemoparasites have been conducted on wading birds in the families Ardeidae and Threskiornithidae (order Pelecaniformes), especially in the United States. In this study, we obtained baseline data on the prevalence and genetic diversity of haemosporidian parasites in wading birds opportunistically sampled from southern Florida, USA. We detected blood parasites in White Ibis ( Eudocimus albus ), Glossy Ibis ( Plegadis falcinellus ), Green Heron ( Butorides virescens ), and Roseate Spoonbill ( Platalea ajaja ) with several novel host-parasite relationships...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Pratap Kafle, Lisa-Marie Leclerc, Morgan Anderson, Tracy Davison, Manigandan Lejeune, Susan Kutz
The Protostrongylidae is a diverse family of nematodes capable of causing significant respiratory and neuromuscular disease in their ungulate and lagomorph hosts. Establishing the species diversity and abundance of the protostrongylid fauna has been hindered because the first stage larvae, commonly referred as dorsal spined larvae (DSL), that are shed in the feces are morphologically very similar among several genera. We aimed to determine the protostrongylid diversity and distribution in caribou ( Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus and R...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Andrew Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Bim Boijsen, Henrik Uhlhorn, Erik Ågren, Johan Höglund
The presence of subcutaneous nodular onchocercosis was investigated at slaughter of 151 red deer ( Cervus elaphus ) (107 juveniles and 44 adults) between October-December 2015. The prevalence of subcutaneous nodules was 56%. Nodules were located in the lumbar region of the back in 96% of the cases, and 38% of the infected red deer had additional parasitic nodules in other body locations, such as rump, thorax, forelimbs and neck. The number of nodules per deer was 1-10 in two-thirds of the affected animals, and only 2% had more than 50 nodules...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Patrick B Finnerty, Catherine M Shilton, Richard Shine, Gregory P Brown
The immunological and pathological consequences of parasite infection can be more rigorously assessed from experimental manipulation than from correlational studies of natural infections. We used anthelmintic treatment to experimentally decrease intensities of lungworm infection in captive and free-ranging wild cane toads to assess parasite impacts on host immune responses. First, we administered the anthelmintic drug Ivermectin to both infected and uninfected toads, to distinguish drug effects per se from the impacts of killing lungworms...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Mizue Inumaru, Koichi Murata, Yukita Sato
Avian haemosporidia have been reported in various birds of Japan, which is part of the East Asian-Australian flyway and is an important stopover site for migratory birds potentially carrying new pathogens from other areas. We investigated the prevalence of avian malaria in injured wild birds, rescued in Tokyo and surrounding areas. We also evaluated the effects of migration by examining the prevalence of avian malaria for each migratory status. 475 birds of 80 species were sampled from four facilities. All samples were examined for haemosporidian infection via nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the cytochrome b (cytb) gene...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Stephanie S Godfrey, Michael G Gardner
Professor C. Michael Bull was a great scientist and mentor, and an Associate Editor of this journal. While his research career spanned the fields of behavioural ecology, conservation biology and herpetology, in this article, we pay tribute to his major contribution to Australian parasitology. Mike authored more than eighty articles on host-parasite ecology, and revealed major insights into the biology and ecology of ticks from his long term study of the parapatric boundary of two tick species (Amblyomma limbatum and Bothriocroton hydrosauri) on the sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa)...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Shokoofeh Shamsi, Kate McSpadden, Sara Baker, David J Jenkins
Pentastomids are obligate zoonotic arthropod parasites utilising canids and vulpids as their definitive hosts and several herbivorous species as their intermediate hosts. Reported only 10 times in Australia over the last 150 years as incidental findings, adult Pentastomids referred to as Linguatula serrata have been encountered in nasal cavities of domestic and wild dogs, and foxes. Nymphs have been reported in cattle and rabbits. In the present study, a number of potential definitive hosts, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wild dogs (Canis lupus dingo and C...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
R Villagra-Blanco, L M R Silva, A Aguilella-Segura, I Arcenillas-Hernández, C Martínez-Carrasco, A Seipp, U Gärtner, R Ruiz de Ybañez, A Taubert, C Hermosilla
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are web-like structures composed of nuclear DNA decorated with histones and cytoplasmic peptides which antiparasitic properties have not previously been investigated in cetaceans. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) were isolated from healthy bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and stimulated with Neospora caninum tachyzoites and the NETs-agonist zymosan. In vitro interactions of PMN with the tachyzoites resulted in rapid extrusion of NETs. For the demonstration and quantification of cetacean NETs, extracellular DNA was stained by using either Sytox Orange(®) or Pico Green(®)...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Ines Lesniak, Mathias Franz, Ilja Heckmann, Alex D Greenwood, Heribert Hofer, Oliver Krone
Understanding how closely related wildlife species and their domesticated counterparts exchange or share parasites, or replace each other in parasite life cycles, is of great interest to veterinary and human public health, and wildlife ecology. Grey wolves (Canis lupus) host and spread endoparasites that can either directly infect canid conspecifics or their prey serving as intermediate hosts of indirectly transmitted species. The wolf recolonization of Central Europe represents an opportunity to study parasite transmission dynamics between wildlife and domestic species for cases when a definitive host returns after local extinction - a situation equivalent to a 'removal experiment'...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Jenniffer Alejandra Castellanos, Andrés Ricardo Tangua, Liliana Salazar
Anisakiasis is a parasitic infection caused by larval stages of nematodes of the genus Anisakis, Pseudoterranova and Contracaecum, of the Anisakidae family. The lifecycle of these nematodes develops in aquatic organisms and their final hosts are marine mammals. However, humans can act as accidental hosts and become infected with infective stage larvae (L3) by consuming raw or undercooked fish or shellfish carrying the parasite. Of this group of parasites, the genus Anisakis is the most studied: its presence in humans is associated with non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms or allergic responses that can trigger anaphylactic shock...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Michael J Yabsley, Ralph E T Vanstreels, Barbara C Shock, Michaelle Purdee, Elizabeth C Horne, Michael A Peirce, Nola J Parsons
There are 16 recognized species of avian-infecting Babesia spp. (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae). While the classification of piroplasmids has been historically based on morphological differences, geographic isolation and presumed host and/or vector specificities, recent studies employing gene sequence analysis have provided insight into their phylogenetic relationships and host distribution and specificity. In this study, we analyzed the sequences of the 18S rRNA gene and ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions of two Babesia species from South African seabirds: Babesia peircei from African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and Babesia ugwidiensis from Bank and Cape cormorants (Phalacrocorax neglectus and P...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
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