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International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife

Makoto Matsubayashi, Sayaka Tsuchida, Atsushi Kobayashi, Tomoyuki Shibahara, Hiroshi Nakamura, Koichi Murata, Kazunari Ushida
Thus far, two types of Eimeria parasites ( E. uekii and type B) have been morphologically identified in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, Lagopus muta japonica . Although high prevalences were reported for these parasites, genetic analyses have not been conducted. We first clarified the phylogenetic positions of two eimerian isolates using genetic analyses of 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene regions. Consequently, of 61 samples examined, 21 and 11 samples were positive for E. uekii and type B, respectively...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Ralph E T Vanstreels, Michael J Yabsley, Liandrie Swanepoel, Kim L Stevens, Tegan Carpenter-Kling, Peter G Ryan, Pierre A Pistorius
The Prince Edward Islands are Subantarctic islands in the southwest Indian Ocean that are of global importance as seabird nesting sites, and are breeding grounds for five species of albatrosses (Procellariiformes: Diomedeidae). In March-April 2016 numerous chicks of one of these species, the grey-headed albatross ( Thalassarche chrysostoma ), were found dead at colonies on Marion Island (46°57'S 37°42'E), the larger of the two Prince Edward Islands. Affected chicks were weak, prostrated, apathetic, had drooping wings, and many eventually died while sitting on the nest...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
John L Ubels, Randall J DeJong, Brittany Hoolsema, Amy Wurzberger, Thuy-Tien Nguyen, Harvey D Blankespoor, Curtis L Blankespoor
Histologic studies of fish from Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County, Michigan, USA show that Diplostomum spp. infect the lens of spottail shiners ( Notropis hudsonius ) and common shiners ( Luxilus cornutus ). In contrast, infection was confined to the choroidal vasculature of yellow perch ( Perca flavescens ), and the morphology of the pigment epithelium and retina in regions adjacent to the metacercariae was abnormal. The difference in location of metacercariae within the host suggested that different Diplostomum species may infect shiners and perch in Douglas Lake...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Paula S Marcotegui, Martin M Montes, Jorge Barneche, Walter Ferrari, Sergio Martorelli
This study reports a new Trichodinidae, Trichodina bellottii n. sp., parasitizing the pearly fish Austrolebias bellottii from Buenos Aires, Argentina. Its small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rDNA) was sequenced for the first time. Based on the results from morphological identification, SSU rDNA sequencing, and Elliptical Fourier analysis, the new species was identified and compared with similar species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the genetic distances among the new species and similar species reached interspecific levels, furthermore, the phylogenetic study also validated the identification of T...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Siew-May Loh, Siobhon Egan, Amber Gillett, Peter B Banks, Una M Ryan, Peter J Irwin, Charlotte L Oskam
Natural landscape alterations as a consequence of urbanisation are one of the main drivers in the movements of wildlife into metropolitan and peri-urban areas. Worldwide, these wildlife species are highly adaptable and may be responsible for the transmission of tick-borne pathogens including piroplasms ( Babesia , Theileria and Cytauxzoon spp.) that cause piroplasmosis in animals and occasionally in humans. Little is known about piroplasms in the ticks of urban wildlife in Australia. Ticks from long-nosed bandicoots ( Perameles nasuta ; n = 71), eastern-barred bandicoots ( Perameles gunnii ; n = 41), northern-brown bandicoots ( Isoodon macrourus ; n = 19), southern-brown bandicoots ( Isoodon obesulus ; n = 4), bandicoot sp...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Christina Lynggaard, Ian David Woolsey, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman Al-Sabi, Nicolas Bertram, Per Moestrup Jensen
Vertebrates are hosts to numerous parasites, belonging to many different taxa. These parasites differ in transmission, being through either direct contact, a faecal-oral route, ingestion of particular food items, vertical or sexual transmission, or by a vector. Assessing the impact of diet on parasitism can be difficult because analysis of faecal and stomach content are uncertain and labourious; and as with molecular methods, do not provide diet information over a longer period of time. We here explored whether the analysis of stable isotopes in hair provides insight into the impact of diet and the presence of parasites in the rodent Myodes glareolus...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Makoto Matsubayashi, Sayaka Tsuchida, Kazunari Ushida, Koichi Murata
The Japanese rock ptarmigan, Lagopus muta japonica , inhabits the alpine zone of mountainous areas at 3000 m above sea level. Since L. m. japonica is endangered due to a decline in the overall population, controlling infectious diseases such as those caused by protozoan parasites is a critical factor in the conservation of this species. Although Eimeria spp. are considered to have a negative impact on Japanese rock ptarmigan populations, the ecological interactions between the parasites and their hosts have not yet been fully clarified...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Mary M Merrill, Raoul K Boughton, Cynthia C Lord, Katherine A Sayler, Bethany Wight, Wesley M Anderson, Samantha M Wisely
As a result of shifts in the habitable range of ticks due to climate change and the ongoing threat of exotic tick species introductions, efficient surveillance tools for these pests and disease vectors are needed. Wild pigs are habitat generalists, distributed throughout most of the United States, and often hunted recreationally or removed as part of management programs, making them potentially useful sentinel hosts for ticks. We compared ticks collected from captured wild pigs and standard tick dragging methods on a south-central Florida cattle ranch from May 2015-August 2017...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Andrea Cotes-Perdomo, Adriana Santodomingo, Lyda R Castro
The toads Rhinella spp. are in constant contact with humans and domestic animals and are commonly parasitized by ticks, which are also potential vectors of pathogenic microorganisms, such as apicomplexans and rickettsia. However, little is known about microorganisms associated with toad ticks. In this work, we molecularly evaluated the presence of Rickettsia spp. and hemogregarines in ticks of Rhinella horribilis and R. humboldti in the Colombian Caribbean, finding two different species of Rickettsia : the colombianensi strain and one close to R...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Caroline D Keroack, Kalani M Williams, M K Fessler, Kaela E DeAngelis, Eirini Tsekitsidou, Jillian M Tozloski, Steven A Williams
The distinct evolutionary pressures faced by Pinnipeds have likely resulted in strong coevolutionary ties to their parasites (Leidenberger et al., 2007). This study focuses on the phocid seal filarial heartworm species Acanthocheilonema spirocauda . A. spirocauda is known to infect a variety of phocid seals, but does not appear to be restricted to a single host species (Measures et al., 1997; Leidenberger et al., 2007; Lehnert et al., 2015). However, to date, seal heartworm has never been reported in grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus ) (Measures et al...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Maria A Santa, Sonya A Pastran, Claudia Klein, Padraig Duignan, Kathreen Ruckstuhl, Thomas Romig, Alessandro Massolo
The continued monitoring of Echinococcus species in intermediate and definitive hosts is essential to understand the eco-epidemiology of these parasites, as well to assess their potential impact on public health. In Canada, co-infections of Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus multilocularis based on genetic characterization have been recently reported in wolves, but not yet in other possible hosts such as coyotes and foxes. In this study, we aimed to develop a quantitative real-time PCR assay to detect E...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Liesbeth Frias, Danica J Stark, Milena Salgado Lynn, Senthilvel Kss Nathan, Benoit Goossens, Munehiro Okamoto, Andrew J J MacIntosh
Within host communities, related species are more likely to share common parasitic agents, and as a result, morphological similarities have led researchers to conclude that parasites infecting closely related hosts within a community represent a single species. However, genetic diversity within parasite genera and host range remain poorly investigated in most systems. Strongyloides is a genus of soil-transmitted nematode that has been reported from several primate species in Africa and Asia, and has been estimated to infect hundreds of millions of people worldwide, although no precise estimates are available...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Sergey V Mironov, Boris D Efeykin, Jayson C Ibanez, Anna Mae Sumaya, Oleg O Tolstenkov
Endangered species of hosts are coupled with endangered species of parasites, which share the risk of co-extinction. Conservation efforts sometimes include breeding of rare species in captivity. Data on parasites of captive populations of endangered species is scarce and the ability of small numbers of captive host individuals to support the biodiversity of native parasites is limited. Examination of ectosymbionts of the critically endangered Philippine eagles and the endangered Mindanao Hawk-Eagle kept at the Philippine Eagle Center, Philippines, revealed three feather mite species despite regular treatment with insecticide powder...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Noah G Perlut, Patricia G Parker, Rosalind B Renfrew, Maricruz Jaramillo
Bobolinks ( Dolichonyx oryzivorus ) migrate from their breeding grounds in North America to their wintering grounds in South America during the fall each year. A small number of Bobolinks stop temporarily in Galapagos, and potentially carry parasites. On the North American breeding grounds, Bobolinks carry a least two of the four Plasmodium lineages recently detected in resident Galapagos birds. We hypothesized that Bobolinks carried these parasites to Galapagos, where they were bitten by mosquitoes that then transmitted the parasites to resident birds...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Juliane Schaer, Lee McMichael, Anita N Gordon, Daniel Russell, Kai Matuschewski, Susan L Perkins, Hume Field, Michelle Power
Hepatocystis parasites are close relatives of mammalian Plasmodium species and infect a range of primates and bats. Here, we present the phylogenetic relationships of Hepatocystis parasites of three Australian flying fox species. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hepatocystis parasites of Pteropus species from Australia and Asia form a distinct clade that is sister to all other Hepatocystis parasites of primates and bats from Africa and Asia. No patterns of host specificity were recovered within the Pteropus -specific parasite clade and the Hepatocystis sequences from all three Australian host species sampled fell into two divergent clades...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Paul C Sikkel, Courtney A Cook, Lance P Renoux, Courtney L Bennett, Lillian J Tuttle, Nico J Smit
Coral reefs harbor the greatest biodiversity per unit area of any ecosystem on earth. While parasites constitute the majority of this biodiversity, they remain poorly studied due to the cryptic nature of many parasites and the lack of appropriate training among coral reef ecologists. Damselfishes (Pomacentridae) are among the most abundant and diverse fishes on coral reefs. In a recent study of blood parasites of Caribbean reef fishes, the first ever apicomplexan blood parasites discovered in damselfishes were reported for members of the genus Stegastes ...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Stephanie S Godfrey, Sarah Keatley, Adriana Botero, Craig K Thompson, Adrian F Wayne, Alan J Lymbery, Keith Morris, R C Andrew Thompson
Understanding the impacts of parasites on wildlife is growing in importance as diseases pose a threat to wildlife populations. Woylie (syn. brush-tailed bettong, Bettongia penicillata ) populations have undergone enigmatic declines in south-western Western Australia over the past decade. Trypanosomes have been suggested as a possible factor contributing towards these declines because of their high prevalence in the declining population. We asked whether temporal patterns of infection with Trypanosoma spp. were associated with the decline patterns of the host, or if other factors (host sex, body condition, co-infection or rainfall) were more influential in predicting infection patterns...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
María Soledad Leonardi, Flavio Quintana
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2017.08.002.].
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Alexander D Hernandez, Brian Boag, Roy Neilson, Naomi L Forrester
The myxoma virus (a microparasite) reduced wild rabbit numbers worldwide when introduced in the 1950s, and is known to interact with co-infecting helminths (macroparasites) causing both increases and decreases in macroparasite population size. In the 1990s Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) infected rabbits and also significantly reduced rabbit numbers in several countries. However, not much is known about RHDV interactions with macroparasites. In this study, we compare prevalence and intensity of infection for three gastrointestinal nematode species ( Trichostrongylus retortaeformis , Graphidium strigosum and Passalurus ambiguus ) before and after RHDV spread across host populations in Scotland and New Zealand...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
F Padrós, R Knudsen, I Blasco-Costa
The eye represents an immune privileged organ where parasites can escape host reactions. This study provides the first systematic evidence of the pathology associated with Diplostomum sp. infection in the eye retina of fish (i.e. Arctic charr). Histological sections showed that the trematodes caused mechanical disengagement between the retinal pigmentary epithelium and the neurosensory retina, with damaged cones and rods in the outer segment and epithelium reduced to a single layer of pigmentary cells. The metacercariae were "floating" in possibly fluid-filled vesicles together with several round cells, mostly located in the anterio-dorsal and anterio-ventral areas of the eye near the iris...
April 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
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