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International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife

Peter H Holz, Linda F Lumsden, Jasmin Hufschmid
While bats carry a diverse range of ectoparasites, little research has been conducted on the effects these organisms may have on bat populations. The southern bent-winged bat ( Miniopterus orianae bassanii ) is a critically endangered subspecies endemic to south-eastern Australia, whose numbers have declined over the past 50 years for unknown reasons. As part of a larger study to investigate the potential role of disease in these declines, southern bent-winged bats from four locations were captured and examined for the presence of bat flies, mites, ticks and the nematode Riouxgolvania beveridgei (previously associated with skin nodules in bent-winged bats)...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Chen-Chieh Liao, Jyh-Wei Shin, Lih-Ren Chen, Lynn L H Huang, Wei-Chen Lin
Freshwater shrimps are the most common crustaceans kept in an aquarium. This study was a survey seeking parasites infecting cultured freshwater atyid shrimps at aquarium stores in Tainan, Taiwan. We observed that atyid shrimps were infested with Vorticella and Scutariella . Scutariella is a common shrimp parasite; thus, we focused on Vorticella infection in the atyid shrimps. Vorticella aequilata -like pop TW, a freshwater peritrich ciliate, was isolated from the atyid shrimps. The morphological characteristics were investigated using live observations...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Erica Marchiori, Rudi Cassini, Irene Ricci, Federica Marcer
Infection by blood flukes Hapalotrema mistroides and Neospirorchis sp. (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) has been recently reported in Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Mediterranean Sea. Observations of post mortem lesions are generally used to assess disease severity, and few attempts have been made to standardize the evaluation of the parasitic burden from tissue egg counts. Faeces and spleen homogenates of 105 loggerheads from the northwestern Adriatic Sea were submitted to a sedimentation-flotation technique for the research of spirorchiid eggs; molecular techniques were used for unequivocal identification...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Mariel Aguilar-Domínguez, Dora Romero-Salas, Sokani Sánchez-Montes, Francisco Barradas-Piña, Greta Rosas-Saito, Anabel Cruz-Romero, Nelly Ibarra-Priego, Ingeborg Becker, Kimberly H Lohmeyer, Adalberto Pérez de León
The water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ) is an Asian species of bovine that was introduced in Mexico in 1992 as an alternative for milk and meat production. To date, no surveys have been conducted to identify ticks acquired by water buffaloes since their arrival in the country. Here we report, for the first time, the presence of Amblyomma mixtum , a neotropical tick in the Amblyomma cajennense complex, found on water buffaloes from Mexico and discuss its possible implications in veterinary public health for the region...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Grasiela Edith de Oliveira Porfirio, Filipe Martins Santos, Gabriel Carvalho de Macedo, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes Barreto, João Bosco Vilela Campos, Alyssa C Meyers, Marcos Rogério André, Lívia Perles, Carina Elisei de Oliveira, Samanta Cristina das Chagas Xavier, Gisele Braziliano de Andrade, Ana Maria Jansen, Heitor Miraglia Herrera
Domestic dogs are considered reservoirs hosts for several vector-borne parasites. This study aimed to evaluate the role of domestic dogs as hosts for Trypanosoma cruzi , Trypanosoma evansi and Leishmania spp. in single and co-infections in the Urucum settlement, near the Brazil-Bolivian border. Additionally, we evaluated the involvement of wild mammals' in the maintenance of these parasites in the study area. Blood samples of dogs (n = 62) and six species of wild mammals (n = 36) were collected in July and August of 2015...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Bachand Nicholas, A Ravel, P Leighton, C Stephen, A Iqbal, M Ndao, K Konecsni, C Fernando, E Jenkins
Outbreaks of Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. have been recurring for decades among Inuit of Nunavik, northeastern Canada. Contact with wildlife has been identified as a risk factor for Inuit exposure to T. gondii, but reservoirs have yet to be confirmed based on direct detection of DNA or organism. Similarly, little is known about the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in wildlife species of Nunavik other than walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus ) and bears (Ursus americanus, Ursus maritimus) . Foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) were targeted as possible sentinels for T...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Risa Pesapane, Erin Dodd, Nadia Javeed, Melissa Miller, Janet Foley
Parasitism, particularly in concert with other sublethal stressors, may play an important, yet underappreciated role in morbidity and mortality of threatened species. During necropsy of southern sea otters ( Enhydra lutra nereis ) from California submitted to the Marine Wildlife Veterinary Care and Research Center's Sea Otter Necropsy Program between 1999 and 2017, pathologists occasionally observed nasopulmonary mites infesting the respiratory tracts. Infestation was sometimes accompanied by lesions reflective of mite-associated host tissue damage and respiratory illness...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Marcos G Lopes, Sebastián Muñoz-Leal, Julia T Ribeiro de Lima, Gislene Fatima da S Rocha Fournier, Igor da Cunha L Acosta, Thiago F Martins, Diego G Ramirez, Solange M Gennari, Marcelo B Labruna
We evaluated infection by Rickettsia spp. and Ehrlichia spp in small mammals and their ticks from two Atlantic forest conservation areas in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. A total of 39 small mammals were captured during 2012-2013, encompassing 33 marsupials (29 Didelphis albiventris , four Monodelphis domestica ), three Cricetidae rodents (two Necromys lasiurus , one Rattus rattus ), one Caviomorpha rodent ( Thrichomys apereoides ) and two armadillos ( Euphractus sexcinctus ). The ticks Amblyomma auricularium, Ixodes loricatus, and Ornithodoros mimon were collected from D...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Carlos Rauque, Gustavo Viozzi, Verónica Flores, Rocío Vega, Agustina Waicheim, Guillermo Salgado-Maldonado
A survey of the helminth parasites of alien freshwater fishes from Argentinean Patagonia is presented, based on samples taken from 2010 to 2017 and including previous published records. A total of 1129 fishes were collected, belonging to 11 species from 7 families. We surveyed 34 localities in 12 river basins, and found 43 parasite taxa (15 digeneans, 14 monogeneans, 5 cestodes, 5 nematodes, and 4 acanthocephalans), belonging to 22 families. Data are presented as a parasite/host list with information on host species and localities, site of infection, parasite life-history stage, origin, previous records in Patagonia, and accession numbers to vouchers...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Neil Sargison, Jeremy Herman, Jill Pilkington, Peter Buckland, Kathryn Watt, Alex Chambers, Umer Chaudhry
Insular wildlife populations provide opportunities to examine biological questions in systems that are relatively closed and potentially tractable, striking examples being the long-term studies of ecology and evolution in the red deer and feral sheep populations on the Hebridean islands of Rum and St Kilda. In the case of parasitology, Understanding of parasitic infections insular wildlife populations in conjunction with knowledge of their origins has the potential to add a fresh perspective to disease control in humans and domestic animals...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Heidi H Petersen, Stine T Nielsen, Gitte Larsen, Elisabeth Holm, Mariann Chriél
Capillaria plica is a parasitic nematode belonging to the family Capillariidae. The adult parasites reside in the urinary tract of wild and domestic canines. The infection is most often asymptomatic, but can cause a wide range of symptoms including urinary bladder inflammation, pollacisuria, dysuria and hematuria. Canines acquire the infection by ingesting the intermediate host, the earthworm (Lumbricidae). Epidemiological studies on C. plica infection in wildlife are few and only one previous Danish study examined the prevalence in red foxes, while studies on prevalence in other animals are limited...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Kandai Doi, Takuya Kato, Shin-Ichi Hayama
Since the raccoon ( Procyon lotor ) was introduced to Japan, studies have established that they are infested with native Japanese tick species. However, the quantity of ticks infesting raccoons is unknown. We conducted a survey of ticks on invasive raccoons captured on the Miura Peninsula, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, from April 2015 through June 2016 to determine the species of ticks and to quantify the intensity of tick infestation in order to obtain basal information related to the ecology of host-parasite relationships among indigenous tick species and an alien mammalian species...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Willem Landman, Olivier Verneau, Louis Du Preez
Two frog species, Blommersia domerguei and Mantella expectata , are reported as hosts for new species of Madapolystoma . Phylogenetic analyses and genetic divergences observed in the genus supported the distinction of two morphotypes infesting selectively each host species and morphological investigation combining marginal hooklet morphometrics, genital spine number and measurements further showed that polystomes from the two host species differed from each other and from all other known polystomes. Madapolystoma magnahami n...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Mariana Bulgarella, Mathieu Quenu, Lara D Shepherd, Mary Morgan-Richards
We studied the population genetics of one population sample of hybrid Mallard x Grey Ducks and their lice in New Zealand. We aimed to document the relationship between ectoparasite load and host phenotype, and test for an association between the mtDNA diversity of the lice and their hosts, which is predicted based on maternal care. We found three feather lice species previously described for these hosts: Anaticola crassicornis (wing louse), Anatoecus dentatus (head louse), and Trinoton querquedulae (body louse)...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Tetiana A Kuzmina, Terry R Spraker, Olena Kudlai, Olga I Lisitsyna, Svitlana O Zabludovskaja, Grzegosz Karbowiak, Christine Fontaine, Roman Kuchta
The population of California sea lion Zalophus californianus (CSL) has steadily increased during the last several decades. Despite extensive research addressing CSL biology and ecology performed during the last decades, there has been a minimal number of published papers documenting their parasite fauna. Our objective was to analyze the actual list of the metazoan parasites reported from CSLs and add new data on the age-related differences in the prevalence and biodiversity of the parasite community. There have been 33 species recorded but this study considers only 24 of them valid...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Jan Votýpka, Barbora Pafčo, David Modrý, Donald Mbohli, Nikki Tagg, Klára J Petrželková
Charismatic great apes have been used widely and effectively as flagship species in conservation campaigns for decades. These iconic representatives of their ecosystems could also play a role as reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases. Recently it was demonstrated that African great apes can host Leishmania parasites (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae). Given that this finding raised a strong negative reaction from leishmania experts and the subsequent discussion did not lead to a clear resolution, we decided to analyze wild gorilla ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla ) and chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes troglodytes ) fecal samples collected from the same area in Cameroon as in the original study...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Monica L Mazuz, Gema Alvarez-García, Roni King, Igor Savisky, Varda Shkap, Luis M Ortega-Mora, Daniel Gutiérrez-Expósito
Neosporosis and besnoitiosis, caused by cyst-forming protozoa Neospora caninum and Besnoitia besnoiti , respectively, are parasitic infestations of livestock in Israel. These parasites cause significant economic losses in cattle due to reproductive and productive disorders. Both parasites have been detected in several wild ruminant species throughout other regions of the world, while the existence of a sylvatic life cycle in Israel remains uncertain. Thus, a wide panel of 871 sera from two wild carnivores and nine wild ruminant species were tested...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Alessandro Massolo, Davide Valli, Marion Wassermann, Serena Cavallero, Stefano D'Amelio, Alberto Meriggi, Elisa Torretta, Matteo Serafini, Adriano Casulli, Laura Zambon, Chiara Benedetta Boni, Marika Ori, Thomas Romig, Fabio Macchioni
The European distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis has been reported to be expanding east and north, whereas its southern limits are deemed stable. During a study on Echinococcus granulosus s.l. infections in wolves and dogs in the Italian Maritime Alps, we unexpectedly detected the presence of E. multilocularis eggs in four fecal samples from at least two shepherd dogs, and in five wolf fecal samples. This finding, in an area about 130 km south of the southernmost E. multilocularis report in the Alps, may suggest a rapid expansion southward...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
William C Dube, Amanda K Hund, Sheela P Turbek, Rebecca J Safran
Parasite populations are never evenly distributed among the hosts they infect. Avian nest ectoparasites, such as mites, are no exception, as their distribution across the landscape is highly aggregated. It remains unclear if this pattern is driven by differences in transmission events alone, or if the environment that parasites inhabit after transmission also plays a role. Here, we experimentally examined the influence of the post-transmission microclimate, nest characteristics, and host condition on ectoparasite population growth in a bird-ectoparasite system...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Christopher A Cleveland, Kayla B Garrett, Rebecca A Cozad, Brianna M Williams, Maureen H Murray, Michael J Yabsley
Nematodes are an extremely diverse and speciose group of parasites. Adult dracunculoid nematodes (Superfamily Dracunculoidea) occur in the tissues and serous cavities of mammals, fish, reptiles, amphibians and birds. Of the dracunculid group, perhaps best known is Dracunculus medinensis , the human Guinea Worm. Considerable work has been done on D. medinensis ; however recent infections in peri-domestic dogs and the finding of naturally-infected paratenic hosts (previously unreported for D. medinensis ) indicate we still have much to learn about these parasites...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
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