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International Journal of Obesity Supplements

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685029/does-gastric-bypass-surgery-change-body-weight-set-point
#1
REVIEW
Z Hao, M B Mumphrey, C D Morrison, H Münzberg, J Ye, H R Berthoud
The relatively stable body weight during adulthood is attributed to a homeostatic regulatory mechanism residing in the brain which uses feedback from the body to control energy intake and expenditure. This mechanism guarantees that if perturbed up or down by design, body weight will return to pre-perturbation levels, defined as the defended level or set point. The fact that weight re-gain is common after dieting suggests that obese subjects defend a higher level of body weight. Thus, the set point for body weight is flexible and likely determined by the complex interaction of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685028/bariatric-surgery-and-obesity-influence-on-the-incretins
#2
REVIEW
B Laferrère
The gut hormone incretins have an important physiological role in meal-related insulin release and post-prandial glucose control. In addition to weight loss, the incretin hormones have a role in glucose control after bariatric surgery. The release of incretins, and specifically of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, in response to the ingestion of nutrients, is greatly enhanced after gastric bypass (RYGBP). The rapid transit of food from the gastric pouch to the distal ileum is responsible for the greater GLP-1 release after RYGBP...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685027/interactions-between-gut-microbes-and-host-cells-control-gut-barrier-and-metabolism
#3
REVIEW
P D Cani
Gut microbes are now considered as key partners involved in human physiology. Data have shown that microbes contribute to regulate energy, lipid, and glucose homeostasis through several mechanisms. Among them, the role of pathogen-associated molecular pattern and bacterial metabolites has been proposed (for example, metabolic endotoxemia and bioactive lipids). This short review, briefly discusses the role of the gut barrier as well as the impact of both the innate immune system and bioactive molecules (for example, endocannabinoids, cytochrome P450 derived arachidonic acids compounds) in the framework of gut microbes and cardiometabolic disorders...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685026/cholecystokinin-induced-satiety-a-key-gut-servomechanism-that-is-affected-by-the-membrane-microenvironment-of-this-receptor
#4
REVIEW
A J Desai, M Dong, K G Harikumar, L J Miller
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract has a central role in nutritional homeostasis, as location for food ingestion, digestion and absorption, with the gut endocrine system responding to and regulating these events, as well as influencing appetite. One key GI hormone with the full spectrum of these activities is cholecystokinin (CCK), a peptide released from neuroendocrine I cells scattered through the proximal intestine in response to fat and protein, with effects to stimulate gall bladder contraction and pancreatic exocrine secretion, to regulate gastric emptying and intestinal transit, and to induce satiety...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685025/gut-hormones-such-as-amylin-and-glp-1-in-the-control-of-eating-and-energy-expenditure
#5
REVIEW
T A Lutz
The control of meal size is the best studied aspect of the control of energy balance, and manipulation of this system constitutes a promising target to treat obesity. A major part of this control system is based on gastrointestinal hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) or amylin, which are released in response to a meal and which limit the size of an ongoing meal. Both amylin and GLP-1 have also been shown to increase energy expenditure in experimental rodents, but mechanistically we know much less how this effect may be mediated, which brain sites may be involved, and what the physiological relevance of these findings may be...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685024/bugs-guts-and-brains-and-the-regulation-of-food-intake-and-body-weight
#6
REVIEW
M K Hamilton, H E Raybould
The microbiota-gut-brain axis is currently being explored in many types of rodent models, including models of behavioral, neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. Our laboratory is interested in determining the mechanisms and consequences of activation of vagal afferent neurons that lead to activation of parasympathetic reflexes and changes in feeding behavior in the context of obesity. Obesity is associated with microbial dysbiosis, decreased intestinal barrier function, gut inflammation, metabolic endotoxemia, chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and desensitization of vagal afferent nerves...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685023/targeting-the-gut-to-treat-obesity-and-its-metabolic-comorbidities-focus-on-bariatric-surgery-view-from-the-chair
#7
A C Carpentier
Over the past decade, bariatric surgery emerged as the most effective treatment modality for obesity and its complications, especially type 2 diabetes. Initially introduced on the basis of their capacity to restrict food intake and/or induce dietary fat malabsorption, the current bariatric surgery procedures result in many more physiological changes that may also partly explain their potent and sustained anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. In the session 2 of the 17th International Symposium of the Université Laval Research Chair in Obesity, outstanding speakers have provided insight into novel clinical and pathophysiological aspects in bariatric surgery...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685022/targeting-the-gut-to-treat-obesity-and-its-metabolic-consequences-view-from-the-chair
#8
K A Sharkey
The neurohumoral signaling systems of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are considered the most significant of the peripheral inputs controlling both food intake in the short term and energy balance over a longer time course. The importance of the GI tract in the control of energy balance is underscored by the marked beneficial effects of bariatric surgeries for the treatment of obesity. Despite their effectiveness, the mechanisms of bariatric surgery remain to be fully elucidated. Considerable new evidence points to the importance of gut-brain communication, gut barrier function and microbial signaling as three of the most important mechanisms of bariatric surgery-induced weight loss...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152192/are-participant-characteristics-from-iscole-study-sites-comparable-to-the-rest-of-their-country
#9
A G LeBlanc, P T Katzmarzyk, T V Barreira, S T Broyles, J-P Chaput, T S Church, M Fogelholm, D M Harrington, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, M S Tremblay
OBJECTIVES: The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) provides robust, multi-national information on physical activity, diet and weight status in 9-11-year-old children around the world. The purpose of this analysis was to examine the similarities and differences between participant characteristics from ISCOLE sites and data from nationally representative surveys from ISCOLE countries (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, Kenya, India, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States)...
December 2015: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152191/are-the-correlates-of-active-school-transport-context-specific
#10
R Larouche, O L Sarmiento, S T Broyles, K D Denstel, T S Church, T V Barreira, J-P Chaput, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, M Standage, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, P T Katzmarzyk
OBJECTIVES: Previous research consistently indicates that children who engage in active school transport (AST) are more active than their peers who use motorized modes (car or bus). However, studies of the correlates of AST have been conducted predominantly in high-income countries and have yielded mixed findings. Using data from a heterogeneous sample of 12 country sites across the world, we investigated the correlates of AST in 9-11-year olds. METHODS: The analytical sample comprised 6555 children (53...
December 2015: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152190/associations-between-breakfast-frequency-and-adiposity-indicators-in-children-from-12-countries
#11
J K Zakrzewski, F B Gillison, S Cumming, T S Church, P T Katzmarzyk, S T Broyles, C M Champagne, J-P Chaput, K D Denstel, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, E F Mire, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, M Standage
OBJECTIVES: Reports of inverse associations between breakfast frequency and indices of obesity are predominantly based on samples of children from high-income countries with limited socioeconomic diversity. Using data from the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE), the present study examined associations between breakfast frequency and adiposity in a sample of 9-11-year-old children from 12 countries representing a wide range of geographic and socio-cultural variability...
December 2015: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152189/birth-weight-and-childhood-obesity-a-12-country-study
#12
Y Qiao, J Ma, Y Wang, W Li, P T Katzmarzyk, J-P Chaput, M Fogelholm, W D Johnson, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, T S Church, P Zhao, G Hu
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated the association between the full range of birth weight and the risk of childhood obesity in high-, middle- and low-income countries. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between different levels of birth weight and the risk of obesity among children aged 9-11 years in 12 countries. METHODS: A multinational, cross-sectional study of 5141 children aged 9-11 years was conducted in 12 countries. Height and weight were obtained using standardized methods...
December 2015: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152188/association-between-home-and-school-food-environments-and-dietary-patterns-among-9-11-year-old-children-in-12-countries
#13
H Vepsäläinen, V Mikkilä, M Erkkola, S T Broyles, J-P Chaput, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, T S Church, P T Katzmarzyk, M Fogelholm
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the roles of home and school environments on dietary patterns among children from 12 countries differing widely in geographic region and levels of human and economic development. METHODS: The sample included a total of 6685 (54% girls) 9-11-year-old children. Parents/guardians reported the availability of certain foods in the home, and trained researchers performed school audits recording the availability of foods for sale at schools...
December 2015: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152187/associations-between-sleep-patterns-and-lifestyle-behaviors-in-children-an-international-comparison
#14
REVIEW
J-P Chaput, P T Katzmarzyk, A G LeBlanc, M S Tremblay, T V Barreira, S T Broyles, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, D E Rae, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, T Olds
OBJECTIVES: Although evidence is accumulating on the importance of a good night's sleep for healthy eating and activity behaviors, existing research has mainly been conducted in high-income, developed countries with limited sociocultural variability. This study is the first to examine the associations between sleep patterns and lifestyle behaviors in children from 12 countries in five major geographic regions of the world. METHODS: This observational, multinational cross-sectional study included 5777 children aged 9-11 years from sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States...
December 2015: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152186/unique-contributions-of-iscole-to-the-advancement-of-accelerometry-in-large-studies
#15
REVIEW
C Tudor-Locke, T V Barreira, J M Schuna, P T Katzmarzyk
Accelerometry has become a mainstay approach for objectively monitoring children's physical activity and sedentary time in epidemiological studies. The magnitude of effort underlying successful data collection, management and treatment is prodigious and its complexity has been associated with increasingly diverse methodological choices that, while defensible relative to specific research questions, conspire to undermine the ability to compare results between studies. Although respecting widespread calls for best practices, it is also important to openly share tools and resources supporting potential improvements to research practice and study design, thus allowing others to replicate, further improve, and/or otherwise build on this foundation...
December 2015: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152185/nocturnal-sleep-related-variables-from-24-h-free-living-waist-worn-accelerometry-international-study-of-childhood-obesity-lifestyle-and-the-environment
#16
C Tudor-Locke, E F Mire, T V Barreira, J M Schuna, J-P Chaput, M Fogelholm, G Hu, A Kurpad, R Kuriyan, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, M S Tremblay, P Zhao, T S Church, P T Katzmarzyk
OBJECTIVES: We describe the process of identifying and defining nocturnal sleep-related variables (for example, movement/non-movement indicators of sleep efficiency, waking episodes, midpoint and so on) using the unique 24-h waist-worn free-living accelerometer data collected in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE). METHODS: Seven consecutive days of 24-h waist-worn accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph LLC) data were collected from over 500 children at each site...
December 2015: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152184/association-between-body-mass-index-and-body-fat-in-9-11-year-old-children-from-countries-spanning-a-range-of-human-development
#17
P T Katzmarzyk, T V Barreira, S T Broyles, J-P Chaput, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, T S Church
The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9-11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of -1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models...
December 2015: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152183/development-and-reliability-of-an-audit-tool-to-assess-the-school-physical-activity-environment-across-12-countries
#18
S T Broyles, K T Drazba, T S Church, J-P Chaput, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, P T Katzmarzyk
OBJECTIVES: Schools are an important setting to enable and promote physical activity. Researchers have created a variety of tools to perform objective environmental assessments (or 'audits') of other settings, such as neighborhoods and parks; yet, methods to assess the school physical activity environment are less common. The purpose of this study is to describe the approach used to objectively measure the school physical activity environment across 12 countries representing all inhabited continents, and to report on the reliability and feasibility of this methodology across these diverse settings...
December 2015: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152182/the-epidemiological-transition-and-the-global-childhood-obesity-epidemic
#19
S T Broyles, K D Denstel, T S Church, J-P Chaput, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, P T Katzmarzyk
OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity is now recognized as a global public health issue. Social patterning of obesity, consistent with the theory of epidemiologic transition, has not been well described in children, and the limited research has focused on developed settings. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between childhood obesity and household income using objective measures of adiposity and to explore how this relationship differs across levels of country human development...
December 2015: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152181/reliability-of-accelerometer-determined-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-in-school-aged-children-a-12-country-study
#20
T V Barreira, J M Schuna, C Tudor-Locke, J-P Chaput, T S Church, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, M S Tremblay, P Zhao, P T Katzmarzyk
OBJECTIVES: Focused on the accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary time metrics in 9-11-year-old children, we sought to determine the following: (i) number of days that are necessary to achieve reliable estimates (G⩾0.8); (ii) proportion of variance attributed to different facets (participants and days) of reliability estimates; and (iii) actual reliability of data as collected in The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and Environment (ISCOLE). METHODS: The analytical sample consisted of 6025 children (55% girls) from sites in 12 countries...
December 2015: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
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