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Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health

Junichi Minami, Noriyuki Iwabuchi, Miyuki Tanaka, Koji Yamauchi, Jin-Zhong Xiao, Fumiaki Abe, Naoki Sakane
Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between the gut microbiota and the development of obesity, indicating the potential of probiotics as a therapeutic approach. Bifidobacterium breve B-3 has been shown to exert anti-obesity effects in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. In the present study, the anti-obesity effects of the consumption of B. breve B-3 by healthy pre-obese (25 ≤ BMI < 30) adults were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (trial registration: UMIN-CTR No...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Yuhi Saito, Toshihiro Mihara, Mamoru Oki, Takehisa Kumagai
Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei 327 ( L . casei 327) was isolated from brown rice. A preliminary study showed that intake of 50 mg of heat-killed L . casei 327 is effective in improving defecation. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial to investigate the effect of intake of heat-killed L . casei 327 (25 mg: approximately 5 × 1010 bacteria) on defecation in healthy volunteers with relatively low defecation frequencies. We selected 104 healthy Japanese adults with relatively low defecation frequencies (approximately 3-5 times a week) by screening and pretrial tests...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Takamitsu Tsukahara, Shin-Ichi Nakamura, Gustavo A Romero-Pèrez, Makoto Ohwaki, Takaharu Yanagisawa, Tatsuhiko Kan
It is well known that dietary lactic acid bacteria (LAB) stimulate cell-mediated immunity such as natural killer (NK) activity in mice. Here, we aimed to assay the immunomodulatory effects of a cell preparation of Enterococcus faecalis strain KH-2 (CPEF). We further evaluated the possibility of antitumour activity caused by CPEF administration, because NK cells actively participate in the prevention of tumour formation. NK cell activity and gene expression of IFN-γ and Perforin 1, which were induced most likely by a synergetic action of their cytotoxic activity, were higher in splenocytes of CPEF-administered mice than they were in control mice...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Takahiko Nagamine, Yumiko Ido, Masaru Nakamura, Takehiko Okamura
Japanese inpatients with schizophrenia have a higher mortality risk due to underweight compared with the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 4G -β-D-galactosylsucrose on body weight in underweight schizophrenia inpatients. The study population consisted of 5 male and 11 female subjects aged 63.0 ± 10.9 years. The subjects had ingested 3.0 g/day 4G -β-D-galactosylsucrose for 6 months. BMI increased significantly, from 20.9 ± 3.7 kg/m2 to 22.3 ± 4.3 kg/m2 , and this was accompanied by a significant increase in Bifidobacterium in the fecal microbiota, which increased from 16...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Agnieszka Polit, Huiying Yang, Daniel Amund
Transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from probiotic bacteria to pathogens poses a safety concern. Orally administered probiotics are exposed to stressful conditions during gastrointestinal transit. In this study, filter mating experiments were performed to investigate the potential role of exposure of Bifidobacterium isolates to acid and bile stress on the transfer of a tetracycline resistance gene, tet (W), to Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299. No E. faecalis transconjugants were obtained after mating with either stressed or unstressed Bifidobacterium , thereby suggesting that tet (W) could not be transferred as a result of exposure to gastrointestinal stresses...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Masaki Serata, Emi Yasuda, Tomoyuki Sako
The Lactobacillus casei / paracasei group accumulates a high level of manganese, which works to scavenge superoxide anions produced during aerobic growth. The genome of L. casei strain Shirota, however, also codes the gene for superoxide dismutase (SOD), sodA , which catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide anion into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. We anticipated that the SOD and/or manganese may contribute to the aerobic growth of L. casei Shirota and tried to clarify how L. casei Shirota can eliminate the toxicity of superoxide anion...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Kengo Kawasaki, Koutarou Muroyama, Shinji Murosaki
Physiological symptoms of mood disturbances, such as fatigue or anxiety, are closely related to inflammation in the central nervous system or the whole body. Curcuma longa is widely used as a dietary spice and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. To investigate the effect of a water extract of C. longa (WEC) on emotional states, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted with healthy participants. Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to receive five tablets containing 150 mg WEC and 0...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Hiroshi Ashigai, Yuta Komano, Guanying Wang, Yasuji Kawachi, Kazuko Sunaga, Reiko Yamamoto, Ryoji Takata, Mika Miyake, Takaaki Yanai
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that causes dry skin and functional disruption of the skin barrier. AD is often accompanied by allergic inflammation. AD patient suffer from heavy itching, and their quality of life is severely affected. Some pharmaceuticals for AD have some side effects such as skin atrophy. So it is necessary to develop mild solutions such as food ingredients without side effects. There are various causes of AD. It is especially induced by immunological imbalances such as IFN-γ reduction...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Eiichiro Naito, Yasuto Yoshida, Satoru Kunihiro, Kumiko Makino, Kohei Kasahara, Yuu Kounoshi, Masanori Aida, Ryotaro Hoshi, Osamu Watanabe, Tomoki Igarashi, Kouji Miyazaki, Hideki Ito
An obesity-related prediabetic state is characterised by metabolic abnormalities such as post-glucose load hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia and consequently increases the risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on metabolic abnormalities in obese prediabetic subjects in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Herein, 100 obese subjects (body mass index ≥25), who had moderate post-load hyperglycaemia (1-hr post-load plasma glucose (PG) levels ≥180 mg/dl during the oral glucose tolerance test), consumed LcS-fermented milk or placebo milk daily for 8 weeks...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Kentaro Nakamura, Kazuhiko Fukatsu, Akina Sasayama, Taketo Yamaji
It has been demonstrated that an immune-modulating enteral formula enriched with whey peptides and fermented milk (IMF) had anti-inflammatory effects in some experimental models when it was administered before the induction of inflammation. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the IMF administration after the onset of systemic inflammation and investigated whether the IMF could improve the remote organ injuries in an acute pancreatitis (AP) model. Mice were fasted for 12 hours and then fed a choline-deficient and ethionine-supplemented diet (CDE diet) for 24 hours to induce pancreatitis...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Ipputa Tada, Yasuhiro Tanizawa, Akihito Endo, Masanori Tohno, Masanori Arita
Being an autochthonous species in humans, Lactobacillus gasseri is widely used as a probiotic for fermented products. We thoroughly compared the gene contents of 75 L. gasseri genomes and identified two intraspecific groups by the average nucleotide identity (ANI) threshold of 94%. Group I, with 48 strains, possessed 53 group-specific genes including the gassericin T cluster (9 genes) and N -acyl homoserine lactone lactonase. Group II, with 27 strains, including the type strain ATCC 33323, possessed group-specific genes with plasmid- or phage-related annotations...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Yuji Ohashi, Tomohiko Fujisawa
Antibiotic resistance genes in the feces of healthy young adult Japanese were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. Antibiotic resistance genes against macrolides ( ermB , ermF , ermX , and mefA/E ), tetracyclines ( tetW , tetQ , tetO , and tetX ), β-lactam antibiotics ( blaTEM ), and streptomycin ( aadE ) were detected in more than 50% of subjects. These antibiotic resistance genes are likely widespread in the large intestinal bacteria of young adult Japanese.
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Shintaro Maeno, Leon Dicks, Junichi Nakagawa, Akihito Endo
Potential fructophilic characteristics of Lactobacillus apinorum , originally isolated from the guts of honeybees ( Apis mellifera ), were studied in the present study. The species showed typical fructophilic growth characteristics, i.e., active growth on d-fructose, poor growth on d-glucose, and accelerated growth on d-glucose in the presence of electron acceptors. Biochemical characteristics strongly supported classification of the species into fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB). Furthermore, genetic analyses suggested that the species underwent extensive gene reduction, similar to that recorded for Lactobacillus kunkeei and other FLAB...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Hiroshi Ashigai, Yuta Komano, Guanying Wang, Yasuji Kawachi, Kazuko Sunaga, Reiko Yamamoto, Ryoji Takata, Mika Miyake, Takaaki Yanai
Black currant ( Ribes nigrum ) has various beneficial properties for human health. In particular, polysaccharide from black currant was found to be an immunostimulating food ingredient and was reported to have antitumor activity in a mouse model. We named it cassis polysaccharide (CAPS). In a previous study, CAPS administration caused tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in vitro and in vivo , but the immunological mechanism of CAPS was not demonstrated. In this study, we revealed the CAPS immunostimulating mechanism in vitro ...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Xuan Li, Yuuki Shimizu, Ikuo Kimura
Over the past decade, the gut microbiota has emerged as an essential mediator in the pathophysiology of obesity and related metabolic disorders. In this context, the reciprocal interactions of the gut microbiota structure and their metabolite profiles with host metabolism predisposing to a range of pathological conditions (e.g., insulin resistance) related to energy homeostasis have been increasingly discussed in various animal models and human cohorts. Remarkably, as the role of gut microbial metabolites as critical signaling molecules that function through the complementary host receptors has come to be appreciated, tremendous attention has been focused on the proposed diet-gut microbiota-host homeostasis axis, entailing extensive cross-disciplinary efforts in medical, pharmaceutical, and agricultural sciences...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Jean Daniel Dubreuil
The concept of certain microorganisms conferring direct benefits to the host relates to the term "probiotic". Probiotics are microorganisms, bacteria, or yeast that when administered orally in sufficient quantity can counteract the effect of pathogenic microorganisms. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the site where probiotics are believed to play the most important role. The proposed effects of probiotics include antagonism of pathogens, interference with adherence, competition for nutrients, enterotoxin inactivation, modulation of the immune response, and strengthening of the intestinal barrier...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Yasuhiro Tanizawa, Hisami Kobayashi, Eli Kaminuma, Mitsuo Sakamoto, Moriya Ohkuma, Yasukazu Nakamura, Masanori Arita, Masanori Tohno
Whole-genome sequencing was performed for Lactobacillus parakefiri JCM 8573(T) to confirm its hitherto controversial taxonomic position. Here, we report its first reliable reference genome. Genome-wide metrics, such as average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization, and phylogenomic analysis based on multiple genes supported its taxonomic status as a distinct species in the genus Lactobacillus. The availability of a reliable genome sequence will aid future investigations on the industrial applications of L...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Yuji Nonaka, Takayuki Izumo, Toshihiro Maekawa, Hiroshi Shibata
We investigated if the orally administered Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 (S-PT84) might show anti-stress activity and ameliorate stress-induced immune suppression in mice. Stress of mice induced an increase in serum corticosterone and a decrease in splenic natural killer activity and in the number of splenocytes versus control mice. However, these changes were not observed in stressed mice that had been administered S-PT84. Furthermore, interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-10 production, which was downregulated in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages from stressed mice, was maintained at control levels in the macrophages of stressed mice that had been fed S-PT84...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Yuhi Saito, Toshihiro Mihara, Kentaro Maruyama, Jiro Saito, Masumi Ikeda, Akihito Tomonaga, Takehisa Kumagai
Lactic acid bacteria are gut flora that play key roles in intestinal homeostasis, which may affect a variety of physiological functions. Our preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trials have suggested that intake of heat-killed Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei 327 (designated L. K-1) is effective for improving skin conditions. The aim of this study was to confirm the effect of L. K-1 intake in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in healthy female volunteers...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Mana Kishimoto, Ryohei Nomoto, Masashi Mizuno, Ro Osawa
Many probiotic lactobacilli and their extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) have beneficial immunological properties. However, it is unclear how they elicit the host immune response. We thus investigated the immunological properties of UV-killed Lactobacillus delbrueckii TU-1 and L. plantarum KM-9 cells as well as their extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs). High-performance liquid chromatography and ion exchange chromatography analyses showed that their EPSs differ in sugar composition and sugar fractionation...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
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