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Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health

Hideki Kinoshita, Satoko Ohuchi, Kensuke Arakawa, Masamichi Watanabe, Haruki Kitazawa, Tadao Saito
The adhesion of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to the intestinal mucosa is one of the criteria in selecting for probiotics. Eighteen LAB were isolated from porcine intestinal mucin (PIM): ten strains of Lactobacillus, six strains of Weissella, and two strains of Streptococcus. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) extracts from the LAB, many bands were detected in half of the samples, while a few and/or no clear bands were detected in the other half...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Yasuhiro Tanizawa, Takatomo Fujisawa, Eli Kaminuma, Yasukazu Nakamura, Masanori Arita
Quality assurance and correct taxonomic affiliation of data submitted to public sequence databases have been an everlasting problem. The DDBJ Fast Annotation and Submission Tool (DFAST) is a newly developed genome annotation pipeline with quality and taxonomy assessment tools. To enable annotation of ready-to-submit quality, we also constructed curated reference protein databases tailored for lactic acid bacteria. DFAST was developed so that all the procedures required for DDBJ submission could be done seamlessly online...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Shota Takahashi, Daisuke Anzawa, Kazuyo Takami, Akihiro Ishizuka, Takashi Mawatari, Kohei Kamikado, Haruhi Sugimura, Tomohiko Nishijima
Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis GCL2505 (B. lactis GCL2505) is able to survive passage through the intestine and then proliferate, leading to an increase in the amount of gut bifidobacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of B. lactis GCL2505 on abdominal visceral fat storage in overweight and mildly obese Japanese adults. This clinical study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative trial performed for 12 weeks. Healthy Japanese subjects (N=137) with body mass indices ranging from 23 to 30 kg/m(2) consumed either fermented milk containing B...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Tsukasa Shiraishi, Shinichi Yokota, Satoru Fukiya, Atsushi Yokota
Bacterial cell surface molecules are at the forefront of host-bacterium interactions. Teichoic acids are observed only in Gram-positive bacteria, and they are one of the main cell surface components. Teichoic acids play important physiological roles and contribute to the bacterial interaction with their host. In particular, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) anchored to the cell membrane has attracted attention as a host immunomodulator. Chemical and biological characteristics of LTA from various bacteria have been described...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Shuzo Orikasa, Kazumi Nabeshima, Noriyuki Iwabuchi, Jin-Zhong Xiao
Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric illness. Disruption of the dopaminergic system has been suggested to be the pathogenic cause of this disease. The effect of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 (BB536) on schizophrenic behavior was investigated in an animal model. Daily administration of BB536 (10(9) CFU/mouse, p.o. for 2 weeks) was found to reduce rearing behavior augmented by the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine and to decrease the resting level of plasma corticosterone and the ratio of kynurenine to tryptophan...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Toru Nakata, Shino Hirano, Yasushi Yokota, Hajime Takahashi, Bon Kimura, Takashi Kuda, Tadashi Eto, Michiko Kato
Oxidative stress is considered an etiological factor responsible for several symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In vitro anti-inflammatory activities of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BF3 have been reported. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of these cells was examined using a dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced murine IBD model. Administration of heat-killed L. lactis BF3 via drinking water suppressed the IBD symptoms, such as shortening of colon length, damage to the colon mucosa as observed under the microscope, and spleen enlargement...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Tomoyuki Oki, Mitsuyoshi Kano, Osamu Watanabe, Kazuhisa Goto, Esther Boelsma, Fumiyasu Ishikawa, Ikuo Suda
An open-label study with one treatment arm was conducted to investigate changes in health-related biomarkers (blood pressure and liver enzyme activity) and the safety of 4 weeks of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage in Caucasian subjects. Twenty healthy adults, 18-70 years of age, with a body mass index >25 kg/m(2), elevated blood pressure and elevated levels of liver function biomarkers consumed two cartons of purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage (125 ml, including 117 mg anthocyanin per carton) daily for 4 weeks...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Khin May Oo, Aye Aye Lwin, Yi Yi Kyaw, Win Maw Tun, Kazutake Fukada, Akiko Goshima, Takashi Shimada, Shigeru Okada
A clinical trial was conducted on 39 adult HCV-positive subjects to determine the safety and long-term effect of the probiotic FK-23 (heat-treated Enterococcus faecalis strain FK-23). Asymptomatic anti-HCV positive adults who fulfilled the selection criteria and gave voluntary consent were recruited from attendees of the Hepatitis Carrier Clinic, Department of Medical Research (Lower Myanmar). Each subject was given 2,700 mg of FK-23 per day by oral route. Blood samples were taken at enrollment and every 3 months and tested for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST)...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Yuika Kawada, Shinichiro Yokoyama, Emiko Yanase, Toshio Niwa, Tohru Suzuki
Daidzein (DZN) is converted to equol (EQL) by intestinal bacteria. We previously reported that Eggerthella sp. YY7918, which is found in human feces, is an EQL-producing bacterium and analyzed its whole genomic sequence. We found three coding sequences (CDSs) in this bacterium that showed 99% similarity to the EQL-producing enzymes of Lactococcus sp. 20-92. These identified CDSs were designated eqlA, eqlB, and eqlC and thought to encode daidzein reductase (DZNR), dihydrodaidzein reductase (DHDR), and tetrahydrodaidzein reductase (THDR), respectively...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Naoko Mori, Mitsuyoshi Kano, Norie Masuoka, Tomoe Konno, Yumiko Suzuki, Kouji Miyazaki, Yukihide Ueki
Although persistent constipation is considered to be associated with skin problems, the supporting evidence is limited. Hence, this study investigated the effects of probiotic and prebiotic fermented milk on skin and intestinal conditions in an open-label trial. Among the 101 Japanese healthy young female students that participated, the 81 subjects in the intake group consumed a bottle of probiotic and prebiotic fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult and galactooligosaccharides daily for 4 weeks after a pre-intake period of 4 weeks, while the 20 subjects in the non-intake group did not consume the test beverage...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Shadi Khonsari, Mayuran Suganthy, Beata Burczynska, Vu Dang, Manika Choudhury, Azra Pachenari
The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Junjie Miao, Chunhui Lang, Zhiyuan Kang, Hong Zhu, Shijie Wang, Ming Li
Fermented milk supplemented with two probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) and a prebiotic (isomaltooligosaccharide) was orally administered to Wistar rats for 30 days using three dosages. A commercial yogurt was used as a placebo. After treatment, the total protein, hemoglobin, and albumin levels in serum were significantly increased in female rats compared with those in the control group (p<0.05), whereas no significant change occurred in the male rats. A significant decrease in serum glucose levels was observed in male rats administered a low dosage of the tested fermented milk (p<0...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Minoru Mizuta, Izuru Endo, Sumiharu Yamamoto, Hidetoshi Inokawa, Masatoshi Kubo, Tetsunobu Udaka, Osanori Sogabe, Hiroya Maeda, Kazutoyo Shirakawa, Eriko Okazaki, Toshitaka Odamaki, Fumiaki Abe, Jin-Zhong Xiao
The use of probiotics has been widely documented to benefit human health, but their clinical value in surgical patients remains unclear. The present study investigated the effect of perioperative oral administration of probiotic bifidobacteria to patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Sixty patients undergoing colorectal resection were randomized to two groups prior to resection. One group (n=31) received a probiotic supplement, Bifidobacterium longum BB536, preoperatively for 7-14 days and postoperatively for 14 days, while the other group (n=29) received no intervention as a control...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Yoshiko Miyazaki
To determine the potential utility of Polygonum hydropiper (tade) as an anti-dementia functional food, the present study assessed the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory activities of tade crude extracts in human cells. Crude extracts of tade were obtained by homogenizing tade in distilled water and then heating the resulting crude extracts. The hot aqueous extracts were purified by centrifugation and freeze-dried. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by tade was investigated quantitatively by Ellman's method...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Kiminori Nakamura, Naoya Sakuragi, Akiko Takakuwa, Tokiyoshi Ayabe
Antimicrobial peptides are major effectors of innate immunity of multicellular organisms including humans and play a critical role in host defense, and their importance is widely recognized. The epithelium of the intestine is the largest surface area exposed to the outer environment, including pathogens, toxins and foods. The Paneth cell lineage of intestinal epithelial cells produces and secretes α-defensin antimicrobial peptides and functions in innate enteric immunity by removing pathogens and living symbiotically with commensal microbiota to contribute to intestinal homeostasis...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Chiaki Matsuzaki, Kenji Matsumoto, Toshihiko Katoh, Kenji Yamamoto, Keiko Hisa
The effects of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain NTM048 and type strain JCM6124(T) on the murine immune system were characterized. Although the bacterial cells and exopolysaccharides of each strain induced immunoglobulin A production in Peyer's patch cells, the effects of NTM048 were more potent than those of JCM6124(T). Oral administration of the cells of each strain increased the fecal immunoglobulin A content in NTM048-treated mice, but not in JCM6124(T)-treated mice. A flow cytometric analysis showed that the CD4(+) T-cell populations in the mouse spleens tended to increase in the NTM048 group...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Devi Murtini, Ni Putu Desy Aryantini, I Nengah Sujaya, Tadasu Urashima, Kenji Fukuda
To investigate carbohydrate preference of a potential probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus FSMM15, six prebiotics, including two milk-derived prebiotics, galactooligosaccharides and lacto-N-biose I, and four plant-origin prebiotics, beet oligosaccharide syrup, difructose anhydride III, fructooligosaccharides, and raffinose, were examined. The strain utilized the milk-derived prebiotics at similar levels to glucose but did not utilize the plant-origin ones in the same manner, reflecting their genetic background, which allows them to adapt to dairy ecological niches...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Naomi Harima-Mizusawa, Keiko Kamachi, Mitsuyoshi Kano, Daisuke Nozaki, Tatsuo Uetake, Yuji Yokomizo, Takayuki Nagino, Akira Tanaka, Kouji Miyazaki, Shinichiro Nakamura
This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Kenta Suzuki, Keita Nishiyama, Hiroki Miyajima, Ro Osawa, Yuji Yamamoto, Takao Mukai
In our previous study, we found that the open reading frame bl0675 in the genome of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum isolated from human feces encoded a novel putative fimbrial protein, was highly polymorphic, and had five variants (A, B, C, D, and E types). The aim of this study was to evaluate the affinity of these variants to porcine colonic mucins (PCMs). Protein-binding properties were examined using the recombinant BL0675 protein containing a C-terminal 6 × His tag (His-BL0675). Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated that the His-BL0675 A type had strong affinity to PCMs (KD = 9...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Takayuki Nagino, Mitsuyoshi Kano, Norie Masuoka, Chiaki Kaga, Michitoshi Anbe, Kouji Miyazaki, Keiko Kamachi, Mariko Isozaki, Chigusa Suzuki, Chikako Kasuga, Akira Tanaka
This study aimed to investigate the bioavailability of serum isoflavones after the intake of soymilk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota containing 32.5% isoflavone aglycones (FSM) or placebo soymilk containing no isoflavone aglycones (SM). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover trial, 7 healthy premenopausal Japanese women (mean age: 35.3 ± 11.0) consumed FSM or SM on day 1 and crossed over to the other soymilk after a 6-day washout period. Serum isoflavones in blood samples collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hr after intake were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
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