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Lauren A Cirino, Christine W Miller
Many insects are influenced by the phenology of their host plants. In North Central Florida, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) spends its entire life cycle living and feeding on Opuntia mesacantha ssp. lata. This cactus begins producing flower buds in April that lead to unripe green fruit in June that ripen into red fruit through December. Many morphological and behavioral characteristics of N. femorata are known to be affected by cactus phenology in a controlled laboratory setting, including the degree of sexual dimorphism and mating behavior...
January 17, 2017: Insects
Rudy Caparros Megido, Sandrine Desmedt, Christophe Blecker, François Béra, Éric Haubruge, Taofic Alabi, Frédéric Francis
Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts...
January 13, 2017: Insects
Deusiano Florêncio Dos Reis, Ayala Eduardo Salazar, Mayana Mendes Dias Machado, Sheyla Regina Marques Couceiro, Paula Benevides de Morais
Generally, aquatic communities reflect the effects of anthropogenic changes such as deforestation or organic pollution. The Cerrado stands among the most threatened ecosystems by human activities in Brazil. In order to evaluate the ecological integrity of the streams in a preserved watershed in the Northern Cerrado biome corresponding to a mosaic of ecosystems in transition to the Amazonia biome in Brazil, biological metrics related to diversity, structure, and sensitivity of aquatic macroinvertebrates were calculated...
January 12, 2017: Insects
Kittikhun Moophayak, Sangob Sanit, Tarinee Chaiwong, Kom Sukontason, Hiromu Kurahashi, Kabkaew L Sukontason, Roy C Vogtsberger, Nophawan Bunchu
Stomorhina discolor (Fabricius), a species of blow fly that mimics wasps, is distributed worldwide, but detailed information about characteristics of its adult terminalia is incomplete. To help fill this gap in the information, the morphology of adult stages of S. discolor was investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Observations using the light microscope revealed unique characteristics of the male genitalia that are markedly different from other blow fly species. More morphological detail, including observation of several sensilla (e...
January 12, 2017: Insects
Yobana A Mariño, José C Verle Rodrigues, Paul Bayman
Wolbachia are widely distributed endosymbiotic bacteria that influence the reproduction and fitness of their hosts. In recent years the manipulation of Wolbachia infection has been considered as a potential tool for biological control. The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most devastating coffee pest worldwide. Wolbachia infection in the CBB has been reported, but until now the role of Wolbachia in CBB reproduction and fitness has not been tested. To address this issue we reared the CBB in artificial diets with and without tetracycline (0...
January 11, 2017: Insects
Frank D Rinkevich, Robert G Danka, Kristen B Healy
Since Varroa mites may cause devastating losses of honey bees through direct feeding, transmitting diseases, and increasing pathogen susceptibility, chemical and mechanical practices commonly are used to reduce mite infestation. While miticide applications are typically the most consistent and efficacious Varroa mite management method, miticide-induced insecticide synergism in honey bees, and the evolution of resistance in Varroa mites are reasonable concerns. We treated colonies with the miticide amitraz (Apivar(®)), used IPM practices, or left some colonies untreated, and then measured the effect of different levels of mite infestations on the sensitivity of bees to phenothrin, amitraz, and clothianidin...
January 11, 2017: Insects
Insects Editorial Office
The editors of Insects would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...].
January 10, 2017: Insects
Ann B Swengel, Scott R Swengel
The regal fritillary ("regal") (Speyeria idalia) is endangered in Wisconsin, USA, and declining and at risk range-wide. During 1988-2015, we surveyed 24 known regal sites and >100 areas of potential habitat in Wisconsin. We recorded 9037 individuals in 742.7 km on the peak survey per year at occupied sites. At six sites surveyed over 5-25 years, we found regal fritillaries in only one year, mostly in the latter half of the study. The three populations in the state with more favorable trends than the median had a never-burned refugium and/or infrequent fire management...
January 10, 2017: Insects
Brian J Johnson, Scott A Ritchie, Dina M Fonseca
The intensifying expansion of arboviruses highlights the need for effective invasive Aedes control. While mass-trapping interventions have long been discredited as inefficient compared to insecticide applications, increasing levels of insecticide resistance, and the development of simple affordable traps that target and kill gravid female mosquitoes, show great promise. We summarize the methodologies and outcomes of recent lethal oviposition trap-based mass interventions for suppression of urban Aedes and their associated diseases...
January 8, 2017: Insects
Paul M Airs, Lyric C Bartholomay
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to silence endogenous mosquito and mosquito-borne pathogen genes in vivo. As the number of studies utilizing RNAi in basic research grows, so too does the arsenal of physiological targets that can be developed into products that interrupt mosquito life cycles and behaviors and, thereby, relieve the burden of mosquitoes on human health and well-being. As this technology becomes more viable for use in beneficial and pest insect management in agricultural settings, it is exciting to consider its role in public health entomology...
January 5, 2017: Insects
Timothy M Judd, Matthew P Fasnacht
The wasp Trypoxylon lactitarse Saussure is a bivoltine trap-nesting species that possesses a non-overwintering generation (G1) and a generation that overwinters as a prepupa (G2). Thus, the nutritional needs of the G1 individuals were predicted to be different than the G2 because the latter generation needs to store energy prior to diapause. Trap-nesting Trypoxylon are also of interest because, unlike most Hymenoptera, the males guard the nest while females forage. Thus, males may lose nutrients as they stay and guard the nest...
January 3, 2017: Insects
Sheena A M Francis, Jennina Taylor-Wells, Aaron D Gross, Jeffrey R Bloomquist
The physiological role of carbonic anhydrases in pH and ion regulation is crucial to insect survival. We examined the toxic and neurophysiological effects of five carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) against Aedes aegypti. The 24 h larvicidal toxicities followed this rank order of potency: dichlorphenamide > methazolamide > acetazolamide = brinzolamide = dorzolamide. Larvicidal activity increased modestly in longer exposures, and affected larvae showed attenuated responses to probing without overt tremors, hyperexcitation, or convulsions...
December 22, 2016: Insects
Jennifer C Stevenson, Douglas E Norris
Entomological indices and bionomic descriptions of malaria vectors are essential to accurately describe and understand malaria transmission and for the design and evaluation of appropriate control interventions. In order to correctly assign spatio-temporal distributions, behaviors and responses to interventions to particular anopheline species, identification of mosquitoes must be accurately made. This paper reviews the current methods and their limitations in correctly identifying anopheline mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa, and highlights the importance of molecular methods to discriminate cryptic species and identify lesser known anophelines...
December 22, 2016: Insects
Oscar E Ospina, Steven E Massey, Jose Carlos Verle Rodrigues
Tenuipalpidae comprises mites that transmit viruses to agriculturally important plants. Several tenuipalpid species present parthenogenesis, and in Brevipalpus yothersi, the endosymbiont Cardinium has been associated with female-only colonies. It is unclear what the bacterial composition of B. yothersi is, and how common Cardinium is in those microbiomes. We performed a comparative analysis of the bacteriomes in three populations of B. yothersi and three additional Tetranychoidea species using sequences from V4-fragment of 16S DNA...
December 20, 2016: Insects
Chelsea T Smartt, Dongyoung Shin, Sheri L Anderson
The interaction of the mosquito and the invading virus is complex and can result in physiological and gene expression alterations in the insect. The association of West Nile virus (WNV) and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes results in measurable changes in gene expression; 22 gene products were shown previously to have altered expression. Sequence analysis of one product, CQ G1A1, revealed 100% amino acid identity to gram negative bacteria binding proteins (CPQGBP) in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti (70%) and Anopheles gambiae (63%) that function in pathogen recognition...
December 19, 2016: Insects
Tai-Ping Wu, Jun-Hua Tian, Rui-De Xue, Yi-Liang Fang, Ai-Hua Zheng
In 2014, Guangzhou City, South China, suffered from its worst outbreak of dengue fever in decades. Larval mosquito habitat surveillance was carried out by using android mobile devices in four study sites in May 2015. The habitats with larval mosquitoes were recorded as photo waypoints in OruxMaps or in videos. The total number of potential mosquito habitats was 342, of which 166 (49%) were found to have mosquito larvae or pupae. Small containers were the most abundant potential habitats, accounting for 26% of the total number...
December 17, 2016: Insects
Zinan Wang, Yan Chen, Mengmeng Gu, Erfan Vafaie, Michael Merchant, Rodrigo Diaz
Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus) lagerstroemiae (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), is a newly introduced insect pest on crapemyrtles, Lagerstroemia spp. (Myrtales: Lythraceae), one of the most popular flowering shrubs in the U.S. Since first detected in Texas in 2004, this pest has spread to twelve states causing losses to stakeholders. To develop a management plan, we reviewed current knowledge about the pest's biology and ecology, and suggested research approaches including studying its thermal tolerance, host range, plant resistance and biological control...
December 16, 2016: Insects
Zinan Wang, Lori Moshman, Emily C Kraus, Blake E Wilson, Namoona Acharya, Rodrigo Diaz
The tawny crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), has invaded states of the U.S. including Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. Native to South America, N. fulva is considered a pest in the U.S. capable of annoying homeowners and farmers, as well as displacing native ant species. As it continues to expand its range, there is a growing need to develop novel management techniques to control the pest and prevent further spread. Current management efforts rely heavily on chemical control, but these methods have not been successful...
December 15, 2016: Insects
Sarah E Jandricic, Stephen P Wraight, Dave R Gillespie, John P Sanderson
The aphidophagous midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is used in biological control programs against aphids in many crops. Short-term trials with this natural enemy demonstrated that that females prefer to oviposit among aphids colonizing the new growth of plants, leading to differential attack rates for aphid species that differ in their within-plant distributions. Thus, we hypothesized that biological control efficacy could be compromised when more than one aphid species is present. We further hypothesized that control outcomes may be different at different crop stages if aphid species shift their preferred feeding locations...
December 14, 2016: Insects
David G Lilly, Cameron E Webb, Stephen L Doggett
Insecticide resistance in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus) has become widespread, which has necessitated the development of new IPM (Integrated Pest Management) strategies and products for the eradication of infestations. Two promising options are the diatomaceous earth and silica gel-based desiccant dusts, both of which induce dehydration and eventual death upon bed bugs exposed to these products. However, the impact of underlying mechanisms that confer resistance to insecticides, such as cuticle thickening, on the performance of these dusts has yet to be determined...
December 9, 2016: Insects
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