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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644376/monitoring-effect-of-fire-on-ant-assemblages-in-brazilian-rupestrian-grasslands-contrasting-effects-on-ground-and-arboreal-fauna
#1
Diego Anjos, Ricardo Campos, Renata Campos, Sérvio Ribeiro
Fire is one of the most relevant ecological disturbances in nature. Little is known about the effects of fire on biodiversity in ecosystems like rupestrian grasslands, which share characteristics with savanna and forest biomes. Brazilian rupestrian grasslands are part of an endangered ecosystem that has been modified by anthropogenic fire events that have become more intense in recent decades. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fire on ground and arboreal ant assemblages through a two-year monitoring program (24 monthly samplings)...
June 23, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632152/isolation-and-characterization-of-microsatellite-loci-for-cotesia-plutellae-hymenoptera-braconidae
#2
Tiansheng Liu, Fushi Ke, Shijun You, Wenbin Chen, Weiyi He, Minsheng You
Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated in this transcriptome-based data analysis for Cotesia plutellae, which is an important larval parasitoid of the worldwide pest Plutella xylostella. A subsequent test was performed for a wild C. plutellae population (N = 32) from Fuzhou, Fujian, southeastern China, to verify the effectiveness of the 14 microsatellite loci in future studies on C. plutellae genetic diversity. The observed number of alleles ranged from two to six. The expected and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0...
June 20, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629163/%C3%AE-cyanoalanine-synthases-and-their-possible-role-in-pierid-host-plant-adaptation
#3
Anna-Maria Herfurth, Maike van Ohlen, Ute Wittstock
Cyanide is generated in larvae of the glucosinolate-specialist Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera:Pieridae) upon ingestion of plant material containing phenylalanine-derived glucosinolates as chemical defenses. As these glucosinolates were widespread within ancient Brassicales, the ability to detoxify cyanide may therefore have been essential for the host plant shift of Pierid species from Fabales to Brassicales species giving rise to the Pierinae subfamily. Previous research identified β-cyanoalanine and thiocyanate as products of cyanide detoxification in P...
June 18, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598383/the-biology-and-control-of-the-greater-wax-moth-galleria-mellonella
#4
REVIEW
Charles A Kwadha, George O Ong'amo, Paul N Ndegwa, Suresh K Raina, Ayuka T Fombong
The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella Linnaeus, is a ubiquitous pest of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus, and Apis cerana Fabricius. The greater wax moth larvae burrow into the edge of unsealed cells with pollen, bee brood, and honey through to the midrib of honeybee comb. Burrowing larvae leave behind masses of webs which causes galleriasis and later absconding of colonies. The damage caused by G. mellonella larvae is severe in tropical and sub-tropical regions, and is believed to be one of the contributing factors to the decline in both feral and wild honeybee populations...
June 9, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598376/floral-volatiles-from-vigna-unguiculata-are-olfactory-and-gustatory-stimulants-for-oviposition-by-the-bean-pod-borer-moth-maruca-vitrata
#5
Bo Feng, Kai Qian, Yong-Jun Du
Abstract: We investigated the role of floral odors from cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), in mediating oviposition of the bean pod borer moth, Maruca vitrata, a serious pest of grain legumes that flies to host plants at the flowering stage and oviposits onto flowers and buds. The flower of the host plant V. unguiculata was a stimulus for egg-laying by M. vitrata in an oviposition bioassay. Commercial longifolene, β-caryophyllene, linalool, geraniol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were used as stimulus. Each one elicited dose-dependent electroantennogram responses in female M...
June 9, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598375/allogrooming-self-grooming-and-touching-behavior-contamination-routes-of-leaf-cutting-ant-workers-using-a-fat-soluble-tracer-dye
#6
Roberto da Silva Camargo, Carolina Puccini, Luiz Carlos Forti, Carlos Alberto Oliveira de Matos
The aim of this study was to determine whether worker self-grooming, allogrooming, and direct contact promotes the dispersal of substances among members of the colony. For this purpose, a tracer (Sudan III dye) was applied topically to a worker ant and the social interactions between the worker with the tracer and workers without the tracer were studied. Additionally, the worker heads were dissected to visualize whether or not the post-pharyngeal gland was stained. The post-pharyngeal glands from 50% to 70% of workers were stained depending on the size of the group...
June 9, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587241/termite-species-distribution-and-flight-periods-on-oahu-hawaii
#7
Reina L Tong, J Kenneth Grace, Makena Mason, Paul D Krushelnycky, Helen Spafford, Maria Aihara-Sasaki
Termites are economically-important structural pests, costing residents of Hawaii over $100 million annually. On Oahu, the last published termite swarming survey occurred from 1969 to 1971, and the last termite hand-collection survey occurred from 1998 to 2000. To contribute data on termite occurrences on Oahu, a light-trap survey took place from February 2011 to September 2012, and a hand-collection survey occurred from September to November 2012. Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, swarming was compared over the duration of the study, finding peak swarming in May 2011...
June 5, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587223/density-and-habitat-relationships-of-the-endemic-white-mountain-fritillary-boloria-chariclea-montinus-lepidoptera-nymphalidae
#8
Kent P McFarland, John D Lloyd, Spencer P Hardy
We conducted point counts in the alpine zone of the Presidential Range of the White Mountains, New Hampshire, USA, to estimate the distribution and density of the rare endemic White Mountain Fritillary (Boloria chariclea montinus). Incidence of occurrence and density of the endemic White Mountain Fritillary during surveys in 2012 and 2013 were greatest in the herbaceous-snowbank plant community. Densities at points in the heath-shrub-rush plant community were lower, but because this plant community is more widespread in the alpine zone, it likely supports the bulk of adult fritillaries...
June 4, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561763/the-impact-of-diet-protein-and-carbohydrate-on-select-life-history-traits-of-the-black-soldier-fly-hermetia-illucens-l-diptera-stratiomyidae
#9
Jonathan A Cammack, Jeffery K Tomberlin
This study examined the impact of diet protein and carbohydrate percentages as well as moisture on the immature development, survivorship, and resulting adult longevity and egg production of the black soldier fly, Hermetiaillucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Moisture impacted development and corresponding life-history traits more than protein:carbohydrate content; larvae were unable to develop on diets at 40% moisture. Larvae fed diets at 70% moisture developed faster, grew larger, and required less food than those reared on diets at 55% moisture...
May 31, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587099/a-transcriptome-survey-spanning-life-stages-and-sexes-of-the-harlequin-bug-murgantia-histrionica
#10
Michael E Sparks, Joshua H Rhoades, David R Nelson, Daniel Kuhar, Jason Lancaster, Bryan Lehner, Dorothea Tholl, Donald C Weber, Dawn E Gundersen-Rindal
The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), is an agricultural pest in the continental United States, particularly in southern states. Reliable gene sequence data are especially useful to the development of species-specific, environmentally friendly molecular biopesticides and effective biolures for this insect. Here, mRNAs were sampled from whole insects at the 2nd and 4th nymphal instars, as well as sexed adults, and sequenced using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. A global assembly of these data identified 72,540 putative unique transcripts bearing high levels of similarity to transcripts identified in other taxa, with over 99% of conserved single-copy orthologs among insects being detected...
May 25, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538664/abiotic-and-biotic-factors-regulating-inter-kingdom-engagement-between-insects-and-microbe-activity-on-vertebrate-remains
#11
REVIEW
Heather R Jordan, Jeffery K Tomberlin
Abstract: A number of abiotic and biotic factors are known to regulate arthropod attraction, colonization, and utilization of decomposing vertebrate remains. Such information is critical when assessing arthropod evidence associated with said remains in terms of forensic relevance. Interactions are not limited to just between the resource and arthropods. There is another biotic factor that has been historically overlooked; however, with the advent of high-throughput sequencing, and other molecular techniques, the curtain has been pulled back to reveal a microscopic world that is playing a major role with regards to carrion decomposition patterns in association with arthropods...
May 24, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524117/ebutterfly-leveraging-massive-online-citizen-science-for-butterfly-consevation
#12
Kathleen L Prudic, Kent P McFarland, Jeffrey C Oliver, Rebecca A Hutchinson, Elizabeth C Long, Jeremy T Kerr, Maxim Larrivée
Data collection, storage, analysis, visualization, and dissemination are changing rapidly due to advances in new technologies driven by computer science and universal access to the internet. These technologies and web connections place human observers front and center in citizen science-driven research and are critical in generating new discoveries and innovation in such fields as astronomy, biodiversity, and meteorology. Research projects utilizing a citizen science approach address scientific problems at regional, continental, and even global scales otherwise impossible for a single lab or even a small collection of academic researchers...
May 18, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524106/connecting-the-dots-from-an-easy-method-to-computerized-species-determination
#13
Senta Niederegger, Klaus-Peter Döge, Marcus Peter, Tobias Eickhölter, Gita Mall
Differences in growth rate of forensically important dipteran larvae make species determination an essential requisite for an accurate estimation of time since colonization of the body. Interspecific morphological similarities, however, complicate species determination. Muscle attachment site (MAS) patterns on the inside of the cuticula of fly larvae are species specific and grow proportionally with the animal. The patterns can therefore be used for species identification, as well as age estimation in forensically important dipteran larvae...
May 18, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505138/estimating-density-and-temperature-dependence-of-juvenile-vital-rates-using-a-hidden-markov-model
#14
Robert M McElderry
Organisms in the wild have cryptic life stages that are sensitive to changing environmental conditions and can be difficult to survey. In this study, I used mark-recapture methods to repeatedly survey Anaea aidea (Nymphalidae) caterpillars in nature, then modeled caterpillar demography as a hidden Markov process to assess if temporal variability in temperature and density influence the survival and growth of A. aidea over time. Individual encounter histories result from the joint likelihood of being alive and observed in a particular stage, and I have included hidden states by separating demography and observations into parallel and independent processes...
May 15, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486424/demographic-variation-of-wolbachia-infection-in-the-endangered-mitchell-s-satyr-butterfly
#15
Jennifer Fenner, Jennifer Seltzer, Scott Peyton, Heather Sullivan, Peter Tolson, Ryan P Walsh, JoVonn Hill, Brian A Counterman
The Mitchell's satyr, Neonympha mitchellii, is an endangered species that is limited to highly isolated habitats in the northern and southern United States. Conservation strategies for isolated endangered species often implement captive breeding and translocation programs for repopulation. However, these programs risk increasing the spread of harmful pathogens, such as the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Wolbachia can manipulate the host's reproduction leading to incompatibilities between infected and uninfected hosts...
May 9, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486404/efficacy-of-chemicals-for-the-potential-management-of-the-queensland-fruit-fly-bactrocera-tryoni-froggatt-diptera-tephritidae
#16
Olivia L Reynolds, Terrence J Osborne, Idris Barchia
This study investigated alternative in-field chemical controls against Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). Bioassay 1 tested the mortality of adults exposed to fruit and filter paper dipped in insecticide, and the topical application of insecticide to adults/fruit. Bioassay 2 measured the mortality of adults permitted to oviposit on fruit dipped in insecticide and aged 0, 1, 3, or 5 days, plus the production of offspring. Bioassay 3 tested infested fruit sprayed with insecticide. The field bioassay trialed the mortality of adults exposed to one- and five-day insecticide residues on peaches, and subsequent offspring...
May 9, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481294/queen-quality-and-the-impact-of-honey-bee-diseases-on-queen-health-potential-for-interactions-between-two-major-threats-to-colony-health
#17
REVIEW
Esmaeil Amiri, Micheline K Strand, Olav Rueppell, David R Tarpy
Western honey bees, Apis mellifera, live in highly eusocial colonies that are each typically headed by a single queen. The queen is the sole reproductive female in a healthy colony, and because long-term colony survival depends on her ability to produce a large number of offspring, queen health is essential for colony success. Honey bees have recently been experiencing considerable declines in colony health. Among a number of biotic and abiotic factors known to impact colony health, disease and queen failure are repeatedly reported as important factors underlying colony losses...
May 8, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468244/propolis-counteracts-some-threats-to-honey-bee-health
#18
REVIEW
Michael Simone-Finstrom, Renata S Borba, Michael Wilson, Marla Spivak
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are constantly dealing with threats from pathogens, pests, pesticides and poor nutrition. It is critically important to understand how honey bees' natural immune responses (individual immunity) and collective behavioral defenses (social immunity) can improve bee health and productivity. One form of social immunity in honey bee colonies is the collection of antimicrobial plant resins and their use in the nest architecture as propolis. We review research on the constitutive benefits of propolis on the honey bee immune system, and its known therapeutic, colony-level effects against the pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis...
April 29, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441319/speyeria-lepidoptera-nymphalidae-conservation
#19
REVIEW
Steven R Sims
Speyeria (Nymphalidae) are a conspicuous component of the North American butterfly fauna. There are approximately 16 species and >100 associated subspecies (or geographical variants). Speyeria are univoltine, occupy a wide range of habitats, overwinter as first instar larvae, and feed only on native violets. Speyeria species have become a model group for studies of evolution, speciation, and conservation. Several species and subspecies are threatened or endangered. The reasons for this vary with the taxa involved, but always involve the degradation or loss of quality habitat for larvae and adults...
April 25, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417909/interactions-among-the-predatory-midge-aphidoletes-aphidimyza-diptera-cecidomyiidae-the-fungal-pathogen-metarhizium-brunneum-ascomycota-hypocreales-and-maize-infesting-aphids-in-greenhouse-mesocosms
#20
Ana Gorete Campos de Azevedo, Bernhardt Michael Steinwender, Jørgen Eilenberg, Lene Sigsgaard
The generalist entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum, has proved to have great potential as a versatile biological pest control agent. The gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza is a specialist predator that occurs naturally in Europe and has been successfully used for aphid suppression. However, the interaction between these two biological control organisms and how it may affect the biological control of aphids awaits further investigation. As part of the EU-supported project INBIOSOIL, this study was conducted in greenhouse conditions to assess the possible effects of combining both biological control agents...
April 12, 2017: Insects
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