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Ernest Ireneusz Hennig, Dominique Mazzi
Forest vegetation is essential for the population development of the spotted wing drosophila (SWD). Yet, little is known of how the structure of surrounding forest areas influence the abundance of SWD within orchards. In this work, we use data from a field trial at five sites in Switzerland to analyse the relationship between the extent of forest area, its edge density, and its distance from the orchard with the occurrence of SWD in sweet cherry orchards in a Bayesian hierarchical model. Availability of cherries and bycatch were also included in the model to account for effects of resource availability and trap attractiveness, respectively...
September 13, 2018: Insects
Maurizio Francesco Brivio, Maristella Mastore
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are widely used as biological control agents against insect pests, the efficacy of these organisms strongly depends on the balance between the parasitic strategies and the immune response of the host. This review summarizes roles and relationships between insect hosts and two well-known EPN species, Steinernema feltiae and Steinernema carpocapsae and outlines the main mechanisms of immune recognition and defense of insects. Analyzing information and findings about these EPNs, it is clear that these two species use shared immunosuppression strategies, mainly mediated by their symbiotic bacteria, but there are differences in both the mechanism of evasion and interference of the two nematodes with the insect host immune pathways...
September 11, 2018: Insects
Zhan He, Yuan Liu, Lei Wang, Qiu Guo, Shaukat Ali, Xiao-Sheng Chen, Bao-Li Qiu
The assessment of acute toxicity to insect natural enemies is very important for insecticide selection used within integrated pest management (IPM). The acute toxicity of abamectin and imidacloprid against Encarsia formosa , a parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci , was investigated. Abamectin had a high toxicity risk to E. formosa , while imidacloprid showed a medium toxicity risk. When treated with the lethal concentration 30 (LC30 ) of abamectin, the dwelling time of E. formosa in B. tabaci infested-plant-area (IPA) was significantly lower than in non-infested plant areas (non-IPA)...
September 11, 2018: Insects
Qiu-Lin Wu, Gao Hu, John K Westbrook, Gregory A Sword, Bao-Ping Zhai
Many methods for trajectory simulation, such as Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT), have been developed over the past several decades and contributed greatly to our knowledge in insect migratory movement. To improve the accuracy of trajectory simulation, we developed a new numerical trajectory model, in which the self-powered flight behaviors of insects are considered and trajectory calculation is driven by high spatio-temporal resolution weather conditions simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model...
September 5, 2018: Insects
Clara Amy, Grégoire Noël, Séverin Hatt, Roel Uyttenbroeck, Frank Van de Meutter, David Genoud, Frédéric Francis
The decline of pollinators in agricultural areas has been observed for some decades, this being partly due to landscape simplification in intensive agrosystems. Diversifying agricultural landscapes by sowing flower strips within fields could reduce these adverse effects on biodiversity. In this context, the study presented here aimed at assessing and comparing the abundance and diversity of bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) and hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) found and visiting flowers in three types of flower strips in Belgium: (i) a mixture of 11 wild flowers, (ii) a monofloral strip of Dimorphoteca pluvialis (Asteraceae) and (iii) a monofloral strip of Camelina sativa (Brassicaceae), where the last two are considered to be intercrops since they are valuable on the market, all sown within a field of winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L...
September 4, 2018: Insects
Yang Liu, Terry L Erwin, Xingke Yang
Mordellidae (tumbling flower beetles) is a globally distributed family of Coleoptera; it is among the most species-rich families (containing 115 genera and 2308 species described). It is important because of its agroforestry significance and its ecosystem-sustaining attributes. However, the past and current status of Mordellidae research remains unclear. A comprehensive literature review of Mordellidae articles published over the period of 1864⁻2013 based on the Zoological Record was conducted for the first time...
September 3, 2018: Insects
Magdalena M Mair, Nicole Seifert, Joachim Ruther
Interspecific sexual interactions are not uncommon in animals. In sympatry, females often face the risk of accidentally mating with a heterospecific male. Based on the actual risks imposed by the environment at a given time and place, females should be able to adjust their mate acceptance in order to avoid interspecific copulations as well as accidentally refusing to mate with a conspecific. We investigate the ability of females of the two parasitoid wasp species Nasonia vitripennis ( Nv ) and N. longicornis ( Nl ) to adjust their mate acceptance in response to previous unsuccessful courtship by heterospecific males...
September 1, 2018: Insects
Luciana O Oliva, Roseli La Corte, Marcelo O Santana, Cleide M R de Albuquerque
The strategy of Aedes aegypti to prolong embryonic viability by quiescence has severe implications for geographic expansion and maintenance of mosquito populations in areas under control measures. We evaluated the effects of quiescence on biological parameters directly or indirectly associated with population dynamics and vectorial capacity in populations of this mosquito species from two Brazilian municipalities characterized as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika transmission areas. Egg viability, initial hatching time, post-embryonic development time, adult emergence rate, sexual proportion, adult size, fecundity, and fertility were analyzed using eggs stored for 10, 40, 70, 100, 130, and 160 d...
September 1, 2018: Insects
Rana Pooraiiouby, Arvind Sharma, Joshua Beard, Jeremiah Reyes, Andrew Nuss, Monika Gulia-Nuss
Mosquitoes have distinct developmental and adult life history, and the vectorial capacity of females has been shown to be affected by the larval nutritional environment. However, little is known about the effect of developmental nutrition on insulin-signaling and nutrient storage. In this study, we used Aedes aegypti , the yellow fever mosquito, to determine whether larval nutrition affects insulin gene expression. We also determined the traits regulated by insulin signaling, such as stored-nutrient levels and fecundity...
August 30, 2018: Insects
Alessandra R Lima, Cicera M Silva, Cynthia S A Caires, Esmael D Prado, Luciana R P Rocha, Isaias Cabrini, Eduardo J Arruda, Samuel L Oliveira, Anderson R L Caires
Aedes aegypti ( Ae. aegypti ) is a competent vector for transmitting important viral diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. Several strategies have been applied to avoid Ae. aegypti proliferation by using environmental management, biological, and chemical approaches. However, the development of new methods for effective control of the insect vector population is still needed. Photodynamic control is an alternative way to control the vector population by using a physical approach based on the larval phototoxicity of a photosensitizer...
August 30, 2018: Insects
Kaan Kerman, Angela Roggero, Antonio Rolando, Claudia Palestrini
Male horn dimorphism is a rather common phenomenon in dung beetles, where some adult individuals have well-developed head horns (i.e., major males), while others exhibit diminished horn length (i.e., minor males). We focused on horn dimorphism and associated head and pronotum shape variations in Copris lunaris . We examined the allometric relationship between horn length (i.e., cephalic and pronotal horns) and maximum pronotum width (as index of body size) by fitting linear and sigmoidal models for both sexes...
August 22, 2018: Insects
Robert B Srygley
Research on endangered British butterflies has found that butterfly populations in small refuges evolve to allocate more mass to the thorax (flight muscle) and less to the abdomen than populations in large refuges. The observed change in mass allocation affects two morphological features relevant to flight: the flight muscle ratio (FMR) and the position of center of body mass (cmbody ). The author tested whether a decrease in FMR or a change in cmbody reduced the ability to disperse by experimentally weight-loading Neotropical Anartia fatima butterflies...
August 22, 2018: Insects
Tunwadee Klong-Klaew, Ratchadawan Ngoen-Klan, Kittikhun Moophayak, Kom Sukontason, Kim N Irvine, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Pradya Somboon, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap, Hiromu Kurahashi, Kabkaew L Sukontason
Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are carrion-breeding flies that are commonly used as evidence in forensic investigation. An adequate knowledge of ecological and geographical data of blow fly has a direct application in forensic science, as far as estimating time of colonization or corpse relocation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of four species of Chrysomyinae ( Chrysomya pinguis , Chrysomya chani , Chrysomya villeneuvi , and Ceylonomyia nigripes ) across six land use types in central Chiang Mai, northern Thailand...
August 21, 2018: Insects
Dara G Stockton, Anna K Wallingford, Gregory M Loeb
Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, is a major pest of small fruit worldwide in temperate and subtropical growing regions. In Northern climates, D. suzukii likely overwinters locally under leaf litter and snow pack, but our understanding of the factors affecting thermal susceptibility is limited. While previous investigations of thermal susceptibility in this species have employed conventional static acclimation protocols, we aimed to determine whether gradual cooling, or dynamic acclimation, may extend the limits of known thermal tolerance by more closely approximating naturally occurring shifts in temperature...
August 21, 2018: Insects
Steven Angelone, Iván Horacio Piña-Torres, Israel Enrique Padilla-Guerrero, Michael J Bidochka
Different strains of Metarhizium exhibit a range of polymorphisms in colony phenotypes. These phenotypes range from highly conidiating colonies to colonies that produce relatively more mycelia and few conidia. These different phenotypes are exhibited in infected insects in the soil. In this paper, we provide a theoretical consideration of colony polymorphisms and suggest that these phenotypes represent a range of strategies in the soil that Metarhizium exhibits. We call these different strategies "sleepers" and "creepers"...
August 17, 2018: Insects
Rafaella Sayuri Ioshino, Danilo Oliveira Carvalho, Isabel Cristina Santos Marques, Ediane Saraiva Fernandes, Margareth Lara Capurro, André Luis Costa-da-Silva
Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of the urban arboviruses and the blood ingestion is important to produce the eggs in this species. To analyze the egg production in Ae. aegypti , researchers frequently use small cages or Drosophila vials to collect eggs from gravid females. Although it is affordable, the setup is time- and space-consuming, mainly when many mosquitoes need to be individually analyzed. This study presents an easy, cheap, and space-saving method to perform individual oviposition assays in Ae...
August 15, 2018: Insects
Ann E Hajek, Donald C Steinkraus, Louela A Castrillo
Many of the almost 300 species of arthropod-pathogenic fungi in the Entomophthoromycotina (Zoopagomycota) are known for being quite host-specific and are able to cause epizootics. Most species produce two main types of spores, conidia and resting spores. Here, we present a review of the epizootiology of species of Entomophthoromycotina, focusing on their resting spores, and how this stage leads to horizontal transmission and persistence. Cadavers in which resting spores are produced can often be found in different locations than cadavers of the same host producing conidia...
August 14, 2018: Insects
Kitherian Sahayaraj, Natarajan Subash, Robert W Allingham, Vivek Kumar, Pasco B Avery, Lucky K Mehra, Cindy L McKenzie, Lance S Osborne
Entomopathogenic microbes such as Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV), Metarhizium anisopliae , and Pseudomonas fluorescens are biological agents used for the control of multiple arthropod pests. The objective of this study was to assess their effects on the biological parameters of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae, and its natural reduviid predator Rhynocoris kumarii (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) under laboratory conditions. Results suggested that P. fluorescens reduced the food consumption index, relative growth rate, approximate digestibility, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food, and the efficiency of conversion of digested food of S...
August 14, 2018: Insects
Ignacio Alba-Alejandre, Javier Alba-Tercedor, Fernando E Vega
The coffee bean weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Anthribidae), is a cosmopolitan insect with >100 hosts, and has been reported as a pest of stored coffee. During a study involving the coffee berry borer, we observed coffee bean weevils emerging from field-collected coffee berries and used micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT) scans to observe the insect inside the berry. Two eggs had eclosed inside the berry, resulting in observations of a newly eclosed adult beetle and a 5th instar larva, each feeding on one of the two seeds...
August 14, 2018: Insects
Koutaro Ould Maeno, Mohamed Abdallahi Ould Babah Ebbe
Animals often aggregate at certain sites during vulnerable periods such as night-roosting as an anti-predatory strategy. Some migratory gregarious animals must regularly find new night-roosting sites, but how they synchronously choose such sites is poorly understood. We examined how gregarious nymphs of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forskål (Orthoptera: Acrididae), aggregate at certain plants for night-roosting in the Sahara Desert. Migratory bands of last instar nymphs climbed trees around dusk and roosted there overnight...
August 13, 2018: Insects
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