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Bartosz Baran, Michał Krzyżowski, Mikołaj Cup, Jakub Janiec, Mateusz Grabowski, Jacek Francikowski
Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are a group of common metabolites and semiochemicals mediating information transfer between higher organisms and bacteria, either from microbiome or external environment. VFAs commonly occur among various insect orders. There are numerous studies exploring their influence on the behavior of different insect species. In relation to the papers published by J. E. McFarlane in 1985, we assessed the effects of formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and valeric acids on the spatial preference of the lesser mealworm ( Alphitobius diaperinus ), a common pest of stored food grain products and the poultry industry...
March 16, 2018: Insects
Thomas Cahon, Robin Caillon, Sylvain Pincebourde
Arthropods at the surface of plants live in particular microclimatic conditions that can differ from atmospheric conditions. The temperature of plant leaves can deviate from air temperature, and leaf temperature influences the eco-physiology of small insects. The activity of insects feeding on leaf tissues, may, however, induce changes in leaf surface temperatures, but this effect was only rarely demonstrated. Using thermography analysis of leaf surfaces under controlled environmental conditions, we quantified the impact of presence of apple green aphids on the temperature distribution of apple leaves during early infestation...
March 14, 2018: Insects
Belén Cotes, Mónica González, Emilio Benítez, Eva De Mas, Gemma Clemente-Orta, Mercedes Campos, Estefanía Rodríguez
The promotion of native vegetation as a habitat for natural enemies, which could increase their abundance and fitness, is especially useful in highly simplified settings such as Mediterranean greenhouse landscapes. Spiders as generalist predators may also be involved in intra-guild predation. However, the niche complementarity provided by spiders as a group means that increased spider diversity may facilitate complementary control actions. In this study, the interactions between spiders, the two major horticultural pests, Bemisia tabaci and Frankliniella occidentalis , and their naturally occurring predators and parasitoids were evaluated in a mix of 21 newly planted shrubs selected for habitat management in a highly disturbed horticultural system...
March 14, 2018: Insects
Erin Ingram, Douglas Golick
To improve students' understanding and appreciation of insects, entomology education efforts have supported insect incorporation in formal education settings. While several studies have explored student ideas about insects and the incorporation of insects in elementary and middle school classrooms, the topic of how and why insects are incorporated in secondary science classrooms remains relatively unexplored. Using survey research methods, this study addresses the gap in the literature by (1) describing in-service secondary science teachers' incorporation of insects in science classrooms; (2) identifying factors that support or deter insect incorporation and (3) identifying teachers' preferred resources to support future entomology education efforts...
March 14, 2018: Insects
Antoine Lecocq, Amelia A Green, Érika Cristina Pinheiro De Castro, Carl Erik Olsen, Annette B Jensen, Mika Zagrobelny
Honeybees ( Apis mellifera ) pollinate flowers and collect nectar from many important crops. White clover ( Trifolium repens ) is widely grown as a temperate forage crop, and requires honeybee pollination for seed set. In this study, using a quantitative LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) assay, we show that the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin are present in the leaves, sepals, petals, anthers, and nectar of T. repens . Cyanogenic glucosides are generally thought to be defense compounds, releasing toxic hydrogen cyanide upon degradation...
March 13, 2018: Insects
Octavio Menocal, Luisa F Cruz, Paul E Kendra, Jonathan H Crane, Miriam F Cooperband, Randy C Ploetz, Daniel Carrillo
Like other members of the tribe Xyleborini, Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff can cause economic damage in the Neotropics. X. bispinatus has been found to acquire the laurel wilt pathogen Raffaelea lauricola (T. C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva) when breeding in a host affected by the pathogen. Its role as a potential vector of R. lauricola is under investigation. The main objective of this study was to evaluate three artificial media, containing sawdust of avocado ( Persea americana Mill.) and silkbay ( Persea humilis Nash...
February 28, 2018: Insects
Natalia B Petrovskaya, Emily Forbes, Sergei V Petrovskii, Keith F A Walters
Studies addressing many ecological problems require accurate evaluation of the total population size. In this paper, we revisit a sampling procedure used for the evaluation of the abundance of an invertebrate population from assessment data collected on a spatial grid of sampling locations. We first discuss how insufficient information about the spatial population density obtained on a coarse sampling grid may affect the accuracy of an evaluation of total population size. Such information deficit in field data can arise because of inadequate spatial resolution of the population distribution (spatially variable population density) when coarse grids are used, which is especially true when a strongly heterogeneous spatial population density is sampled...
February 27, 2018: Insects
Tilottama Biswas, Gerrit Joop, Charlotte Rafaluk-Mohr
Host-parasite coevolution can influence interactions of the host and parasite with the wider ecological community. One way that this may manifest is in cross-resistance towards other parasites, which has been observed to occur in some host-parasite evolution experiments. In this paper, we test for cross-resistance towards Bacillus thuringiensis and Pseudomonas entomophila in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum , which was previously allowed to coevolve with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana ...
February 26, 2018: Insects
Eileen A Hebets, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Pawl Tisdale, Trish Wonch Hill
Increased integration and synergy between formal and informal learning environments is proposed to provide multiple benefits to science learners. In an effort to better bridge these two learning contexts, we developed an educational model that employs the charismatic nature of arachnids to engage the public of all ages in science learning; learning that aligns with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas associated with Biodiversity and Evolution). We created, implemented, and evaluated a family-focused, interactive science event- Eight-Legged Encounters (ELE )-which encompasses more than twenty modular activities...
February 26, 2018: Insects
Faith J Weeks, Christian Y Oseto
University-based outreach programs have a long history of offering environmental education programs to local schools, but often these lessons are not evaluated for their impact on teachers and students. The impact of these outreach efforts can be influenced by many things, but the instructional delivery method can affect how students are exposed to new topics or how confident teachers feel about incorporating new concepts into the classroom. A study was conducted with a series of university entomology outreach programs using insects as a vehicle for teaching environmental education...
February 23, 2018: Insects
Sergio Andrade-Ochoa, Daniela Sánchez-Aldana, Karla Fabiola Chacón-Vargas, Blanca E Rivera-Chavira, Luvia E Sánchez-Torres, Alejandro D Camacho, Benjamín Nogueda-Torres, Guadalupe Virginia Nevárez-Moorillón
The larvicidal activity of essential oils cinnamon ( Cinnamomum verum J. Presl), Mexican lime ( Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) cumin ( Cuminum cyminum Linnaeus), clove ( Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry), laurel ( Laurus nobilis Linnaeus), Mexican oregano ( Lippia berlandieri Schauer) and anise ( Pimpinella anisum Linnaeus)) and their major components are tested against larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Third instar larvae and pupae are used for determination of lethality and mortality...
February 14, 2018: Insects
Franck Ouessou Idrissou, Qiang Huang, Orlando Yañez, Kayode Lawrence Akinwande, Peter Neumann
Small hive beetles (SHBs), Aethina tumida , are parasites of social bee colonies native to sub-Saharan Africa and have become an invasive species at a global scale. Reliable Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) diagnosis of this mandatory pest is required to limit its further spread and impact. Here, we have developed SHB primers, which amplify for 10 native African locations and 10 reported introductions, but not for three closely related species ( Aethina concolor , Aethina flavicollis , and Aethina inconspicua )...
February 14, 2018: Insects
Yurany Granada, Ana María Mejía-Jaramillo, Clare Strode, Omar Triana-Chavez
Resistance to pyrethroids in mosquitoes is mainly caused by target site insensitivity known as knockdown resistance ( kdr ). In this work, we examined the point mutations present in portions of domains I, II, III, and IV of the sodium channel gene in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from three Colombian municipalities. A partial region coding for the sodium channel gene from resistant mosquitoes was sequenced, and a simple allele-specific PCR-based assay (AS-PCR) was used to analyze mutations at the population level...
February 14, 2018: Insects
Brett M Seymoure
Light is arguably the most important abiotic factor for living organisms. Organisms evolved under specific lighting conditions and their behavior, physiology, and ecology are inexorably linked to light. Understanding light effects on biology could not be more important as present anthropogenic effects are greatly changing the light environments in which animals exist. The two biggest anthropogenic contributors changing light environments are: (1) anthropogenic lighting at night (i.e., light pollution); and (2) deforestation and the built environment...
February 12, 2018: Insects
Reina L Tong, J Kenneth Grace, Paul D Krushelnycky, Helen Spafford
Hawaii is home to over 60 ant species, including five of the six most damaging invasive ants. Although there have been many surveys of ants in Hawaii, the last island-wide hand-collection survey of ants on Oahu was conducted in 1988-1994. In 2012, a timed hand-collection of ants was made at 44 sites in a systematic, roadside survey throughout Oahu. Ants were identified and species distribution in relation to elevation, precipitation and soil type was analyzed. To assess possible convenience sampling bias, 15 additional sites were sampled further from roads to compare with the samples near roads...
February 11, 2018: Insects
Claudia Clarkson, Miranda Mirosa, John Birch
Although locusts can be sustainably produced and are nutrient rich, the thought of eating them can be hard to swallow for many consumers. This paper aims to investigate the nutritional composition of Locusta migratoria, including the properties of extracted locust protein, contributing to limited literature and product development opportunities for industry. Locusts sourced from Dunedin, New Zealand, contained a high amount of protein (50.79% dry weight) and fat (34.93%), which contained high amounts of omega-3 (15...
February 9, 2018: Insects
Christina Sann, Franziska Wemheuer, Alexis Beaurepaire, Rolf Daniel, Silvio Erler, Stefan Vidal
Ongoing intensification of rice production systems in Southeast Asia is causing devastating yield losses each year due to rice hoppers. Their continuing development of immunity to resistant rice varieties and pesticide applications further complicates this problem. Hence, there is a high demand for biological control agents of rice hoppers. Egg parasitoid wasps are among the most important natural enemies of rice hoppers, such as Nilaparvata lugens and Nephotettix spp. However, our knowledge of their diversity is still very limited, due to their small size and the lack of available morphological information...
February 9, 2018: Insects
Kalynka G do Livramento, Natália C Freitas, Wesley P F Máximo, Ronald Zanetti, Luciano V Paiva
Although several ant species are important targets for the development of molecular control strategies, only a few studies focus on identifying and validating reference genes for quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) data normalization. We provide here an extensive study to identify and validate suitable reference genes for gene expression analysis in the ant Atta sexdens, a threatening agricultural pest in South America. The optimal number of reference genes varies according to each sample and the result generated by RefFinder differed about which is the most suitable reference gene...
February 8, 2018: Insects
Shruti Yadav, Sonali Gupta, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model to dissect the molecular components and pathways of the innate anti-pathogen immune response. The nematode parasite Steinernema carpocapsae and its mutualistic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila form a complex that is highly pathogenic to insects, including D. melanogaster. We have used symbiotic (carrying X. nematophila) and axenic (lacking X. nematophila) nematodes to probe the regulation of genes belonging to different immune signaling pathways in D. melanogaster larvae and assess the survival response of certain mutants to these pathogens...
February 8, 2018: Insects
Louise I Lynch, Jenny M Dauer, Wayne A Babchuk, Tiffany Heng-Moss, Doug Golick
A mixed methods study was used to transcend the traditional pre-, post-test approach of citizen science evaluative research by integrating adults' test scores with their perceptions. We assessed how contributory entomology citizen science affects participants' science self-efficacy, self-efficacy for environmental action, nature relatedness and attitude towards insects. Pre- and post-test score analyses from citizen scientists (n = 28) and a control group (n = 72) were coupled with interviews (n = 11) about science experiences and entomological interactions during participation...
February 6, 2018: Insects
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