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Mikhail V Kozlov, Dmitry E Gavrikov, Vitali Zverev, Elena L Zvereva
Insect herbivory imposes stress on host plants. This stress may cause an increase in leaf fluctuating asymmetry (FA), which is defined as the magnitude of the random deviations from a symmetrical leaf shape. We tested the hypothesis that differences in leaf FA among individual shoots of downy birch, Betula pubescens , are at least partly explained by local damage caused by insects in the previous year. Unexpectedly, we found that in the year following the damage imposed by miners, leafrollers and defoliators, damaged birch shoots produced leaves with lower FAs compared to shoots from the same tree that had not been damaged by insects...
May 11, 2018: Insects
Aleš Gregorc, Mohamed Alburaki, Blair Sampson, Patricia R Knight, John Adamczyk
The efficacies of various acaricides in order to control a parasitic mite, the Varroa mite, Varroa destructor , of honey bees, were measured in two different settings, namely, in laboratory caged honey bees and in queen-right honey bee colonies. The Varroa infestation levels before, during, and after the acaricide treatments were determined in two ways, namely: (1) using the sugar shake protocol to count mites on bees and (2) directly counting the dead mites on the hive bottom inserts. The acaricides that were evaluated were coumaphos, tau-fluvalinate, amitraz, thymol, and natural plant compounds (hop acids), which were the active ingredients...
May 10, 2018: Insects
Jovani Ruiz-Toledo, Rémy Vandame, Ricardo Alberto Castro-Chan, Rosa Patricia Penilla-Navarro, Jaime Gómez, Daniel Sánchez
In this paper, we show the results of investigating the presence of organochlorine pesticides in honey and pollen samples from managed colonies of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. and of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin. Three colonies of each species were moved into each of two sites. Three samples of pollen and three samples of honey were collected from each colony: the first collection occurred at the beginning of the study and the following ones at every six months during a year...
May 10, 2018: Insects
Víctor Sarto I Monteys, Glòria Torras I Tutusaus
In this paper, the invasion of a new alien beetle species to Europe, the longhorn Xylotrechus chinensis (Chevrolat) (Cerambycidae), originating from East Asia, is revealed. It has settled in Catalonia (Spain), occupying at present an area of at least 44.1 km², where it has been shown to severely infest (ca. 10 to 45%) and eventually kill mulberry trees in private and public grounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate its impact and provide new significant insights into its life history, seasonality, reproductive capacity (females produce an average of 83...
May 9, 2018: Insects
Guangping Yang, Jihui Wen, Yongqiang Han, Maolin Hou
The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), overwinters as a diapausing larva. The diapausing larvae were tested for a rapid cold hardening (RCH) response and its role in the insect’s survival of sub-zero temperatures. When laboratory-reared diapausing larvae were transferred directly from the rearing temperature of 25 °C to −14 °C and maintained there for 2 h, 21% survived. Acclimation of diapausing larvae for 4 h at 5 °C before their exposure for 2 h to −14 °C increased survival to approximately 41%, indicating an RCH response...
May 9, 2018: Insects
Mika Zagrobelny, Érika Cristina Pinheiro de Castro, Birger Lindberg Møller, Søren Bak
Chemical defences are key components in insect⁻plant interactions, as insects continuously learn to overcome plant defence systems by, e.g., detoxification, excretion or sequestration. Cyanogenic glucosides are natural products widespread in the plant kingdom, and also known to be present in arthropods. They are stabilised by a glucoside linkage, which is hydrolysed by the action of β-glucosidase enzymes, resulting in the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide and deterrent aldehydes or ketones. Such a binary system of components that are chemically inert when spatially separated provides an immediate defence against predators that cause tissue damage...
May 3, 2018: Insects
Grant T McQuate, Jane E Royer, Charmaine D Sylva
Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest fruit fly species native to Oriental Asia which has invaded and established in Hawaii and Tanzania and has been recovered in detection trapping in California. It is largely non-responsive to the male lures cuelure and methyl eugenol. Alpha-ionol + cade oil is a moderately effective male B. latifrons attractant, but is not as attractive as cuelure or methyl eugenol are to other fruit fly species. An improved attractant is therefore desired. With the recent success in finding other non-responsive fruit fly species attracted to isoeugenol, methyl-isoeugenol, or dihydroeugenol in Australia and other countries, we wanted to assess whether B...
May 1, 2018: Insects
Pasco B Avery, Verónica Bojorque, Cecilia Gámez, Rita E Duncan, Daniel Carrillo, Ronald D Cave
Laurel wilt is a disease threatening the avocado industry in Florida. The causative agent of the disease is a fungus vectored by ambrosia beetles that bore into the trees. Until recently, management strategies for the vectors of the laurel wilt fungus relied solely on chemical control and sanitation practices. Beneficial entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are the most common and prevalent natural enemies of pathogen vectors. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that commercial strains of EPF can increase the mortality of the primary vector, Xyleborus glabratus , and potential alternative vectors, Xylosandrus crassiusculus , Xyleborus volvulus and Xyleborus bispinatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)...
April 25, 2018: Insects
Satoshi Kiriyama, Ryûtarô Iwata, Midori Fukaya, Youtaro Hoshino, Yasuyuki Yamanaka
Rosalia batesi Harold (Cerambycidae) is a hardwood boring species endemic to Japan. We investigated the adult mating behavior of this species in the field and laboratory. Most males appeared on mating sites before noon, significantly earlier than females did, in field observations. The female approached and contacted the male; the male responded and started the successive mating sequence, comprising mounting, copulation, and appeasement behavior. Before the encounter, the male raised its fore and mid legs and bent the abdominal tip ventrally...
April 23, 2018: Insects
Antoine Boullis, Solène Blanchard, Frédéric Francis, François Verheggen
Honeydew is considered a cornerstone of the interactions between aphids and their natural enemies. Bacteria activity occurring in aphid honeydew typically results in the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are used by the natural enemies of aphids to locate their prey. Because atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration directly impacts the physiology of plants, we raise the hypothesis that elevated CO₂ concentrations impact the quantity of honeydew produced by aphids, as well as the diversity and quantity of honeydew VOCs, leading to cascade effects on the foraging behavior of aphids' natural enemies...
April 20, 2018: Insects
Marina Mazón, Daniel Sánchez-Angarita, Francisco A Díaz, Néstor Gutiérrez, Ramón Jaimez
Agroforestry systems are environment-friendly production systems which help to preserve biodiversity while providing people with a way of earning a living. Cacao is a historically important crop in Venezuela that traditionally has been produced in agroforestry systems. However, few studies have evaluated how different trees used in those systems affect the dynamics and abundance of insects. The present study evaluated the entomofauna assemblages associated with different combinations of four timber-yielding trees and four Criollo cacao cultivars established in a lowland tropical ecosystem in Venezuela...
April 20, 2018: Insects
Anastasia W Njoroge, Richard W Mankin, Bradley W Smith, Dieudonne Baributsa
Acoustic monitoring was applied to consider hermetic exposure durations and oxygen levels required to stop adult Callosobruchus maculatus activity and economic damage on cowpea. A 15-d study was conducted with six treatments of 25, 50, and 100 C. maculatus adults in 500 and 1000 mL jars using acoustic probes inserted through stoppers sealing the jars. Acoustic activity as a result of locomotion, mating, and egg-laying was measured by identifying sound impulses with frequency spectra representative of known insect sounds, and counting trains (bursts) of impulses separated by intervals of <200 ms, that typically are produced only by insects...
April 20, 2018: Insects
Kerry Wilkinson, Beverly Muhlhausler, Crystal Motley, Anna Crump, Heather Bray, Rachel Ankeny
Insects have long been consumed as part of the diets of many Asian, African, and South American cultures. However, despite international agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations advocating the nutritional, environmental, and economic benefits of entomophagy, attitudinal barriers persist in Western societies. In Australia, the indigenous &lsquo;bush tucker&rsquo; diet comprising witchetty grubs, honey ants, and Bogong moths is quite well known; however, in most Australian locales, the consumption of insects tends to occur only as a novelty...
April 19, 2018: Insects
Rosilawati Rasli, Han Lim Lee, Nazni Wasi Ahmad, Siti Futri Farahininajua Fikri, Roziah Ali, Khairul Asuad Muhamed, Azahari Abdul Hadi, Qi-Yong Liu, Feng Xia Meng
This study is intended to provide a comprehensive characterization of the resistance mechanisms in the permethrin-selected (IMR-PSS) and laboratory susceptible (IMR-LS) Aedes aegypti strain from Malaysia. Both IMR-PSS and IMR-LS provide a standard model for use in assessing the pyrethroid resistance in field-collected strains collected from three dengue hotspots: the Taman Seri Bayu (TSB), the Flat Camar (FC), and the Taman Dahlia (TD). Two established methods for determining the resistance mechanisms of the pyrethroid are the quantification of detoxification enzymes via enzyme microassay and the nucleotide sequencing of the domain 2 region from segment 1 to 6 via classical polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification-were employed...
April 18, 2018: Insects
Deanna S Scheff, Blossom Sehgal, Bhadriraju Subramanyam
The larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (H&uuml;bner), can invade or penetrate packaging materials and infest food products. Energy bars with three polypropylene packaging types were challenged with eggs (first instars), third instars, and fifth instars of P. interpunctella to determine package resistance at 28 &deg;C and 65% r.h. The packing types were also challenged with two male and two female pupae of P. interpunctella under similar conditions in order to determine which package provided the greatest protection against larval penetration...
April 18, 2018: Insects
David R Gray
The pervading paradigm in insect phenology models is that the response to a given temperature does not vary within a life stage. The developmental rate functions that have been developed for general use, or for specific insects, have for the most part been temperature-dependent but not age-dependent, except where age is an ordinal variable designating the larval instar. Age dependence, where age is a continuous variable, is not often reported (or investigated), and is rarely included in phenology models. I provide a short review of the seldom-investigated phenomenon of age dependence in developmental response to temperature, and compare the derivation of the winter moth egg phenology model by Salis et al...
April 11, 2018: Insects
Anne-Kathrin Sieg, Rudolf Teibtner, Daniel Dreesmann
Many insects are threatened with extinction, which in the case of pollinating insects could lead to declining pollination services and reduced ecosystem biodiversity. This necessitates rethinking how we deal with nature in general. Schools are ideal places in which to instill a willingness to behave in an environmentally-friendly way. Whereas scientific studies and school textbooks stress the importance of honeybees as pollinators, the role of bumblebees is either underestimated or neglected. The aim of this study was to provide information concerning student knowledge and attitudes, which are important factors of an individual's environmental awareness...
April 10, 2018: Insects
Md Khalesur Rahman, Mohammad Saiful Islam, Myungjo You
Currently, multi-antigenic vaccine use is the method of choice for the strategic control of ticks. Therefore, determining the efficacy of combined antigens is a promising avenue of research in the development of anti-tick vaccines. The antigen responsible for blood intake and reproduction has proven suitable as a vaccine antigen. It has been shown to silence Haemaphysalis longicornis salivary cystatin (HlSC-1) and subolesin by RNA interference. Adult unfed female ticks were injected with double-stranded RNA of (A) subolesin, (B) cystatin, (C) subolesin plus cystatin, and (D) injection buffer, then fed alongside normal unfed males up to spontaneous drop-down...
April 2, 2018: Insects
Dennis O Ndolo, Josephine M Songa, Gábor L Lövei
Environmental stress can affect trait size and cause an increase in the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of bilateral morphological traits in many animals. For insect parasitoids, feeding of hosts on transgenic maize, expressing a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin gene is a potential environmental stressor. We compared the size of antennae, forewings, and tibia, as well as their FA values, in two parasitoids developed on two East African host species feeding on non-transgenic vs. transgenic maize. The two lepidopteran stem-borer hosts were the native Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and a recent invader, Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)...
March 27, 2018: Insects
Aaron Mullins, Nan-Yao Su
Colony foundation and early growth is a critical period in the life-cycle of a termite colony, as the initial family unit is resource limited. One such resource is nitrogen, which is essential for initial colony growth. This study examined the whole-colony nitrogen inventory during foundation and early growth of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki colonies. It was hypothesized that termite colonies would go through an initial period of parental investment, representing a transfer of nitrogen to the first brood, and that once a functional worker caste was present, further provisioning in the form of intrinsic N₂ fixation would occur...
March 26, 2018: Insects
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