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Karla Addesso, Fulya Baysal-Gurel, Jason Oliver, Christopher Ranger, Paul O'Neal
Flooding can increase tree susceptibility to root rot pathogens as well as attacks by ambrosia beetles attracted to stress-induced ethanol emissions. The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction of a preventative fungicide treatment and root infection with Phytophthora cinnamomi on ambrosia beetle attacks in flood stressed trees. A fungicide (Pageant® Intrinsic® ) was evaluated in two flood trials using Eastern redbud and tulip poplar trees with treatments including the fungicide with or without pathogen or no fungicide with or without pathogen...
July 14, 2018: Insects
Angelita L Acebes-Doria, William R Morrison, Brent D Short, Kevin B Rice, Hayley G Bush, Thomas P Kuhar, Catherine Duthie, Tracy C Leskey
Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive pest of numerous agricultural crops with an increasing global distribution. Finding simple and reliable monitoring tools for H. halys agricultural and surveillance programs is imperative. In 2016, we compared standard pyramid traps to clear sticky cards attached atop wooden stakes and evaluated two commercially formulated lures (Trécé and AgBio) with low and high rates of the H. halys aggregation pheromone (PHER) and pheromone synergist (MDT) at 12 sites (low: 5 mg PHER + 50 mg MDT; high: 20 mg PHER + 200 mg MDT)...
July 8, 2018: Insects
Pascal Querner, Norbert Milasowszky, Klaus Peter Zulka, Max Abensperg-Traun, Wolfgang Willner, Norbert Sauberer, Christine Jakomini, Thomas Wrbka, Ingrid Schmitzberger, Harald G Zechmeister
We assessed the relationships between site size, habitat quality, landscape factors (fragmentation, landscape diversity) and species richness in communities of Collembola in 50 small dry grassland habitat patches in an agricultural landscape of eastern Austria. Grasslands in that region were once widespread and extensive, but have become increasingly fragmented and isolated. We hypothesized that dry grassland springtails species richness is significantly correlated with site variables (soil properties, habitat quality) and that the size of grassland sites is positively correlated with species richness...
July 7, 2018: Insects
Norhayati Ngah, Rebecca L Thomas, Michael W Shaw, Mark D E Fellowes
Plant pathogens can profoundly affect host plant quality as perceived by their insect herbivores, with potentially far-reaching implications for the ecology and structure of insect communities. Changes in host plants may have direct effects on the life-histories of their insect herbivores, which can then influence their value as prey to their natural enemies. While there have been many studies that have explored the effects of infection when plants show symptoms of disease, little is understood about how unexpressed infection may affect interactions at higher trophic levels...
July 6, 2018: Insects
Jiří Danihlík, Mária Škrabišová, René Lenobel, Marek Šebela, Eslam Omar, Marek Petřivalský, Karl Crailsheim, Robert Brodschneider
We investigated the importance of protein nutrition for honey bee immunity. Different protein diets (monofloral pollen of Helianthus spp., Sinapis spp., Asparagus spp., Castanea spp., a mixture of the four different pollen and the pollen substitute FeedbeeTM ) were fed to honey bees in cages ad libitum . After 18 days of feeding, apidaecin 1 isoforms concentration in the thorax were measured using nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Expression levels of genes, coding for apidaecins and abaecin in the abdomen were determined using quantitative PCR...
July 4, 2018: Insects
Perran A Ross, Ary A Hoffmann
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with the w Mel strain of Wolbachia are being deployed to control the spread of arboviruses around the world through blockage of viral transmission. Blockage by Wolbachia in some scenarios may be affected by the susceptibility of w Mel to cyclical heat stress during mosquito larval development. We therefore evaluated the potential to generate a heat-resistant strain of w Mel in Ae. aegypti through artificial laboratory selection and through exposure to field temperatures across multiple generations...
June 30, 2018: Insects
Eric W Riddick, Zhixin Wu, Fred J Eller, Mark A Berhow
BACKGROUND: The discovery of natural products to improve the reproductive performance of mass-reared predators is an important aim for successful augmentative biological control. We tested the hypothesis that quercetin (a bioflavonoid) stimulates oviposition by the ladybird beetle Coleomegilla maculata in the presence of conspecifics and a tissue substrate. METHODS: We conducted bioassays in solitary cages (housing one female) and communal cages (housing 10 females) to estimate daily oviposition site preferences, egg production in response to quercetin in the presence or absence of a tissue paper substrate, and female “resting” positions...
June 29, 2018: Insects
David G James, Lorraine Seymour, Gerry Lauby, Katie Buckley
Big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata ) characterizes and dominates the sagebrush steppe, the largest temperate semi-desert ecosystem in North America. The beneficial arthropod fauna hosted by A. tridentata is poorly known but could be of importance to nearby agriculture seeking to exploit biologically-based pest management. Over four years, we identified and assessed the seasonal abundance of beneficial arthropods (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) associated with A. tridentata during spring to autumn in the Yakima Valley of central Washington using sticky traps...
June 28, 2018: Insects
Gadi V P Reddy, Govinda Shrestha, Debra A Miller, A Cameron Oehlschlager
The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus , is an important pest of field peas and faba beans worldwide. Present sampling techniques that rely on detection of adult feeding damage are labor intensive, time consuming and require repeated sampling. Semiochemical-based pest monitoring systems could improve pea leaf weevil management. This study, which was conducted in the Golden Triangle region of Montana, tested several factors that potentially might affect capture rates of pheromone-baited traps, including trap and lure type and trap placement...
June 27, 2018: Insects
Trust Kasambala Donga, Richard Meadow
Sugarcane is one of the most valuable crops in the world. Native and exotic Lepidopteran stemborers significantly limit sugarcane production. However, the identity and genetic diversity of stemborers infesting sugarcane in Malawi is unknown. The main objectives for this study were to identify and determine genetic diversity in stemborers infesting sugarcane in Malawi. We conducted field surveys between June 2016 and March 2017 in the Lower Shire Valley district of Chikwawa and Nsanje, southern Malawi. Molecular identification was based amplification the partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene region...
June 22, 2018: Insects
Maria Elena Mura, Luca Ruiu
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the insecticidal compound spinosad on the survival, reproduction, and immune functions of the Mediterranean fruit fly. The lethal and sub-lethal effects were determined on Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae) challenged with different concentrations of spinosad. A median lethal concentration of 0.28 ppm was observed on flies feeding for 5 days on a treated diet. A significant and concentration-dependent decrease in fecundity, egg hatch rate, and lifespan was also detected in treated compared with control flies...
June 21, 2018: Insects
Sophie Labaude, Christine T Griffin
Entomopathogenic nematodes from the two genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are widely used as biological agents against various insect pests and represent a promising alternative to replace pesticides. Efficacy and biocontrol success can be enhanced through improved understanding of their biology and ecology. Many endogenous and environmental factors influence the survival of nematodes following application, as well as their transmission success to the target species. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the major topics currently considered to affect transmission success of these biological control agents, including interactions with insects, plants and other members of the soil biota including conspecifics...
June 20, 2018: Insects
James J Odanga, Samira Mohamed, Sizah Mwalusepo, Florence Olubayo, Richard Nyankanga, Fathiya Khamis, Ivan Rwomushana, Tino Johansson, Sunday Ekesi
Avocado ( Persea americana ) fruits are an important source of income and a nutritious food for small-scale growers and other stakeholders involved in farming along the Afrotropical highlands of Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro in Kenya and Tanzania, respectively. Avocado fruits are infested by several insect pests, namely the Asian invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, there is inadequate information on the distribution patterns of these pests in small-scale avocado cropping systems in the East African highlands...
June 19, 2018: Insects
Rafaela F Amatuzzi, Carolina G Poitevin, Alex S Poltronieri, Maria A C Zawadneak, Ida C Pimentel
Duponchelia fovealis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an invasive species that has had a large impact on strawberry crops in Brazil. Pesticides have had limited effectiveness and the use of biological control agents to improve its management is the most appropriate approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity and virulence of entomopathogenic fungi—isolated from soil—against Duponchelia fovealis larvae under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Pathogenicity screenings were performed for twenty isolates from Beauveria bassiana , Beauveria caledonica , Isaria javanica , Metarhizium anisopliae , and Lecanicillium sp...
June 19, 2018: Insects
Thiago Castro, Rafael de Andrade Moral, Clarice Garcia Borges Demétrio, Italo Delalibera, Ingeborg Klingen
Neozygites floridana is a pathogenic fungus and natural enemy of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), which is an important polyphagous plant pest. The aim of this study was to reveal and predict what combination of temperature, relative humidity (RH), and time that enables and promotes primary conidia production and capilliconidia formation in N. floridana (Brazilian isolate ESALQ 1420), in both a detached leaf assay mimicking climatic conditions in the leaf boundary layer and in a semi-field experiment...
June 19, 2018: Insects
Rebecca McQuade, S Patricia Stock
Many Gram-negative bacteria have evolved insect pathogenic lifestyles. In all cases, the ability to cause disease in insects involves specific bacterial proteins exported either to the surface, the extracellular environment, or the cytoplasm of the host cell. They also have several distinct mechanisms for secreting such proteins. In this review, we summarize the major protein secretion systems and discuss examples of secreted proteins that contribute to the virulence of a variety of Gram-negative entomopathogenic bacteria, including Photorhabdus , Xenorhabdus , Serratia , Yersinia , and Pseudomonas species...
June 19, 2018: Insects
Danny Haelewaters, Thomas Hiller, Michał Gorczak, Donald H Pfister
Harmonia axyridis is an invasive ladybird (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) with the potential to outcompete native ladybird species in its invasive distribution area. It was introduced as a biological control agent in many countries but has also spread unintentionally in many others. Hesperomyces virescens (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) is a minute (200⁻400 µm in size) biotrophic fungus that infects over 30 species of ladybirds. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the elytral color pattern, size, and sex of Ha...
June 15, 2018: Insects
Changzhen Zhang, Jiahao Cai, Deqin Xiao, Yaowen Ye, Mohammad Chehelamirani
Pest early warning technology is part of the prerequisite for the timely and effective control of pest outbreaks. Traditional pest warning system with artificial mathematical statistics, radar, and remote sensing has some deficiency in many aspects, such as higher cost, weakness of accuracy, low efficiency, and so on. In this study, Pest image data was collected and information about four major vegetable pests ( Bemisia tabaci ( Gennadius ), Phyllotreta striolata ( Fabricius ), Plutella xylostella ( Linnaeus ), and Frankliniella occidentalis ( Pergande ) ( Thysanoptera , Thripidae )) in southern China was extracted...
June 13, 2018: Insects
Mohamed Alburaki, Deniz Chen, John A Skinner, William G Meikle, David R Tarpy, John Adamczyk, Scott D Stewart
In order to study the in situ effects of the agricultural landscape and exposure to pesticides on honey bee health, sixteen honey bee colonies were placed in four different agricultural landscapes. Those landscapes were three agricultural areas with varying levels of agricultural intensity (AG areas) and one non-agricultural area (NAG area). Colonies were monitored for different pathogen prevalence and pesticide residues over a period of one year. RT-qPCR was used to study the prevalence of seven different honey bee viruses as well as Nosema sp...
June 13, 2018: Insects
Giuliano Pauli, Gabriel Moura Mascarin, Jørgen Eilenberg, Italo Delalibera Júnior
We provide insights into how the interactions of two entomopathogenic fungi and a virus play a role in virulence, disease development, and pathogen reproduction for an economically important insect crop pest, the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). In our model system, we highlight the antagonistic effects of the co-inoculation of Beauveria bassiana and granulovirus (DisaGV) on virulence, compared to their single counterparts. By contrast, combinations of Metarhizium anisopliae and B...
June 13, 2018: Insects
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