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Belén Lumbierres, Filipe Madeira, Xavier Pons
Oenopia conglobata is one of the most common ladybird species in urban green areas of the Mediterranean region. We have obtained data about its prey acceptability and prey preferences. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated the acceptability of seven aphid and one psyllid species as prey for this coccinellid: the aphids Chaitophorus populeti, Aphis gossypii, Aphis craccivoraMonelliopsis caryae, Eucallipterus tiliae, Aphis nerii (on white poplar, pomegranate, false acacia, black walnut, lime, and oleander, respectively), and the psyllid Acizziajamatonica on Persian silk tree...
January 12, 2018: Insects
David Mall, Ashley E Larsen, Emily A Martin
Transforming modern agriculture towards both higher yields and greater sustainability is critical for preserving biodiversity in an increasingly populous and variable world. However, the intensity of agricultural practices varies strongly between crop systems. Given limited research capacity, it is crucial to focus efforts to increase sustainability in the crop systems that need it most. In this study, we investigate the match (or mismatch) between the intensity of pesticide use and the availability of knowledge on the ecosystem service of natural pest control across various crop systems...
January 5, 2018: Insects
Johanna E Elsensohn, Gregory M Loeb
Invasive, polyphagous crop pests subsist on a number of crop and non-crop resources. While knowing the full range of host species is important, a seasonal investigation into the use of non-crop plants adjacent to cropping systems provide key insights into some of the factors determining local population dynamics. This study investigated the infestation of non-crop plants by the invasive Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), a pest of numerous economically important stone and small fruit crops, by sampling fruit-producing non-crop hosts adjacent to commercial plantings weekly from June through November in central New York over a two-year period...
January 3, 2018: Insects
Peter Wüst-Ackermann, Christian Vollmer, Christoph Randler, Heike Itzek-Greulich
The introduction of living invertebrates into the classroom was investigated. First, possible anchor points for a lesson with living invertebrates are explored by referring to the curriculum of primary/secondary schools and to out-of-school learning. The effectiveness of living animals for increasing interest, motivation, and achievement in recent research is discussed. Next, the Vivarium, an out-of-school learning facility with living invertebrates, is described. The effects of an intervention study with living invertebrates on achievement are then investigated at school (School condition) and out of school (University condition); a third group served as a control condition...
January 2, 2018: Insects
Erin E McMahan, Christelle Guédot
Sparganothis fruitworm (Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a serious pest of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton), a native North American fruit cultivated in northern regions of the United States and southeastern Canada. This study assessed antibiosis in several cranberry cultivars commonly grown in Wisconsin. Five cultivars previously shown to host different levels of populations of S. sulfureana in commercial cranberry were assessed in this study to evaluate the performance of S...
January 2, 2018: Insects
Asma Zeiri, Muhammad Z Ahmed, Andrew G S Cuthbertson, Mohamed Braham, Mohamed Braham
The almond bark beetle, Scolytus amygdali Geurin-Meneville, is responsible for significant loss of fruit production in almond orchards throughout the world. Here, we studied the damage and the incidences of S. amygdali attack on two different scales: (1) at the level of a single tree; and (2) in an entire orchard. Our results revealed no differences in attack level among four orientations (east, west, south and north sides) for the whole tree. However, the bark that was facing west side in the direction of the prevailing wind was found to be the most suitable for females to initiate attack in Stratum S2...
January 1, 2018: Insects
Kirsten E Poff, Heather Stever, Jonathan B Reil, Priscilla Seabourn, Alexander J Ching, Sayaka Aoki, Mitchel Logan, Jennifer R Michalski, Jessika Santamaria, Jesse W Adams, Jesse A Eiben, Joanne Y Yew, Curtis P Ewing, Karl N Magnacca, Gordon M Bennett
Insects associate with a diversity of microbes that can shape host ecology and diversity by providing essential biological and adaptive services. For most insect groups, the evolutionary implications of host-microbe interactions remain poorly understood. Geographically discrete areas with high biodiversity offer powerful, simplified model systems to better understand insect-microbe interactions. Hawaii boasts a diverse endemic insect fauna (~6000 species) characterized by spectacular adaptive radiations. Despite this, little is known about the role of bacteria in shaping this diversity...
December 19, 2017: Insects
Federico Tacoli, Nicola Mori, Alberto Pozzebon, Elena Cargnus, Sarah Da Vià, Pietro Zandigiacomo, Carlo Duso, Francesco Pavan
The leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus is the vector of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis', the causal agent of Flavescence dorée (FD) a key disease for European viticulture. In organic vineyards, the control of S. titanus relies mostly on the use of pyrethrins that have suboptimal efficacy. During 2016, three field trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of kaolin, orange oil, insecticidal soap and spinosad against S. titanus nymphs, in comparison with pyrethrins. The activity of kaolin was evaluated also in the laboratory...
December 16, 2017: Insects
Michael S Crossley, Shawn A Steffan, David J Voegtlin, Krista L Hamilton, David B Hogg
Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is a pest of soybean in the northern Midwest whose migratory patterns have been difficult to quantify. Improved knowledge of soybean aphid overwintering sites could facilitate the development of control efforts with exponential impacts on aphid densities on a regional scale. In this preliminary study, we explored the utility of variation in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to distinguish soybean aphid overwintering origins. We compared variation in bulk 13C and 15N content in buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L...
December 5, 2017: Insects
Lilia I de Guzman, Amanda M Frake, Michael Simone-Finstrom
Gamma irradiation is known to inactivate various pathogens that negatively affect honey bee health. Bee pathogens, such as Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Nosema spp., have a deleterious impact on foraging activities and bee survival, and have been detected in combs. In this study, we assessed the effects of gamma irradiation on the flight activities, pathogen load, and survival of two honey bee stocks that were reared in irradiated and non-irradiated combs. Overall, bee genotype influenced the average number of daily flights, the total number of foraging flights, and total flight duration, in which the Russian honey bees outperformed the Italian honey bees...
November 29, 2017: Insects
Lucas L S Peres, Ana I Sobreiro, Irys F S Couto, Rosicléia M Silva, Fabricio F Pereira, Silvia C Heredia-Vieira, Claudia A L Cardoso, Munir Mauad, Silvana P Q Scalon, Sandra S Verza, Rosilda M Mussury
Successive applications of insecticides to control Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) have resulted in the emergence of resistant populations of this insect. A novel control measure for this target insect could be the use of botanical insecticides derived from plant tissues. Hence, we experimentally tested aqueous extracts of Alibertia edulis (Rich.), Alibertia intermedia (Mart.), and Alibertia sessilis (Vell.) K. Schum. found in the Brazilian savannah in order to investigate their potential to disrupt the life cycle of P...
November 22, 2017: Insects
Kátia Kaelly Andrade Sousa, Roberto da Silva Camargo, Luiz Carlos Forti
Leaf-cutting ants are insects that use plant material to grow fungus from which they feed. These fungus-growing ants perform various behavioral activities to establish an environment conducive to the fungus. Among these behaviors are activities that can serve to detect materials harmful to the colony, such as licking, scraping, chopping, etc. However, there are substances that may not be detected as harmful to the fungus on first contact. Cycloheximide (CHX) is one such substance, described as a fungicide that inhibits the synthesis of proteins in eukaryotes, although its mechanism of action remains unclear...
November 21, 2017: Insects
Laurent Kremmer, Marcel Thaon, Nicolas Borowiec, Jean David, Marylène Poirié, Jean-Luc Gatti, Nicolas Ris
The spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Ds), became a major economic pest for fruit production since its establishment in Europe and America. Among potential control methods, only classical biological control appears to be a mean of sustainably regulating Ds in both cultivated and natural habitats. In the frame of risk assessment, pre-release surveys were carried out in a restricted but highly heterogeneous area in the south-east of France using traps and deliberate field exposures of Ds and D. melanogaster larvae/pupae...
November 16, 2017: Insects
Luis F Aristizábal, Melissa Johnson, Suzanne Shriner, Robert Hollingsworth, Nicholas C Manoukis, Roxana Myers, Paul Bayman, Steven P Arthurs
The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges. Here, we outline the CBB situation, and summarize the findings of growers, researchers, and extension professionals working with CBB in Hawaii. Recommendations for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for CBB in Hawaiian Islands and Puerto Rico include: (1) establish a CBB monitoring program, (2) synchronize applications of insecticides with peak flight activity of CBB especially during the early coffee season, (3) conduct efficient strip-picking as soon as possible after harvest and perform pre-harvest sanitation picks in CBB hotspots if needed, (4) establish protocols to prevent the escape of CBB from processing areas and when transporting berries during harvest, and (5) stump prune by blocks...
November 14, 2017: Insects
Travis L Calkins, Peter M Piermarini
Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens that cause diseases of medical and veterinary importance. Female mosquitoes transmit these pathogens while taking a blood meal, which most species require to produce eggs. The period after a blood meal is a time of extreme physiological change that requires rapid coordination of specific tissues. Gap junctions (GJ) are intercellular channels that aid in the coordination of cells within tissues via the direct transfer of certain small molecules and ions between cells. Evolutionarily distinct groups of proteins form the gap junctions of vertebrate and invertebrate animals (connexins and innexins, respectively)...
November 6, 2017: Insects
Christoph Hoffmann, Janine Köckerling, Sandra Biancu, Thomas Gramm, Gertraud Michl, Martin H Entling
Greencover crops are widely recommended to provide predators and parasitoids with floral resources for improved pest control. We studied parasitism and predation of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) eggs and pupae as well as predatory mite abundances in an experimental vineyard with either one or two sowings of greencover crops compared to spontaneous vegetation. The co-occurrence between greencover flowering time and parasitoid activity differed greatly between the two study years. Parasitism was much higher when flowering and parasitoid activity coincided...
November 3, 2017: Insects
A M Jauset, E Edo-Tena, P M Parés-Casanova, C Castañé, N Agustí, O Alomar
Within the genus Macrolophus (Heteroptera: Miridae), the species M. costalis (Fieber), M. melanotoma (Costa) and M. pygmaeus (Rambur) are present in the Mediterranean region on a wide variety of plant species. While M. costalis can easily be separated from the other two by the black tip at the scutellum, M. pygmaeus and M. melanotoma are cryptic species, extremely similar to one another in external traits, which has resulted in misidentifications. M. pygmaeus is an efficient biological control agent, both in greenhouse and field crops...
November 1, 2017: Insects
Vivek Kumar, Pasco B Avery, Juthi Ahmed, Ronald D Cave, Cindy L McKenzie, Lance S Osborne
Horticultural oils are an important component of integrated management programs of several phytophagous arthropods and pathogens affecting fruit, ornamentals and vegetables in greenhouse and field production systems. Although effective against the target pest, their incompatibility with biological control agents can compromise efforts to develop eco-friendly management programs for important agricultural pests. In this study, we assessed the in vitro effect of selected refined petroleum oils used in citrus and other horticultural crops with a biopesticide containing the entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea (PFR-97) under laboratory conditions...
October 31, 2017: Insects
Justin M Renkema, Rosemarije Buitenhuis, Rebecca H Hallett
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a recent invasive pest of soft fruits in North and South America and Europe. Control relies on frequent applications of synthetic insecticides. Additional tactics are needed for development of an effective integrated pest management program. Study objectives were to evaluate the repellency and oviposition deterrent capability of compounds in plant essential oils and the effect of select compounds on infestation rates in strawberries, using laminate polymer flakes as a carrier...
October 31, 2017: Insects
Michael K Rust
The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché) is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. It has been two decades since the last comprehensive review concerning the biology and ecology of C. f. felis and its management. Since then there have been major advances in our understanding of the diseases associated with C. f. felis and their implications for humans and their pets. Two rickettsial diseases, flea-borne spotted fever and murine typhus, have been identified in domestic animal populations and cat fleas...
October 27, 2017: Insects
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