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Tropical Life Sciences Research

Retno Wahyuningrum, Pri Iswati Utami, Binar Asrining Dhiani, Malikhah Kumalasari, Rizka Sari Kusumawardani
Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk) is a traditional medicinal plant used for its aphrodisiac values. This plant was originated Dieng Plateu, Central Java, Indonesia. Purwoceng has been reported to contain steroid, flavonoids, glycoside, saponins, tannins, and phenolic. Based on secondary metabolite compounds of Purwoceng herbs, a research need to be done to determine the other potential free radicals scavenger and antibacterial activities of Purwoceng. The objectives of this research are to screen the potential free radicals scavenger activity of in vitro using DPPH (1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil) radicals and NO• (nitric oxide) radicals, and antibacterial activity of Purwoceng...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Zakiah Ramle, Rashidah Abdul Rahim
A lipase producer psychrophilic microorganism isolated from Arctic sample was studied. The genomic DNA of the isolate was extracted using modified CTAB method. Identification of the isolate by morphological and 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that the isolate is closely related to Arthrobacter gangotriensis (97% similarity). A. gangotriensis was determined as positive lipase producer based on the plate screening using specific and sensitive plate assay of Rhodamine B. The PCR result using Arthrobacter sp...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Nidyaletchmy Subba Reddy, Rashidah Abdul Rahim, Darah Ibrahim, K Sudesh Kumar
We report on the cloning of the lipase gene from Bacillus licheniformis IBRL-CHS2 and the expression of the recombinant lipase. DNA sequencing analysis of the cloned lipase gene showed that it shares 99% identity with the lipase gene from B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 and belongs to subfamily 1.4 of true lipases based on amino acid sequence alignment of various Bacillus lipases. The 612 bp lipase gene was then cloned into the pET-15b(+) expression vector and the construct was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) for bulk expression of the lipase...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Khor Soo Ping, Rahmad Zakaria, Sreeramanan Subramaniam
Throughout the cryopreservation process, plants were exposed to a series of abiotic stresses such as desiccation and osmotic pressure due to highly concentrated vitrification solution. Abiotic stress stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which include hydrogen peroxide, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen. Higher production of ROS may lead to oxidative stress which contributes to the major injuries in cryopreserved explants. Antioxidant enzymes in plant such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX) can protect plants from cell damage by scavenging the free radicals...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Elisa Julianti, Herla Rusmarilin, Ridwansyah, Era Yusraini
Three composite flours were prepared by combining rice flour, potato starch, sweet potato flour, soybean flour, and xanthan gum in the ratio of 30: 15: 50: 4.5: 0.5; 30: 15: 45: 9.5: 0.5; and 30: 15: 40: 14.5: 0.5, were analysed for selected physical, chemical, functional, and rheological properties. Fat, protein, ash, and crude fibre content were found to increase with increase in the ratio of soybean flour and decrease in the ratio of sweet potato flour in the mixture. The composite flours were not significantly different in water and oil absorption capacity, swelling power, and baking expansion...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Kalaivani Muniandy, Prabu Siva Sankar, Benedict Lian Shi Xiang, Alan Khoo Soo-Beng, Venugopal Balakrishnan, Nethia Mohana-Kumaran
Spheroids have been shown to recapitulate the tumour in vivo with properties such as the tumour microenvironment, concentration gradients, and tumour phenotype. As such, it can serve as a platform for determining the growth and invasion behaviour pattern of the cancer cells as well as be utilised for drug sensitivity assays; capable of exhibiting results that are closer to what is observed in vivo compared to two-dimensional (2D) cell culture assays. This study focused on establishing a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture model using the Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) cell line, HK1 and analysing its growth and invasion phenotypes...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Wan Fatma Zuharah, Nik Fadzly, Wilson Ong Kang Wei, Zarul Hazrin Hashim
To understand the effects of fish predator's kairomones on Aedes mosquitoes' oviposition, we established an experiment using gravid Aedes females. Kairomones concentrations were established using Hampala macrolepidota. One individual fish was placed inside containers with varying water levels (1 L, 5 L, and 10 L of water). The fish were kept in the containers for 24 hours and were removed immediately at the start of each trial in order to have the kairomones remnants. Twenty gravid adult females of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were allowed to lay eggs on oviposition site with various treatments: (1) control without any kairomones; (2) kairomone remnant in 1 L of water; (3) kairomone remnant in 5 L of water; and (4) kairomone remnant in 10 L of water...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Teh Chiew Peng, Thiyagarajan Vengatesen, Aileen Tan Shau Hwai
The influence of the cool and warm temperatures on early life development and survival of tropical oyster, Crassostrea iredalei was studied. D-hinged larvae (day 1 larvae) were reared to three different temperatures (20°C, 27°C, and 34°C) for nine days. Oyster larvae reared in temperature 27°C, acted as control (ambient temperature). The highest survival rate occurred when the larvae were reared in 20°C and 27°C. Larvae reared at 34°C exhibited reduced survival but increase in the growth rate. The growth rate in larvae reared in high temperature (34°C) was significantly higher compared to larvae reared in 20°C and 27°C (p<0...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Rachadaporn Benchawattananon
Dansai District is located in Loei Province, Northeast Thailand, rich in natural resources and composes of many kinds of forests, such as evergreen forests and mixed-deciduous forests. The objectives of the study are to determine the diversity of mushrooms and investigate the values of the forest influencing the community way of life and exploration of problems and guidelines for developing the forest along with sufficiency economy theory. The study includes compilation of data from past studies, semi-structured interview with the local communities and discussion with focus group...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Sufian Maryam, Nik Fadzly, Wan Fatma Zuharah
Paederus fuscipes Curtis is a nocturnal insect. The attractiveness of artificial light sources from residential premises eventually causes the risk of severe dermatitis effect, once Paederus is in contact with human skin. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the light and height factors of residential buildings and its' association to rice cultivation phases are primary reasons for P. fuscipes's mass dispersal into human residential areas. The study site was located in residential premises that were built adjacent to rice field areas (≈ 32-60 m and 164 m) north of the rice field located in Teluk Air Tawar, mainland of Pulau Pinang...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Mahadi Mohammad, Zaharatul Naa'imah Apandi, Hana Abdul Wahab Marican, Nadthikphorn Kamphol, Nur Ain Amani Abdul Mubin, Sazlina Salleh, Md Nizam Ismail
Coral reefs in the northern region of the Straits of Malacca have a diverse group of octocorals growing on its bed. The octocorals identified in this study are from islands along the Straits. In this study, 23 specimens were identified, belonging to 4 sub-orders, which have been subdivided into 8 families. From these 8 families, 15 different genera have been identified. The identification process for this research was conducted based on five important keys; the external form and colouration, polyps or colonial and fundamental structure of colonies, monomorphic or dimorphic, the arrangement of polyps, and the arrangement of sclerites...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Nurul Fazlinda Mohd Fadzil, Amir Shah Ruddin Md Sah, Mohd Shafiq Zakeyuddin, Zarul Hazrin Hashim, Mohd Syaiful Mohammad, Khalid Puteh
A study was conducted at five selected rivers around Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak, Malaysia for eight weeks in order to determine the fish diversity and distribution. A total of 28 species comprised of 9 families were identified. The study depicted that there were significant changes to the fish composition when compared to previous study which had captured 36 species due to different areas covered and different types of sampling gear used between both studies.
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Nur Aqilah Muhamad Darif, Nur Shakila Abdul Samad, Sazlina Salleh, Mahadi Mohammad, Noor Alia Ahmad Nordin, Aysha Mariam Mohamed Javeed, Michelle Glory G Jonik, Muhamad Hilal Mohd Zainudin
Benthic faunal communities are important components in the intertidal zones. The diversity and abundance of the benthic communities are subjected to different natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The study was conducted as one off sampling on 6th November 2013 (1) to investigate the abundance and distribution of soft sediment communities in relation to environmental variables and (2) investigate the changes of population structure and diversity using spatial scales of 1 m, 10 m, and 100 m. Results indicated a total of 110 individuals of macrobenthos consisting of 7 different groups (Annelida, Bivalvia, Crustacea, Gastropoda, Nematoda, Nemertea, Polychaeta) and 4 different groups of meiobenthos (Copepoda, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Polychaeta) consisting 920 individuals were recorded...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Nor Aziella Mohd Rosli, Khaironizam Md Zain
Like many other countries, reservoirs in Malaysia are primarily built for various functions such as hydroelectric power generation, drinking water supply, flood mitigation and irrigation for agricultural purposes. Artisanal fisheries activities were also performed in these reservoirs. The freshwater fish are a requisite source of protein for the rural population. Consequently, the fish resources in reservoirs should be carefully maintained at sustainable level. Present study elucidates the preliminary assessment on autecological studies of beardless barb, Cyclocheilichthys apogon as a model of fish biota in Muda Reservoir...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Kotchakorn Rattanama, Manasawan Saengsakda Pattaratumrong, Prawit Towatana, Koraon Wongkamhaeng
Songkhla Lake is known as the most popular area for gammarid amphipod studies in the Gulf of Thailand. The first gammarid amphipod study was investigated in 1925 by Chilton. After that, there are various studies including diversity, ecology, and biology. In this study, gammarid amphipod in Songkhla Lake were collected from year 2010 to 2014. In this study, three newly recorded amphipods had been reported namely Hyale dollfusi Chevreux, 1911, Grandidierella megnae (Giles, 1888), and Hourstonius japonica (Hirayama, 1983) which had not been previously reported from the Thai waters...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Geraldine Olive Ju Lien Chang, Lai Ven Inn, Aileen Tan Shau Hwai, Zulfigar Yasin
A small scale laboratory study was conducted to determine the effects of salinity ranging from 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 ppt on the filtration rates of juvenile oyster Crassostrea iredalei with 25 ppt as the control. Three juvenile oysters (shell weight: 1.04 ± 0.12 g; shell length: 1.9 ± 0.2 cm; shell height: 1.9 ± 0.1 cm) were used to test the filtration rates in each salinity over the course of 8 hours. The hourly filtration rates were determined from the exponential decrease in algal (Chaetoceros calcitrans) concentration as a function of time...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Chee Su Yin, Sim Yee Kwang
Land reclamation in Penang began two decades ago and is still rampant with large reclamation projects planned to be executed in the near future. The present study provides the first information on effects of land reclamation in Penang towards the coastal macroinvertebrates. This study assessed the abundance, diversity, and evenness of coastal invertebrates assumed to be the foremost affected when land is reclaimed. Three kinds of areas were focused on: reclaimed, unclaimed (adjacent to reclaimed), and undisturbed...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Azma Hanim Ismail, Anis Amalina Mohd Adnan
The distribution and abundance of zooplankton species of Harapan and Aman Lakes were investigated in relation to physical parameters and chlorophyll-a content. Both lakes were characterised by the occurrence of algal bloom problem. The composition of zooplankton was collected at monthly intervals from November 2013 to February 2014. The total number of taxa in Harapan and Aman Lakes were 23 and 27, respectively. Rotifera was the highest abundance group represent 64% of the total species recorded followed by Copepoda (29%) and Cladocera (7%)...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Amelia Ng Phei Fang, Teh Chiew Peng, Poi Khoy Yen, Zulfigar Yasin, Aileen Tan Shau Hwai
The effects of salinity on the embryonic and larvae stage of Crassostrea iredalei were investigated. Fertilised eggs and one day old D-larvae were subjected to salinities ranging from 0 to 30 ppt at temperature of 30±2°C. At salinity lower than 10 ppt, 100% mortality was observed. For embryo development, the highest survival was observed at salinity 25 ppt with 80.9±2.2% survival with no significant difference compared to 15 and 30 ppt. Shell height and length were both greatest at salinity 30 ppt. Throughout the 11 days culture, the highest larval survival occurred at salinity 15 ppt with no significant difference compared to all other salinities except 10 ppt...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Ranjetta Poobathy, Rahmad Zakaria, Syed Mohd Edzham Syed Hamzah, Sreeramanan Subramaniam
The terrestrial Ludisia discolor, also referred to as the jewel orchid is prized for the quality of its leaves. L. discolor is known as a medicinal herb and is touted for its heat- and pathogen-resisting qualities. L. discolor is valuable in the production of both flavonoids and anthocyanins, antioxidants that are exalted in the health industry. Plant cell cultures have emerged as alternative sources of anthocyanin production. Plant protoplast cultures are used frequently in transient gene expression studies and in the establishment of callus and cell suspension cultures...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
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