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Tropical Life Sciences Research

Dhanya Radhamany, Karumampoyil Sakthidas Anoop Das, Parappurath Abdul Azeez, Longying Wen, Leelambika Krishnan Sreekala
The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a widely distributed bird species found throughout the world. Being a species which has close association with humans, they chiefly nest on man-made structures. Here we describe the materials used by the house sparrow for making nests along an urban to rural gradient. For the current study, we selected the Coimbatore to Anaikatty road (State Highway-164), a 27 km inter-state highway, which traverses along an urban core to rural outstretch of Coimbatore. Of the 30 nests observed, 15 nests were from the rural, 8 were from the suburban, and 7 were from the urban areas...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Mohammad Bodrul Munir, Roshada Hashim, Mohammad Suhaimee Abdul Manaf, Siti Azizah Mohd Nor
This study used a two-phase feeding trial to determine the influence of selected dietary prebiotics and probiotics on growth performance, feed utilisation, and morphological changes in snakehead (Channa striata) fingerlings as well as the duration of these effects over a post-experimental period without supplementation. Triplicate groups of fish (22.46 ±0.17 g) were raised on six different treatment diets: three prebiotics (0.2% β-glucan, 1% galacto-oligosaccharides [GOS], 0.5% mannan-oligosaccharides [MOS]), two probiotics (1% live yeast [Saccharomyces cerevisiae] and 0...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Nga Shi Yeu, Farah Alia Nordin, Ahmad Sofiman Othman
Five new records of terrestrial and lithophytic orchid species were gathered from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia namely Bulbophyllum depressum, Goodyera pusilla, Peristylus monticola, Podochilus microphyllus, and Zeuxine gracilis. Checklist of each species is provided and their distribution in Penang Hill is discussed.
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Wan Fatma Zuharah, Maniam Thiagaletchumi, Nik Fadzly
The interaction between plants and insects is dynamic, and may favour either the plant or the insect. Plant chemicals are deeply implicated in this relationship and influence insect behaviour. Here, we investigated the oviposition behaviour response of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes based on the colour cues produced by Ipomoea cairica leaves extract. In this study, two sets of oviposition choice experiments were conducted: (1) single solution in a cage; and (2) multiple concentration solutions in a cage...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Lye Huey Shi, Kunasundari Balakrishnan, Kokila Thiagarajah, Nor Ismaliza Mohd Ismail, Ooi Shao Yin
Probiotics are live microorganisms that can be found in fermented foods and cultured milk, and are widely used for the preparation of infant food. They are well-known as "health friendly bacteria", which exhibit various health beneficial properties such as prevention of bowel diseases, improving the immune system, for lactose intolerance and intestinal microbial balance, exhibiting antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertensive effects, alleviation of postmenopausal disorders, and reducing traveller's diarrhoea...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Dhiana Efani Dahari, Raifana Mohamad Salleh, Fauze Mahmud, Lee Ping Chin, Noor Embi, Hasidah Mohd Sidek
Exploiting natural resources for bioactive compounds is an attractive drug discovery strategy in search for new anti-malarial drugs with novel modes of action. Initial screening efforts in our laboratory revealed two preparations of soil-derived actinomycetes (H11809 and FH025) with potent anti-malarial activities. Both crude extracts showed glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)-inhibitory activities in a yeast-based kinase assay. We have previously shown that the GSK3 inhibitor, lithium chloride (LiCl), was able to suppress parasitaemia development in a rodent model of malarial infection...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Angelo Rellama Agduma, Maribel Dionisio Sese
The biochemical changes in two Selaginella species namely, S. tamariscina (Beauv.) Spring and S. plana (Desv. ex Poir.) Heiron., as induced by desiccation and subsequent rehydration were explored. Plants were allowed to dehydrate naturally by withholding irrigation until shoot's relative water content (RWC) reached <10%. After which, dehydrated plants were watered until fully rehydrated states were obtained which was about 90% RWC or more. Desiccation-tolerance characteristics were observed in S. tamariscina while desiccation-sensitivity features were seen in S...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Divya Chaturvedi, Vinay Kumar Singh
Fasciolosis is a water and food-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This disease is widespread in different parts of the world. Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae snails are the intermediate hosts of these flukes. Snail population management is a good tool to control fasciolosis because gastropods represent the weakest link in the life-cycle of trematodes. Chlorophyll can be extracted from any green plant. Chlorophyllin was prepared from spinach in 100% ethanol by using different types of chemicals...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Ahmad Ismail, Faid Rahman
This review discussed the current status of the Milky Stork Re-introduction Programme in Malaysia and the challenges it faced. Although it has continued for almost seven years, more challenges appeared as time elapsed mainly due to the arising conflicts between the implementation of conservation policy versus the development projects in Kuala Gula. Hence, the released population is struggling to adapt mainly due to the reduction of suitable habitat for nesting and disturbed foraging areas by the continuous anthropogenic activities...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Nor Amira Abdul Rahman, Zalila Ali, Wan Fatma Zuharah, Nik Fadzly
UNLABELLED: We conducted several aviary experiments to investigate the influence of colours in quantity judgments of two species of birds; house crow (Corvus splendens) and common myna (Acridotheres tristis). Different quantity (in seven different food proportions) of mealworms were presented nonsequentially to all birds using artificially coloured red mealworms, for experiment 1, and using artificially coloured green mealworms, for experiment 2. Both red and green coloured mealworms have no significant effect on house crow's quantity judgments (red: ANOVA: F6,30 = 1...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Latiffah Zakaria, Muhamad Izham Muhamad Jamil, Intan Sakinah Mohd Anuar
Endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal endophytes. Therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 31 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. The endophytic fungi were initially sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified using the sequences of the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) gene of Fusarium spp...
February 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Prasert Tongnunui, Nuengruetai Yoknoi, Pimwipa Pechnoi, Hideaki Yamada, Koetsu Kon
The objective of the present study was to provide reproductive biological information on the gonadal development of the short-finned eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor, which inhabits the coastal waters of Thailand. Short-finned eels were collected from three coastal areas of Trang Province, southern Thailand, from September 2011 to December 2013. The gonads of 151 specimens were subjected to a histological analysis. The histological observations found both immature and maturing females. Based on the advanced oocytes within an entire ovarian section, the ovaries of the studied specimens were classified into three maturity phases: 1) the immature phase was defined by ovaries that showed oogonia and primary growth oocytes, 2) the developing phase was defined by ovaries that contained early vitellogenic-stage oocytes with some oogonia present along with cortical alveolar oocytes and many adipocytes, and 3) the late vitellogenic phase refers to ovaries that contained nearly entirely late-vitellogenic oocytes...
February 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Silvia Puspitasari, Achmad Farajallah, Erni Sulistiawati, Muladno
Administering a half dose of an anthelmintic is a simple method for detecting resistance in parasites infesting small ruminants. When a single anthelmintic fails in native sheep from Indonesia, a combination of anthelmintics from different chemical classes with different modes of action are administered as an alternative parasite-control strategy. This study compared the anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ABZ) given either separately as a single dose or half dose or co-administered to sheep naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus...
February 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Wan Mohd Hafezul Wan Abdul Ghani, Che Salmah Md Rawi, Suhaila Abd Hamid, Salman Abdo Al-Shami
This study analyses the sampling performance of three benthic sampling tools commonly used to collect freshwater macroinvertebrates. Efficiency of qualitative D-frame and square aquatic nets were compared to a quantitative Surber sampler in tropical Malaysian streams. The abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates collected using each tool evaluated along with their relative variations (RVs). Each tool was used to sample macroinvertebrates from three streams draining different areas: a vegetable farm, a tea plantation and a forest reserve...
February 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Gincy Paily Thottathil, Kandakumar Jayasekaran, Ahmad Sofiman Othman
Agricultural development in the tropics lags behind development in the temperate latitudes due to the lack of advanced technology, and various biotic and abiotic factors. To cope with the increasing demand for food and other plant-based products, improved crop varieties have to be developed. To breed improved varieties, a better understanding of crop genetics is necessary. With the advent of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, many important crop genomes have been sequenced. Primary importance has been given to food crops, including cereals, tuber crops, vegetables, and fruits...
February 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Agus Astho Pramono, Endah Retno Palupi, Iskandar Zulkarnaen Siregar, Cecep Kusmana
Community forest development requires a constant supply of high-quality seeds. In addition, sound management of Toona sinensis (surian) seed sources requires a deep understanding of factors affecting seed production. This present study investigated the reproduction characteristics of surian, including flower, fruit and seed productions, variations in the productions of fruits and seeds among trees and among branches, and dendrometric factors that influence the productions of fruits and seeds. Flower production characteristics were observed in 99 panicles, fruit production characteristics were observed in 128 panicles, and seed characteristics were evaluated based on 890 fruits...
February 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Siti Halimah Hasmoni, Goh Kian Mau, Saiful Anuar Karsani, Anthony Cass, Shafinaz Shahir
Maltose-binding protein (MBP) is a periplasmic binding protein found in Gram negative bacteria. MBP is involved in maltose transport and bacterial chemotaxis; it binds to maltose and maltodextrins comprising α(1-4)-glucosidically linked linear glucose polymers and α(1-4)-glucosidically linked cyclodextrins. Upon ligand binding, MBP changes its conformation from an open to a closed form. This molecular recognition-transducing a ligand-binding event into a physical one-renders MBP an ideal candidate for biosensor development...
February 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Suhaila Ab Hamid, Che Salmah Md Rawi, Abu Hassan Ahmad
The life history and the influence of environmental parameters on Thalerosphyrus were investigated in two first-order rivers-the Batu Hampar River and the Teroi River of Gunung Jerai, Kedah-in northern peninsular Malaysia. Based on nymphal body length, Thalerosphyrus was found to be trivoltine in both rivers, regardless of the altitudinal difference, but its population abundance was four times higher in the Teroi River, presumably related to its better survival in the lower water temperature. At least nine instars of Thalerosphyrus were detected in the field-collected nymphs...
February 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Zainal Baharum, Abdah Md Akim, Taufiq Yap Yun Hin, Roslida Abdul Hamid, Rosmin Kasran
Plants have been a good source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years; an impressive number of modern drugs used for treating human diseases are derived from natural sources. The Theobroma cacao tree, or cocoa, has recently garnered increasing attention and become the subject of research due to its antioxidant properties, which are related to potential anti-cancer effects. In the past few years, identifying and developing active compounds or extracts from the cocoa bean that might exert anti-cancer effects have become an important area of health- and biomedicine-related research...
February 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Nurul Farah Abdul Karim, Masratulhawa Mohd, Nik Mohd Izham Mohd Nor, Latiffah Zakaria
Isolates of Fusarium were discovered in peat soil samples collected from peat swamp forest, waterlogged peat soil, and peat soil from oil palm plantations. Morphological characteristics were used to tentatively identify the isolates, and species confirmation was based on the sequence of translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) and phylogenetic analysis. Based on the closest match of Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) searches against the GenBank and Fusarium-ID databases, five Fusarium species were identified, namely F...
February 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
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