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Tropical Life Sciences Research

Ademola Monsur Hameed, Tawakalit Asiyanbi-H, Munirat Idris, Nurrulhidayah Fadzillah, Mohamed Elwathig S Mirghani
Gelatin is a very popular pharmaceutical and food ingredient and the most studied ingredient in Halal researches. Interest in source gelatin authentication is based on religious and cultural beliefs, food fraud prevention and health issues. Seven gelatin authentication methods that have been developed include: nucleic acid based, immunochemical, electrophoretic analysis, spectroscopic, mass-spectrometric, chromatographic-chemometric and chemisorption methods. These methods are time consuming, and require capital intensive equipment with huge running cost...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Latiffah Zakaria, Wan Nuraini Wan Aziz
Endophytic fungi are part of microbial community found in various types of plant tissues including the leave, and display a range of symbiotic interactions with the plant host. In this study, endophytic fungi isolated from banana leaves were identified using ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer region) sequences of which 10 genera comprising 17 species were molecularly identified. Endophytic fungal species identified were Nigrospora oryzae , Nigrospora sphaerica , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , Colletotrichum siamense , Fusarium equiseti , Fusarium chlamydosporum , Phoma sorghina , Pestalotiopsis oxyanthi, Pestalotiopsis theae, Pestalotiopsis eugeniae, Penicillium steckii, Penicillium purpurogenum, Bipolaris papendorfii, Bipolaris sp...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Tan Suet May Amelia, Al-Ashraf Abdullah Amirul, Jasnizat Saidin, Kesaven Bhubalan
Marine sponges are acknowledged as bacterial hotspots in the oceanic biome. Aquatic bacteria are being investigated comprehensively for bioactive complexes and secondary metabolites. Cultivable bacteria associated with different species of sea sponges in South China Sea waters adjacent to Bidong Island, Terengganu were identified. Molecular identification was accomplished using 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. Fourteen bacterial species were identified and their phylogenetic relationships were analysed by constructing a neighbour-joining tree with Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis 6...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Nurul Ashikin Hassim, Kamarul Hambali, Nor Shahirul Umirah Idris, Aainaa Amir, Ahmad Ismail, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli, Ai Yin Sow
Long-tailed macaque ( Macaca fascicularis ) has the potential to be a good biological indicator for toxic exposure because they have an almost similar physiology and behaviour to humans. The objective of this study is to determine the concentration of lead (Pb) in hair samples of long-tailed macaques which were found in and out of the Kuala Selangor Nature Park (KSNP) area. The hypothesis is long-tailed macaques that live in the anthropogenic area (outside KSNP) may be exposed to high levels of lead compared to long-tailed macaques living in the forest area (inside KSNP)...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Wan Ting Ling, Fui Chu Liew, Wei Yong Lim, Sreeramanan Subramaniam, Bee Lynn Chew
Fig, or Ficus carica , is a fruit tree from the Moraceae family and is widely grown in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Fig plants are mainly propagated through grafting, air layering, and hardwood cutting whereby these methods were found to be less efficient. Plant tissue culture is efficient method to propagate plants, particularly to produce true-to-type platelets for mass multiplication. The aim of this study is to induce multiple shoot formation on Ficus carica cv. Japanese BTM 6 through identifying and optimising the concentrations of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Zeatin suited for shoot formation...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Jeremiah David Bala, Japareng Lalung, Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi, Kaizar Hossain, Norli Ismail
This study was aimed at identifying indigenous microorganisms from palm oil mill effluent (POME) and to ascertain the microbial load. Isolation and identification of indigenous microorganisms was subjected to standard microbiological methods and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes for the microbial strains signifies that they were known as Micrococcus luteus 101PB, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 102PB, Bacillus cereus 103PB, Providencia vermicola 104PB, Klebsiella pneumoniae 105PB, Bacillus subtilis 106PB, Aspergillus fumigatus 107PF, Aspergillus nomius 108PF, Aspergillus niger 109PF and Meyerozyma guilliermondii 110PF...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Pei Ching Foo, Ze Hong Lee, Chee Keong Chin, Sreeramanan Subramaniam, Bee Lynn Chew
Solanum melongena L. commonly known as the eggplant or brinjal comes from the family of Solanaceae, sharing the same ancestor with the tomato and potato. It is an economically important crop worldwide, being well studied for its medicinal properties, nutritional values and its role as an alternative model plant. The eggplant fruit has been previously used for treatments of various diseases such as bronchitis, asthma, arthritis and diabetes as well as its nutritive properties that are beneficial to the human diet...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Annette Jaya-Ram, Farhana Fuad, Mohd Shafiq Zakeyuddin, Amir Shah Ruddin Md Sah
One of the oldest reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia, Bukit Merah Reservoir, is a place in which locals participate in fishing activities. Inland fisheries are important to individuals, society and the environment; whereby they generate a source of income and food security. It is essential to gauge the nutrition value of fish caught in this location as food source, especially in terms of fatty acid composition, to better demonstrate its potential towards the betterment of human health and general well-being...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Abdul-Lateef Molan, Mohamad Q Balasim, Nagham Y Al-Bayati
Aqueous extracts prepared from the powdered entire pomaces and their parts (seeds and peels) of two Iraqi grape cultivars (Shada and Des-Alanez) were evaluated for their ovicidal, larvicidal, and pupicidal activities against housefly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus 1758) and compared them with chemical insecticide (Agita 10 WG; Austria). The highest insecticidal activity was shown by the aqueous extracts of powdered seeds followed by the entire pomace and then peels. The water extracts from the seeds, peels and pomaces were able to inhibit completely the hatching of the eggs at a concentration of 150 μg/ml while the Agita insecticide was able to inhibit the hatching process at a concentration of 50 μg/ml...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Arfah Nasution, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah, Sri Suci Utami-Atmoko
Habitat loss and hunting are major threats to the long-term survival of the viable orangutan population in Batang Toru. East Batang Toru Forest Block (EBTFB) is the most threatened area due to low forest cover and high encroachment. Based on a preliminary survey in 2008, Hopong forest which is located in EBTFB, had the highest orangutan density (0.7 ind/km2 ). However illegal logging and hunting of protected species were occuring in this unprotected forest. Since this location has been gazetted as unprotected forest from the first survey until this study was conducted, it is important to assess orangutans population trends...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Anis Fadhilah Zulkipli, Nor Munirah Zakaria, Mohamed Hussein Abdikarim, Maryam Azlan, Nurulasma Abdullah, Norazmi Mohd Nor, Rapeah Suppian
Macrophage apoptosis exerts an efficient mechanism in controlling intracellular infection during innate immune response against various pathogens including malaria parasites. This study was carried out to determine the apoptosis activity in mouse macrophage cell line J774A.1 infected with a Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) clone and a recombinant BCG clone expressing the C-terminus of merozoite surface protein-1 (BCG-MSP1C) of Plasmodium falciparum for 48 h. In this study, a parent BCG cells was used as a control...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Tiara Dini Harlita, Oedjijono, Ari Asnani
Antibacterial activity of indigenous Dayak onion ( Eleutherine palmifolia (L.) Merr) was investigated. The Dayak onion was solvent extracted with n -hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol 96% consecutively. Each extract was tested its antibacterial activity towards methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus , Shigella sp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using disc diffusion method. The test results showed that the n -hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol 96% extracts positively inhibited the growth of MRSA, B...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Rejeki Siti Ferniah, Rina Sri Kasiamdari, Achmadi Priyatmojo, Budi Setiadi Daryono
Cross-breeding is a method of producing progeny with better resistance to pathogens. Resistance to pathogens usually involves pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Class II chitinase is an example of a defensive PR protein in plants. The class II chitinase in chilli is coded by the CaChi 2 gene. In this study, we crossed susceptible with resistant chilli cultivars, analysed the F1 resistance response against pathogenic F. oxysporum , and analysed the level of CaChi 2 gene expression in the F1 . Data were collected using disease severity index (DSI) determination and gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR (quantitative Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction)...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Shiou Yih Lee, Maman Turjaman, Rozi Mohamed
Indonesia is home to several tree taxa that are harvested for agarwood. This highly valuable oleoresin ironically was the cause for some species to become vulnerable due to gluttonous human activity. However, information on the genetic diversity of these endangered trees is limited. In this study, 28 specimens representing eight species from two genera, Aquilaria and Gyrinops , were collected from ex-situ and in-situ populations in Indonesia. Phylogenetic analysis conducted on DNA sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the trn L- trn F intergenic spacer regions, revealed that Aquilaria and Gyrinops are paraphyletic when Aquilaria cumingiana is excluded...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Rian Oktiansyah, Berry Juliandi, Kanthi Arum Widayati, Vetnizah Juniantito
Neuronal cell death can occur in a tissue or organ, including the brain, which affects memory. The objectives of this study were to determine the dose of bee venom that causes neuronal death and analyse the alteration of mouse behaviour, focusing in particular on spatial memory. Fifteen male mice of Deutsche Denken Yoken (DDY) strain were divided into control and treatment groups. Bee venom was injected six times for two weeks intraperitoneally with 1.88 mg/kg, 3.76 mg/kg, 5.6 mg/kg, and 7.48 mg/kg doses of venom...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Ibrahim Babangida Abubakar, Su-Wen Lim, Hwei-San Loh
Recent studies suggested that combined treatment approaches can be used to improve anticancer potency and circumvent the limitations of high-dose tocotrienols administration. Acalypha wilkesiana is a medicinal plant that has been used as an adjunct treatment for cancers in traditional medicine. Herein, the effects of single and combined treatments of β-, γ- and δ-tocotrienols and ethyl acetate extract (9EA) of Acalypha wilkesiana on lung (A549) and brain (U87MG) cancer cells were investigated. γ- and δ-tocotrienols exhibited higher potent antiproliferative effects against A549 (12...
March 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Nur Aida Hashim, Abu Hassan Ahmad, Anita Talib, Farida Athaillah, Kumara Thevan Krishnan
The occurrence of major outbreaks of dengue, and other vector borne diseases such as chikungunya and zika in tropical and subtropical regions has rendered control of the diseases a top-priority for many affected countries including Malaysia. Control of the mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus through the reduction of breeding sites and the application of insecticides to kill immature forms and adults are the main control efforts to combat these diseases. The present study describes the association between Ae...
March 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Syarifah Hazirah Syd Jaafar, Roshada Hashim, Zaiton Hassan, Norlelawati Arifin
This study was conducted to determine the physical and chemical composition of goat milk produced by eight local farms located in the central region of Malaysia. Farms 1 to 4 (F1-SC, F2-SP, F3-SP, F4-SBC) reared Saanen-type goats while farms 5 to 8 (F5-JK, F6-JPEC, F7-JTC, F8-JC), Jamnapari-type goats. The common feedstuffs used in all farms comprised of fresh or silage from Napier grass, feed pellets, and brans while two farms, F5-JK and F6-JPEC supplemented the feeds with soybean-based product. The total solid content, dry matter, and proximate composition of goat milk and feedstuffs from the different farms were determined and the results analysed using principal component analysis...
March 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
M Wiafe-Kwagyan, G T Odamtten
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of spent mushroom compost of Pleurotus eous strain P-31 on the growth and yield performance of pepper and tomato seedlings under greenhouse conditions. Sandy loam soil was combined with different percentages of SMC to obtain the following combinations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30) %. Lower concentrations SMC5 , SMC10 and SMC15 promoted vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area, chlorophyll content, number of leaves and axillary branches) of the two test plants...
March 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Sarahaizad Mohd Salleh, Shahrul Anuar Mohd Sah, Ahmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury
The nesting of green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ) was monitored from 1998 untill 2013 along the beaches of Pasir Panjang, Segari, Perak. The objective of the study is to assess the nesting status of green turtles in Perak, Peninsular Malaysia in terms of total nests, eggs, survival hatchings, and density of visitors. A total number of green turtle nests found for 16 years were 1,019 nests and varied from 10 to 220 nests per year. Meanwhile, the sum of eggs collected for 16 years were 107,820 eggs, and varied from 553 to 20,881 eggs per year...
March 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
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