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Drugs in Context

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675049/administration-of-intravenous-morphine-for-acute-pain-in-the-emergency-department-inflicts-an-economic-burden-in-europe
#1
Montserrat Casamayor, Karen DiDonato, Marc Hennebert, Luca Brazzi, Gregor Prosen
Background: Acute pain is among the leading causes of referral to the emergency department (ED) in industrialized countries. Its management mainly depends on intensity. Moderate-to-severe pain is treated with intravenous (IV) administered opioids, of which morphine is the most commonly used in the ED. We have estimated the burden of IV administration of morphine in the five key European countries (EU5) using a micro-costing approach. Scope: A structured literature review was conducted to identify clinical guidelines for acute pain management in EU5 and clinical studies conducted in the ED setting...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632548/atopic-dermatitis-a-review-of-topical-nonsteroid-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Ariana Papier, Lindsay C Strowd
Background: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects up to 20% of children and 3% of adults globally. Although topical corticosteroids are considered to be the first-line agents, they can be associated with cutaneous and systemic adverse effects. Since the early 2000s, two new classes of nonsteroid topical therapies, topical calcineurin inhibitors and phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors, have been introduced and provide a safe treatment alternative. Method: We performed a search and review of clinical trials that examined the safety and efficacy of topical calcineurin inhibitors and PDE4 inhibitors...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623099/treatment-of-diverticular-disease-an-update-on-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#3
REVIEW
Marilia Carabotti, Bruno Annibale
Background: Diverticular disease (DD) is a common condition, especially in Western countries. In about 80% of patients, colonic diverticula remain asymptomatic (diverticulosis), while approximately 20% of patients may develop abdominal symptoms (symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease, SUDD) and, eventually complications as acute diverticulitis (AD). The management of this condition has been improved, and in the last five years European countries and the USA have published guidelines and recommendations...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623098/high-density-lipoprotein-hdl-functionality-and-its-relevance-to-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease
#4
REVIEW
Constantine E Kosmas, Ian Martinez, Andreas Sourlas, Kyriaki V Bouza, Frederick N Campos, Verenisse Torres, Peter D Montan, Eliscer Guzman
Several prospective epidemiological studies have shown that there is a clear inverse relationship between serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), even at low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels below 70 mg/dL. However, more recent evidence from genetic studies and clinical research has come to challenge the long-standing notion that higher HDL-C levels are always beneficial, while lower HDL-C levels are always detrimental. Thus, it becomes apparent that HDL functionality plays a much more important role in atheroprotection than circulating HDL-C levels...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623097/renal-effects-of-non-tenofovir-antiretroviral-therapy-in-patients-living-with-hiv
#5
REVIEW
Milena M McLaughlin, Aimee J Guerrero, Andrew Merker
A review of literature published regarding non-tenofovir antiretroviral agents causing renal adverse effects was conducted. The literature involving renal adverse effects and antiretroviral therapy is most robust with protease inhibitors, specifically atazanavir and indinavir, and includes reports of crystalluria, leukocyturia, nephritis, nephrolithiasis, nephropathy and urolithiasis. Several case reports describe potential nephropathy (including Fanconi syndrome) secondary to administration of abacavir, didanosine, lamivudine and stavudine...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535792/epidemiology-and-hospital-resources-use-in-the-treatment-of-ulcerative-colitis-at-gastroenterology-units-in-spain-epicure-study
#6
Ignacio Marín-Jiménez, Cristina Saro, Verónica Díaz, Manuel Barreiro-de Acosta, María Gómez-García, Ana Gutiérrez Casbas
Background and aim: Nationwide epidemiological data on ulcerative colitis (UC) in Spain are lacking. The primary objective was to assess the epidemiology of UC at hospital gastroenterology units and the use of hospital resources (characteristics and facilities) for the management of UC in Spain. Methods: A retrospective, multicenter, epidemiological, cross-sectional study (EPICURE study) analyzed data from hospital registries and records from UC patients admitted and treated in 2011 at a representative selection of Spanish sites...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497452/the-latest-evidence-for-possible-hiv-1-curative-strategies
#7
REVIEW
Hanh Thi Pham, Thibault Mesplède
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains a major health issue worldwide. In developed countries, antiretroviral therapy has extended its reach from treatment of people living with HIV-1 to post-exposure prophylaxis, treatment as prevention, and, more recently, pre-exposure prophylaxis. These healthcare strategies offer the epidemiological tools to curve the epidemic in rich settings and will be concomitantly implemented in developing countries. One of the remaining challenges is to identify an efficacious curative strategy...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483930/treatment-with-combined-dabrafenib-and-trametinib-in-braf-v600e-mutated-metastatic-malignant-melanoma-a-case-of-long-term-complete-response-after-treatment-cessation
#8
Sonia Brugnara, Mariacristina Sicher, Elena Maria Bonandini, Davide Donner, Franca Chierichetti, Mattia Barbareschi, Carlo Renè Girardelli, Orazio Caffo
Here, we report the case of a patient, diagnosed with BRAF V600E -mutated metastatic malignant melanoma M1a, who achieved a complete metabolic response after 7 months of treatment with the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib. After 31 months, the treatment was interrupted for patient's decision. To date October 2017, 18 months after the interruption of the treatment with the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib, follow-up Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans are still documenting complete metabolic response...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456568/harnessing-the-immune-system-in-the-battle-against-breast-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Elizabeth S Nakasone, Sara A Hurvitz, Kelly E McCann
Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in women and the second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite major innovations in early detection and advanced therapeutics, up to 30% of women with node-negative breast cancer and 70% of women with node-positive breast cancer will develop recurrence. The recognition that breast tumors are infiltrated by a complex array of immune cells that influence their development, progression, and metastasis, as well as their responsiveness to systemic therapies has sparked major interest in the development of immunotherapies...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445409/suvorexant-for-insomnia-in-older-adults-a-perspective-review
#10
REVIEW
Rajesh R Tampi, Geetha Manikkara, Silpa Balachandran, Piyush Taparia, Stephanie Hrisko, Shilpa Srinivasan, Deena J Tampi
The aim of this review was to identify published randomized control trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of suvorexant for the treatment of insomnia among older adults (≥65 years). A literature search was conducted of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane collaboration databases for RCTs in any language evaluating suvorexant for the treatment of insomnia in older adults. Additionally, references of full-text articles that were included in this review were searched for further studies...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445408/needs-and-preferences-of-women-users-of-oral-contraceptives-in-selected-countries-in-central-and-eastern-europe
#11
Tomas Fait, Dmitry Buryak, Monica-Mihaela Cirstoiu, Eva Luczai, Rafal Janczura
Background: The availability of various oral contraceptive (OC) pill formulations with different hormone compositions suggests that there is potential to align a particular product with an individual user's needs and preferences. To explore this concept further, a survey was conducted of current users of OCs to define and confirm areas of specific needs, and to gain insight into their views and preferences for OC formulations. Methods: During November and December 2015, women users (n=615) of OCs in five Central and Eastern European countries were surveyed in face-to-face interviews conducted by experienced interviewers...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445407/practical-outpatient-pharmacotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Youngjung Kim, Laura M Hack, Elizabeth S Ahn, Jungjin Kim
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is commonly encountered in clinical practice. A combination of psychosocial intervention and pharmacotherapy is the cornerstone of AUD treatment. Despite their efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness, clinicians are reluctant to prescribe medications to treat individuals with AUD. Given the high rate of relapse with psychosocial intervention alone, increasing patient access to this underutilized treatment has the potential to improve clinical outcome in this difficult-to-treat population...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410685/lipocrinology-the-relationship-between-lipids-and-endocrine-function
#13
EDITORIAL
Sanjay Kalra, Gagan Priya
While lipids are an integral part of the endocrine clinic, the opposite is not necessarily true. The lipocrinology framework addresses this lacuna, by highlighting the similarities and multiple relationships between lipid and endocrine function. It reinforces the need to screen (clinically or biochemically) all dyslipidemic patients for endocrine disease and appropriate endocrine patients for dyslipidemia. Thus, it aims to improve clinical care for persons with lipid abnormalities as well as endocrine disease...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344053/an-overview-of-exposure-to-ethanol-containing-substances-and-ethanol-intoxication-in-children-based-on-three-illustrated-cases
#14
REVIEW
Kam Lun Hon, Alexander Kc Leung, Eddie Cheung, Bryan Lee, Michelle Mc Tsang, Alcy R Torres
Alcohol addiction and intoxication are major health problems worldwide. Acute alcohol intoxication is well reported in adults and adolescents but less frequently reported in children of younger ages. We report three anonymized cases of pediatric ethanol exposure and illustrate the different mechanisms of intoxication. In all cases, a focused history is the key to prompt diagnosis and timely management. Physicians should be aware of this potential poison in children presented with acute confusional or encephalopathic state...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344052/manidipine-an-antihypertensive-drug-with-positive-effects-on-metabolic-parameters-and-adrenergic-tone-in-patients-with-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Margarita SaizSatjes, Francisco Javier Martinez-Martin
Antihypertensive treatment of patients with diabetes should include those drugs with a positive effect on metabolic parameters. Most patients with diabetes require at least two antihypertensive agents. Combining a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor is a rational approach. However, not all dihydropyridines are equal with respect to their effects on metabolic parameters. Thus, manidipine exerts a positive effect on insulin resistance. However, this effect has not been observed with amlodipine...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225657/satisfaction-and-quality-of-life-of-allergic-patients-following-sublingual-five-grass-pollen-tablet-immunotherapy-in-spain
#16
Darío Antolín-Amerigo, Isabel A Tabar, Maria Del Mar Fernández-Nieto, Anna M Callejo-Melgosa, Francisco J Muñoz-Bellido, José C Martínez-Alonso, Jorge D Méndez-Alcalde, Marta Reche, Ana Rodríguez-Trabado, Ana Rosado-Ingelmo, Alicia Alonso-Gómez, Rosa Blanco-González, José A Alvarez-Fernandez, Isabel Botella, Ana Valls, Mercedes Cimarra, Carlos Blanco
Background: Five-grass pollen tablet is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). This trial sought to determine the satisfaction and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients undergoing this treatment. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, multicentre, observational, naturalistic study, following a discontinuous pre- and co-seasonal five-grass pollen regimen over two seasons in Spain (2012, 2013). The HRQoL of the patients was measured with the specific Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) for adults, adolescent (AdolRQLQ), or paediatric (PRQLQ) patients...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209403/lipid-lowering-interventions-targeting-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-pcsk9-an-emerging-chapter-in-lipid-lowering-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Constantine E Kosmas, Eddy DeJesus, Rosmery Morcelo, Frank Garcia, Peter D Montan, Eliscer Guzman
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a serine protease that is mainly expressed in the liver but can also be found in the intestine and kidneys. PCSK9 promotes the degradation of low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR) by reducing their recycling and targeting the receptors for lysosomal destruction, thereby decreasing the rate of removal of LDL-cholesterol from the circulation. Thus, interventions targeting PCSK9 by reducing its expression may lead to significant reductions of LDL-cholesterol and possibly decrease cardiovascular risk...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209402/analgesics-in-the-management-of-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-a-perspective-review
#18
REVIEW
Rajesh R Tampi, Corey Hassell, Pallavi Joshi, Deena J Tampi
The objective of this review was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of analgesics in reducing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) among older adults from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A literature search was conducted of PubMed, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, and Cochrane collaboration databases for RCTs in the English language that evaluated the use of analgesics in reducing the severity of BPSD among older adults. Additionally, references of full-text articles that were included in this review were searched for extra studies...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167693/approving-cancer-treatments-based-on-endpoints-other-than-overall-survival-an-analysis-of-historical-data-using-the-pace-continuous-innovation-indicators%C3%A2-cii
#19
Neon Brooks, Mario Campone, Silvia Paddock, Scott Shortenhaus, David Grainger, Jacqueline Zummo, Samuel Thomas, Rose Li
Background: There is an active debate about the role that endpoints other than overall survival (OS) should play in the drug approval process. Yet the term 'surrogate endpoint' implies that OS is the only critical metric for regulatory approval of cancer treatments. We systematically analyzed the relationship between U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and publication of OS evidence to understand better the risks and benefits of delaying approval until OS evidence is available...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167692/prognostic-and-predictive-factors-of-eribulin-efficacy-in-heavily-pretreated-patients-affected-by-metastatic-breast-cancer-correlation-with-tumor-biology-and-previous-therapies
#20
Sabrina Rossi, Alessandra Cassano, Antonia Strippoli, Giovanni Schinzari, Ettore D'Argento, Michele Basso, Carlo Barone
Background: Eribulin mesylate is currently approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Scope: The objective of this retrospective study is to find specific predictive criteria related to patient or tumor characteristics in order to select patients that might benefit the most from eribulin and define the correct treatment sequence. Findings: Forty-four patients with MBC who received eribulin in third or subsequent lines of therapy in a single Italian center were considered eligible...
2017: Drugs in Context
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