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Drugs in Context

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302115/the-biosimilars-journey-current-status-and-ongoing-challenges
#1
REVIEW
Igor Age Kos, Valderílio Feijó Azevedo, Daniel Egg Neto, Sérgio Cândido Kowalski
Biosimilar products are already approved and marketed in several countries. The Food and Drug Administration has approved ten different biosimilars, and the European Medicines Agency has approved 40. Even though this scenario has provided important experience with biosimilar products, there are still challenges and unanswered questions. Up to now, a good amount of knowledge has been gathered in order to support the importance of the totality of evidence and the construction of a biosimilarity exercise for regulatory approval...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302114/eosinophilic-fasciitis-a-case-series-with-an-emphasis-on-therapy-and-induction-of-remission
#2
Rechelle Tull, William D Hoover, Jacqueline F De Luca, William W Huang, Joseph L Jorizzo
Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon connective tissue disorder that affects patients of all ages, resulting in significant morbidity. Systemic corticosteroids can induce remission of disease. However, there is no universally accepted treatment ladder for eosinophilic fasciitis. This case series evaluates treatment efficacy in patients with eosinophilic fasciitis seen at Wake Forest University Department of Dermatology outpatient clinics. Patient charts were screened using ICD-9 diagnosis code 710.9 (unspecified diffuse connective tissue disease) to identify patients with eosinophilic fasciitis (n=10) seen at our institution...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263037/exploring-the-association-of-legalisation-status-of-cannabis-with-problematic-cannabis-use-and-impulsivity-in-the-usa
#3
Louise Destrée, Danielle Amiet, Adrian Carter, Rico Lee, Valentina Lorenzetti, Rebecca Segrave, George Youssef, Nadia Solowij, Murat Yücel
Background: There has been an increased trend towards the legalisation of medicinal and recreational cannabis use worldwide. This has been controversial as the long-term effects of frequent cannabis use on the brain are still poorly understood. Methods: In this study, we investigated whether the legal status of cannabis in the United States of America (USA) is associated with problematic cannabis use and impulsivity in 329 frequent cannabis users. The data were collected in 2015 and were analysed in 2017...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214464/primary-genetic-disorders-affecting-high-density-lipoprotein-hdl
#4
REVIEW
Constantine E Kosmas, Delia Silverio, Andreas Sourlas, Frank Garcia, Peter D Montan, Eliscer Guzman
There is extensive evidence demonstrating that there is a clear inverse correlation between plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and cardiovascular disease (CVD). On the other hand, there is also extensive evidence that HDL functionality plays a very important role in atheroprotection. Thus, genetic disorders altering certain enzymes, lipid transfer proteins, or specific receptors crucial for the metabolism and adequate function of HDL, may positively or negatively affect the HDL-C levels and/or HDL functionality and subsequently either provide protection or predispose to atherosclerotic disease...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214463/spectral-doppler-and-automated-software-guided-ultrasound-assessment-of-bilateral-common-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-spondyloarthritis-is-there-a-correlation-with-clinical-findings
#5
José Alexandre Mendonça, Beatriz Bisetto de Andrade, José Luis Braga de Aquino, Vania Aparecida Leandro-Merhi, Guilherme B Damian
Background and aim: Limited information is currently available about whether carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) correlates with the degree of disease activity in spondyloarthritis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between articular and carotid ultrasound data and laboratory and clinical variables in patients with spondyloarthritis. Methods: Twenty-two patients with spondyloarthritis, recruited consecutively via the spondyloarthritis service of the Universidade Pontifícia Católica de Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, were assessed using carotid artery ultrasound (radiofrequency quality intima-media thickness, RF-QIMT), joint ultrasound, clinical evaluation, and laboratory tests...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181760/the-role-of-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-anti-vegf-in-the-management-of-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#6
REVIEW
Yue Zhao, Rishi P Singh
Diabetes is a major cause of visual impairment among working-age adults in the United States. The proliferative form of diabetic retinopathy is associated with severe vision loss (acuity <5/200). The standard treatment in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is panretinal photocoagulation (PRP), which is effective but has established side effects such as peripheral visual-field constraints. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is thought to drive the process of vascular proliferation. Drugs targeting VEGF (anti-VEGF) have been studied extensively in diabetic macular edema (DME), and results have shown that diabetic retinopathy regresses with anti-VEGF treatment...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151017/role-of-betamethasone-valerate-2-250-mg-medicated-plaster-in-the-treatment-of-psoriasis-and-other-dermatological-pathologies-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Sandra Ly, Jean Michel Amici
Treating dermatological pathologies with topical corticosteroids under occlusion is often more effective than nonocclusive therapy, especially in the treatment of psoriasis. Betamethasone valerate medicated plaster provides a controlled and localized method of dosing betamethasone valerate, a well-established corticosteroid with vasoconstrictive, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and antiproliferative properties. This self-adhesive plaster is approved for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders that do not respond to treatment with less potent corticosteroids...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116284/sacubitril-valsartan-evaluation-of-safety-and-efficacy-as-an-antihypertensive-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Sarah L Anderson, Joel C Marrs
Hypertension (HTN) is a common disease state associated with extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is often difficult for patients with HTN to achieve and maintain a goal blood pressure (BP), despite there being many effective treatment options available. Sacubitril/valsartan is a first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) that has garnered approval by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency as a first-line treatment for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116283/advances-in-the-use-of-parp-inhibitor-therapy-for-breast-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Kelly E McCann, Sara A Hurvitz
Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and PARP-2 are DNA damage sensors that are most active during S-phase of the cell cycle and that have wider-reaching roles in DNA repair than originally described. BRCA1 and BRCA2 (Breast Cancer) proteins are involved in homologous recombination repair (HRR), which requires a homologous chromosome or sister chromatid as a template to faithfully repair DNA double-strand breaks. The small-molecule NAD+ mimetics, olaparib, niraparib, rucaparib, veliparib, and talazoparib, inhibit the catalytic activity of PARP-1 and PARP-2 and are currently being studied in later-stage clinical trials...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038660/febrile-seizures-an-overview
#10
REVIEW
Alexander Kc Leung, Kam Lun Hon, Theresa Nh Leung
Background: Febrile seizures are the most common neurologic disorder in childhood. Physicians should be familiar with the proper evaluation and management of this common condition. Objective: To provide an update on the current understanding, evaluation, and management of febrile seizures. Methods: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key terms 'febrile convulsions' and 'febrile seizures'. The search strategy included meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, observational studies, and reviews...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038659/cutaneous-side-effects-of-molecularly-targeted-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-solid-tumors
#11
REVIEW
Daniel I G Cubero, Beatrice Martinez Zugaib Abdalla, Jean Schoueri, Fabio Iazetti Lopes, Karine Corcione Turke, Jose Guzman, Auro Del Giglio, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos Machado Filho, Vanessa Salzano, Dolores Gonzalez Fabra
Background: Currently, molecularly targeted drugs are part of the therapeutic arsenal for the treatment of many neoplasms and are responsible for improvements in the quality of life and survival of patients. Although they act on proteins and components within biochemical pathways that are expressed to a greater extent in neoplastic cells, these drugs can also interfere with the activity of normal cells. Scope: This article reviews the cutaneous side effects of main molecularly targeted cancer therapies for solid tumors...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023004/first-line-alectinib-for-alk-positive-lung-cancer-is-there-room-for-further-improvement
#12
EDITORIAL
Alfredo Addeo, Giulio Metro
In the present editorial we describe the therapeutic achievements in the treatment of patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We focus on the major breakthroughs we have been witnessing in this context, from the introduction of crizotinib as the first approved targeted drug, to the meaningful improvement in terms of clinical benefit that alectinib, a second generation ALK-inhibitor, has recently provided over crizotinib. Finally, we address major trends of clinical research in this setting, and whether this might translate into further clinical improvement in the near future...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023003/adding-ezetimibe-to-statin-therapy-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#13
REVIEW
Marija Vavlukis, Ana Vavlukis
Background: Statins are the hypolipemic treatment of choice for hyperlipidemia with confirmed atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) protective effect, proven even in normolipemic patients. But in rare situations, even with a high-dose treatment regimen, or maximally tolerated statin dose treatment, treatment targets of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), according to the risk profile of the patient, cannot be achieved. Combination therapy with ezetimibe is an effective treatment choice, as it is one of the few hypolipemic drugs with proven ASCVD protective effect...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002715/regorafenib-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#14
REVIEW
Nicola Personeni, Tiziana Pressiani, Armando Santoro, Lorenza Rimassa
Over the past ten years, sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, has been the only systemic agent approved for first-line treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Whereas only recently lenvatinib was shown to be noninferior to sorafenib, in terms of survival, all other agents previously tested failed to prove noninferiority (or superiority) when compared with sorafenib. Similarly, in a second-line setting, most investigational drugs have failed to provide better survival outcomes than placebo...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942340/metformin-in-the-management-of-diabetes-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#15
REVIEW
Gagan Priya, Sanjay Kalra
This review explores the current place of metformin in the management of gestational diabetes (GDM) and type 2 diabetes during pregnancy and lactation. The rationale and basic pharmacology of metformin usage in pregnancy is discussed along with the evidence from observational and randomized controlled trials in women with GDM or overt diabetes. There seems to be adequate evidence of efficacy and short-term safety of metformin in relation to maternal and neonatal outcomes in GDM, with possible benefits related to lower maternal weight gain and lower risk of neonatal hypoglycemia and macrosomia...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899755/combination-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-hypertension
#16
REVIEW
Carolina Guerrero-García, Alberto Francisco Rubio-Guerra
Hypertension is a major preventable risk factor for atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. Although modern and effective antihypertensive drugs are available, most patients remain with a suboptimal blood pressure control. Most hypertensive patients will need a combination of antihypertensive agents to achieve the therapeutic goals - recent guidelines recommend initiating treatment with two drugs in those patients with a systolic blood pressure >20 mmHg and/or a diastolic blood pressure >10 mmHg above the goals, and in those patients with high cardiovascular risk...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899754/immunotherapy-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#17
EDITORIAL
Matteo Santoni, Francesco Massari, Vincenzo Di Nunno, Alessandro Conti, Alessia Cimadamore, Marina Scarpelli, Rodolfo Montironi, Liang Cheng, Nicola Battelli, Antonio Lopez-Beltran
Advances in understanding the mechanisms of tumour-induced immunosuppression have led to the development of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in cancer patients, including those with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The optimal combination between immunotherapy and targeted agents (as well as the possible favourable sequential therapy of these two classes of drugs) remains an open question at this moment. Several trials are currently underway to assess the combination of anti-programmed-death 1 (PD-1) or anti-PD-ligand(L)1 agents with other immunotherapies or with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872449/how-to-manage-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections
#18
REVIEW
Matteo Bassetti, Antonio Vena, Antony Croxatto, Elda Righi, Benoit Guery
Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa have become a real concern in hospital-acquired infections, especially in critically ill and immunocompromised patients. The major problem leading to high mortality lies in the appearance of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, a vast number of approaches to develop novel anti-infectives is currently pursued. Diverse strategies range from killing (new antibiotics) to disarming (antivirulence) the pathogen. In this review, selected aspects of P. aeruginosa antimicrobial resistance and infection management will be addressed...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707029/cardiac-myosin-activators-for-heart-failure-therapy-focus-on-omecamtiv-mecarbil
#19
REVIEW
Edgardo Kaplinsky, Gordon Mallarkey
Heart failure continues to be a major global health problem with a pronounced impact on morbidity and mortality and very limited drug treatment options especially with regard to inotropic therapy. Omecamtiv mecarbil is a first-in-class cardiac myosin activator, which increases the proportion of myosin heads that are tightly bound to actin and creates a force-producing state that is not associated with cytosolic calcium accumulation. Phase I and phase II studies have shown that it is safe and well tolerated...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692852/emollient-treatment-of-atopic-dermatitis-latest-evidence-and-clinical-considerations
#20
REVIEW
Kam Lun Hon, Jeng Sum Charmaine Kung, Wing Gi Gigi Ng, Ting Fan Leung
Aim: To review current classes of emollients in the market, their clinical efficacy in atopic dermatitis (AD) and considerations for choice of an emollient. Methods: PubMed Clinical Queries under Clinical Study Categories (with Category limited to Therapy and Scope limited to Narrow) and Systematic Reviews were used as the search engine. Keywords of 'emollient or moisturizer' and 'atopic dermatitis' were used. Overview of findings: Using the keywords of 'emollient' and 'atopic dermatitis', there were 105 and 36 hits under Clinical Study Categories (with Category limited to Therapy and Scope limited to Narrow) and Systematic Reviews, respectively...
2018: Drugs in Context
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