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Drugs in Context

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534175/severe-refractory-asthma-current-treatment-options-and-ongoing-research
#1
REVIEW
Francesco Menzella, Francesca Bertolini, Mirella Biava, Carla Galeone, Chiara Scelfo, Marco Caminati
Patients with severe asthma have a greater risk of asthma-related symptoms, morbidities, and exacerbations. Moreover, healthcare costs of patients with severe refractory asthma are at least 80% higher than those with stable asthma, mainly because of a higher use of healthcare resources and chronic side effects of oral corticosteroids (OCS). The advent of new promising biologicals provides a unique therapeutic option that could achieve asthma control without OCS. However, the increasing number of available molecules poses a new challenge: the identification and selection of the most appropriate treatment...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532792/dismissing-the-fallacies-of-childhood-eczema-management-case-scenarios-and-an-overview-of-best-practices
#2
REVIEW
Kam Lun Hon, Kin Fon Leong, Theresa Nh Leung, Alexander Kc Leung
Background: Eczema or atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common relapsing childhood dermatologic illness. Treatment of AD is primarily topical with emollients and corticosteroid/calcineurin inhibitor, which is efficacious for the majority of patients. However, AD is often complicated and difficult to manage in many Asian cities. Effective therapy is impeded by fallacies in the following aspects: (1) mistrust and unrealistic expectations about Western medicine, (2) skin care and allergy treatment, (3) ambiguity about optimal bathing and moisturizing, (4) hesitation and phobias about the usage of adequate topical corticosteroid and immunomodulatory therapies, (5) food and aeroallergen avoidance and dietary supplementation, and (6) complementary and alternative therapies...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515229/impact-of-lipid-lowering-therapy-on-glycemic-control-and-the-risk-for-new-onset-diabetes-mellitus
#3
REVIEW
Constantine E Kosmas, Delia Silverio, Andreas Sourlas, Frank Garcia, Peter D Montan, Eliscer Guzman
Lipid-lowering therapy is used very commonly nowadays not only for the optimization of the lipid profile but also to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, some studies have linked the use of certain lipid-lowering agents with an increased risk for impaired glycemic control and new-onset diabetes mellitus, a condition well established as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, some other lipid-lowering agents have been shown to have a beneficial effect on glucose metabolism. Profound knowledge of these differences would enable the clinician to choose the right lipid-lowering medication for each individual patient, so that the benefits would outweigh the risk of side effects...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483351/impact-of-adalimumab-on-clinical-outcomes-healthcare-resource-utilization-and-sick-leave-in-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis-an-observational-study-from-five-central-and-eastern-european-countries
#4
Daniela Opris-Belinski, Shandor F Erdes, Simeon Grazio, Ladislav Šenolt, Maja Hojnik, Orsolya Nagy, Diana Marina, Sándor Szántó
Background: Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are substantial users of healthcare resources due to chronic and potentially disabling disease. This study assessed the impact of adalimumab on clinical outcomes, healthcare resource utilization, and sick leave in patients with AS in five Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) countries. Methods: This was an observational study in the routine clinical setting. Patients diagnosed with AS and starting treatment with originator adalimumab were followed for 12 months by assessing disease activity (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index [BASDAI] and Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score [ASDAS]) and physical function (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index [BASFI])...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483350/the-metabolic-model-of-heart-failure-the-role-of-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-sglt-2-inhibition
#5
REVIEW
Muhammad Saad, Umut Gomceli, Pranav Ravi, Andrisael G Lacoste, Neil Shah, Timothy J Vittorio
Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of hospital readmissions and health care expenditures. With a vast degree of advancements in the clinical approach and diagnosis, its management protocol is limited in terms of enhancing quality of life and prognosis. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is considered as one of the commonly associated comorbid conditions in the HF population. The understanding of the molecular and metabolic models of HF has led to the utilization of therapeutic goals of T2DM in improving HF-related complications...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30459819/repurposing-existing-drugs-for-cardiovascular-risk-management-a-focus-on-methotrexate
#6
REVIEW
Arduino A Mangoni, Sara Tommasi, Angelo Zinellu, Salvatore Sotgia, Ciriaco Carru, Matteo Piga, Gian Luca Erre
About 20% of patients with a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease will experience further cardiovascular events despite maximal pharmacological treatment with cardioprotective drugs. This highlights the presence of residual cardiovascular risk in a significant proportion of patients and the need for novel, more effective therapies. These therapies should ideally target different pathophysiological pathways involved in the onset and the progression of atherosclerosis, particularly the inflammatory and immune pathways...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416529/a-paradigm-shift-for-the-treatment-of-hormone-receptor-positive-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-negative-hr-her2-advanced-breast-cancer-a-review-of-cdk-inhibitors
#7
REVIEW
Mariane Teodoro Fernandes, Jacob J Adashek, Carmelia Maria Noia Barreto, Ana Cláudia Barbin Spinosa, Barbara de Souza Gutierres, Gilberto Lopes, Auro Del Giglio, Pedro Nazareth Aguiar
In the last 3 years, a novel class of targeted therapy has been approved for patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HR+/HER2-) breast cancer. There are currently three approved agents, which are oral cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors. All of the approved drugs exhibit progression-free survival benefit when compared to standard of care and generally have less adverse events compared to traditional chemotherapeutic options. The treatment of HR+/HER2- advanced breast cancer is a continuously evolving landscape, and the addition of CDK4/6 inhibitors is the newest mechanism for treatment...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416528/sublingual-allergen-immunotherapy-for-respiratory-allergy-a-systematic-review
#8
Carlos Blanco, Raphaelle Bazire, Laura Argiz, Jenaro Hernández-Peña
The objective of the systematic review is to provide complete and updated information on efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) formulations for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases (ARDs). The literature search was conducted on PubMed database, involving double-blind, randomized clinical trials published between January 1992 and 2018, written in English, and performed in humans. The number of articles finally selected for review was 112. Data from the majority of properly controlled clinical trials demonstrate that SLIT is effective not only with short-term use (first year) but also with long-term use (up to the third year of active therapy), for treating ARDs in children and adults...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302115/the-biosimilars-journey-current-status-and-ongoing-challenges
#9
REVIEW
Igor Age Kos, Valderílio Feijó Azevedo, Daniel Egg Neto, Sérgio Cândido Kowalski
Biosimilar products are already approved and marketed in several countries. The Food and Drug Administration has approved ten different biosimilars, and the European Medicines Agency has approved 40. Even though this scenario has provided important experience with biosimilar products, there are still challenges and unanswered questions. Up to now, a good amount of knowledge has been gathered in order to support the importance of the totality of evidence and the construction of a biosimilarity exercise for regulatory approval...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302114/eosinophilic-fasciitis-a-case-series-with-an-emphasis-on-therapy-and-induction-of-remission
#10
Rechelle Tull, William D Hoover, Jacqueline F De Luca, William W Huang, Joseph L Jorizzo
Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon connective tissue disorder that affects patients of all ages, resulting in significant morbidity. Systemic corticosteroids can induce remission of disease. However, there is no universally accepted treatment ladder for eosinophilic fasciitis. This case series evaluates treatment efficacy in patients with eosinophilic fasciitis seen at Wake Forest University Department of Dermatology outpatient clinics. Patient charts were screened using ICD-9 diagnosis code 710.9 (unspecified diffuse connective tissue disease) to identify patients with eosinophilic fasciitis (n=10) seen at our institution...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263037/exploring-the-association-of-legalisation-status-of-cannabis-with-problematic-cannabis-use-and-impulsivity-in-the-usa
#11
Louise Destrée, Danielle Amiet, Adrian Carter, Rico Lee, Valentina Lorenzetti, Rebecca Segrave, George Youssef, Nadia Solowij, Murat Yücel
Background: There has been an increased trend towards the legalisation of medicinal and recreational cannabis use worldwide. This has been controversial as the long-term effects of frequent cannabis use on the brain are still poorly understood. Methods: In this study, we investigated whether the legal status of cannabis in the United States of America (USA) is associated with problematic cannabis use and impulsivity in 329 frequent cannabis users. The data were collected in 2015 and were analysed in 2017...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214464/primary-genetic-disorders-affecting-high-density-lipoprotein-hdl
#12
REVIEW
Constantine E Kosmas, Delia Silverio, Andreas Sourlas, Frank Garcia, Peter D Montan, Eliscer Guzman
There is extensive evidence demonstrating that there is a clear inverse correlation between plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and cardiovascular disease (CVD). On the other hand, there is also extensive evidence that HDL functionality plays a very important role in atheroprotection. Thus, genetic disorders altering certain enzymes, lipid transfer proteins, or specific receptors crucial for the metabolism and adequate function of HDL, may positively or negatively affect the HDL-C levels and/or HDL functionality and subsequently either provide protection or predispose to atherosclerotic disease...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214463/spectral-doppler-and-automated-software-guided-ultrasound-assessment-of-bilateral-common-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-spondyloarthritis-is-there-a-correlation-with-clinical-findings
#13
José Alexandre Mendonça, Beatriz Bisetto de Andrade, José Luis Braga de Aquino, Vania Aparecida Leandro-Merhi, Guilherme B Damian
Background and aim: Limited information is currently available about whether carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) correlates with the degree of disease activity in spondyloarthritis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between articular and carotid ultrasound data and laboratory and clinical variables in patients with spondyloarthritis. Methods: Twenty-two patients with spondyloarthritis, recruited consecutively via the spondyloarthritis service of the Universidade Pontifícia Católica de Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, were assessed using carotid artery ultrasound (radiofrequency quality intima-media thickness, RF-QIMT), joint ultrasound, clinical evaluation, and laboratory tests...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181760/the-role-of-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-anti-vegf-in-the-management-of-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#14
REVIEW
Yue Zhao, Rishi P Singh
Diabetes is a major cause of visual impairment among working-age adults in the United States. The proliferative form of diabetic retinopathy is associated with severe vision loss (acuity <5/200). The standard treatment in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is panretinal photocoagulation (PRP), which is effective but has established side effects such as peripheral visual-field constraints. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is thought to drive the process of vascular proliferation. Drugs targeting VEGF (anti-VEGF) have been studied extensively in diabetic macular edema (DME), and results have shown that diabetic retinopathy regresses with anti-VEGF treatment...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151017/role-of-betamethasone-valerate-2-250-mg-medicated-plaster-in-the-treatment-of-psoriasis-and-other-dermatological-pathologies-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Sandra Ly, Jean Michel Amici
Treating dermatological pathologies with topical corticosteroids under occlusion is often more effective than nonocclusive therapy, especially in the treatment of psoriasis. Betamethasone valerate medicated plaster provides a controlled and localized method of dosing betamethasone valerate, a well-established corticosteroid with vasoconstrictive, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and antiproliferative properties. This self-adhesive plaster is approved for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders that do not respond to treatment with less potent corticosteroids...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116284/sacubitril-valsartan-evaluation-of-safety-and-efficacy-as-an-antihypertensive-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Sarah L Anderson, Joel C Marrs
Hypertension (HTN) is a common disease state associated with extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is often difficult for patients with HTN to achieve and maintain a goal blood pressure (BP), despite there being many effective treatment options available. Sacubitril/valsartan is a first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) that has garnered approval by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency as a first-line treatment for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116283/advances-in-the-use-of-parp-inhibitor-therapy-for-breast-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Kelly E McCann, Sara A Hurvitz
Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and PARP-2 are DNA damage sensors that are most active during S-phase of the cell cycle and that have wider-reaching roles in DNA repair than originally described. BRCA1 and BRCA2 (Breast Cancer) proteins are involved in homologous recombination repair (HRR), which requires a homologous chromosome or sister chromatid as a template to faithfully repair DNA double-strand breaks. The small-molecule NAD+ mimetics, olaparib, niraparib, rucaparib, veliparib, and talazoparib, inhibit the catalytic activity of PARP-1 and PARP-2 and are currently being studied in later-stage clinical trials...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038660/febrile-seizures-an-overview
#18
REVIEW
Alexander Kc Leung, Kam Lun Hon, Theresa Nh Leung
Background: Febrile seizures are the most common neurologic disorder in childhood. Physicians should be familiar with the proper evaluation and management of this common condition. Objective: To provide an update on the current understanding, evaluation, and management of febrile seizures. Methods: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key terms 'febrile convulsions' and 'febrile seizures'. The search strategy included meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, observational studies, and reviews...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038659/cutaneous-side-effects-of-molecularly-targeted-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-solid-tumors
#19
REVIEW
Daniel I G Cubero, Beatrice Martinez Zugaib Abdalla, Jean Schoueri, Fabio Iazetti Lopes, Karine Corcione Turke, Jose Guzman, Auro Del Giglio, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos Machado Filho, Vanessa Salzano, Dolores Gonzalez Fabra
Background: Currently, molecularly targeted drugs are part of the therapeutic arsenal for the treatment of many neoplasms and are responsible for improvements in the quality of life and survival of patients. Although they act on proteins and components within biochemical pathways that are expressed to a greater extent in neoplastic cells, these drugs can also interfere with the activity of normal cells. Scope: This article reviews the cutaneous side effects of main molecularly targeted cancer therapies for solid tumors...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023004/first-line-alectinib-for-alk-positive-lung-cancer-is-there-room-for-further-improvement
#20
EDITORIAL
Alfredo Addeo, Giulio Metro
In the present editorial we describe the therapeutic achievements in the treatment of patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We focus on the major breakthroughs we have been witnessing in this context, from the introduction of crizotinib as the first approved targeted drug, to the meaningful improvement in terms of clinical benefit that alectinib, a second generation ALK-inhibitor, has recently provided over crizotinib. Finally, we address major trends of clinical research in this setting, and whether this might translate into further clinical improvement in the near future...
2018: Drugs in Context
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