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Drugs in Context

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209403/lipid-lowering-interventions-targeting-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-pcsk9-an-emerging-chapter-in-lipid-lowering-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Constantine E Kosmas, Eddy DeJesus, Rosmery Morcelo, Frank Garcia, Peter D Montan, Eliscer Guzman
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a serine protease that is mainly expressed in the liver but can also be found in the intestine and kidneys. PCSK9 promotes the degradation of low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR) by reducing their recycling and targeting the receptors for lysosomal destruction, thereby decreasing the rate of removal of LDL-cholesterol from the circulation. Thus, interventions targeting PCSK9 by reducing its expression may lead to significant reductions of LDL-cholesterol and possibly decrease cardiovascular risk...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209402/analgesics-in-the-management-of-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-a-perspective-review
#2
REVIEW
Rajesh R Tampi, Corey Hassell, Pallavi Joshi, Deena J Tampi
The objective of this review was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of analgesics in reducing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) among older adults from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A literature search was conducted of PubMed, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, and Cochrane collaboration databases for RCTs in the English language that evaluated the use of analgesics in reducing the severity of BPSD among older adults. Additionally, references of full-text articles that were included in this review were searched for extra studies...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167693/approving-cancer-treatments-based-on-endpoints-other-than-overall-survival-an-analysis-of-historical-data-using-the-pace-continuous-innovation-indicators%C3%A2-cii
#3
Neon Brooks, Mario Campone, Silvia Paddock, Scott Shortenhaus, David Grainger, Jacqueline Zummo, Samuel Thomas, Rose Li
Background: There is an active debate about the role that endpoints other than overall survival (OS) should play in the drug approval process. Yet the term 'surrogate endpoint' implies that OS is the only critical metric for regulatory approval of cancer treatments. We systematically analyzed the relationship between U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and publication of OS evidence to understand better the risks and benefits of delaying approval until OS evidence is available...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167692/prognostic-and-predictive-factors-of-eribulin-efficacy-in-heavily-pretreated-patients-affected-by-metastatic-breast-cancer-correlation-with-tumor-biology-and-previous-therapies
#4
Sabrina Rossi, Alessandra Cassano, Antonia Strippoli, Giovanni Schinzari, Ettore D'Argento, Michele Basso, Carlo Barone
Background: Eribulin mesylate is currently approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Scope: The objective of this retrospective study is to find specific predictive criteria related to patient or tumor characteristics in order to select patients that might benefit the most from eribulin and define the correct treatment sequence. Findings: Forty-four patients with MBC who received eribulin in third or subsequent lines of therapy in a single Italian center were considered eligible...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167691/long-term-efficacy-and-safety-of-fourth-line-multikinase-inhibitor-treatment-with-lenvatinib-in-a-young-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-patient
#5
S Morelli, E Puxeddu
Lenvatinib, a multikinase inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of patients with radioiodine-refractory metastatic thyroid cancer on the basis of a Phase III, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that showed longer progression-free survival in the drug-treated arm. Here, we report the case of a young papillary thyroid cancer patient, pretreated with three other kinase inhibitors, who achieved a long-term clinical benefit from lenvatinib in the fourth-line setting.
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167690/synchronous-gists-associated-with-multiple-sporadic-tumors-a-case-report
#6
Danila Comandini, Azzurra Damiani, Alessandro Pastorino
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare neoplasms, but they also represent the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract originating from the cell of Cajal. GIST incidence ranges around 1% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Approximately 5% of all GISTs have a hereditary etiology. The remaining 95% of GISTs are considered sporadic events, with up to 75% of cases driven by a constitutional activation of the c-KIT proto-oncogene. GISTs are generally solitary lesions. Nonetheless, multiple sporadic GISTs can occur and present as synchronous or metachronous tumors, usually associated with familial GIST...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706556/corrigendum-pharmacoeconomic-comparison-of-aripiprazole-once-monthly-and-paliperidone-palmitate-from-a-head-to-head-clinical-trial-in-schizophrenia-a-us-analysis
#7
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 212301 in vol. 5, PMID: 27708677.].
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706555/advances-in-iron-chelation-therapy-transitioning-to-a-new-oral-formulation
#8
Nirmish R Shah
Iron overload is a concern for patients who require repeated red-blood-cell transfusions due to conditions such as sickle cell disease, thalassemia, or myelodysplastic syndromes. The recommended treatment for removing excess iron in these patients is iron chelation therapy. Currently available iron chelators include deferoxamine, which is administered by injection, and deferasirox and deferiprone, both of which are administered orally. Adherence to iron chelator therapy is an important consideration and may be affected by side effects...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392826/nepa-a-new-fixed-combination-of-netupitant-and-palonosetron-is-a-cost-effective-intervention-for-the-prevention-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-in-the-uk
#9
REVIEW
Helene Cawston, Francois Bourhis, Jennifer Eriksson, Pierfrancesco Ruffo, Paolo D'Agostino, Marco Turini, Lee Schwartzberg, Alistair McGuire
BACKGROUND: The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of NEPA, an oral fixed combination netupitant (NETU, 300 mg) and palonosetron (PA, 0.5 mg) compared with aprepitant and palonosetron (APPA) or palonosetron (PA) alone, to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients undergoing treatment with highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC or MEC) in the UK. SCOPE: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were undertaken to compare NEPA with currently recommended anti-emetics...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210286/bilastine-in-allergic-rhinoconjunctivitis-and-urticaria-a-practical-approach-to-treatment-decisions-based-on-queries-received-by-the-medical-information-department
#10
REVIEW
Amalia Leceta, Ander Sologuren, Román Valiente, Cristina Campo, Luis Labeaga
BACKGROUND: Bilastine is a safe and effective commonly prescribed non-sedating H1-antihistamine approved for symptomatic treatment in patients with allergic disorders such as rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. It was evaluated in many patients throughout the clinical development required for its approval, but clinical trials generally exclude many patients who will benefit in everyday clinical practice (especially those with coexisting diseases and/or being treated with concomitant drugs)...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182142/elemental-calcium-intake-associated-with-calcium-acetate-calcium-carbonate-in-the-treatment-of-hyperphosphatemia
#11
Rosamund J Wilson, J Brian Copley
BACKGROUND: Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. SCOPE: A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990167/relative-bioavailability-of-three-formulations-of-galunisertib-administered-as-monotherapy-in-patients-with-advanced-or-metastatic-cancer
#12
Ivelina Gueorguieva, Ann Cleverly, Durisala Desaiah, Analia Azaro, Joan Seoane, Irene Braña, Elisabet Sicart, Colin Miles, Michael M Lahn, Malcolm I Mitchell, Jordi Rodon
OBJECTIVE: Galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate), an inhibitor of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway, is currently under investigation in several clinical trials involving multiple tumor types. The primary objective of this study was to assess relative bioavailability of two new galunisertib formulations developed using the roller compaction (RC) dry-milled (RCD) and RC slurry-milled (RCS) processes, compared with the existing formulation developed using the high-sheer wet granulation (HSWG) process...
2016: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803726/lanthanum-carbonate-oral-powder-satisfaction-preference-and-adherence-in-french-and-spanish-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#13
Michael Keith, Patricia de Sequera, François Clair, Riccardo Pedersini
BACKGROUND: Phosphate binders, such as lanthanum carbonate, control elevated serum-phosphate levels in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Lanthanum carbonate is available in oral powder and tablet form. The aim of this survey was to investigate satisfaction with, preference for, and adherence to lanthanum carbonate oral powder in patients with ESRD. SCOPE: Patients from France and Spain who had been taking lanthanum carbonate powder for at least 4 weeks, and who had experience of other phosphate binders of any formulation, were asked to complete an online or telephone survey...
2016: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708677/pharmacoeconomic-comparison-of-aripiprazole-once-monthly-and-paliperidone-palmitate-from-a-head-to-head-clinical-trial-in-schizophrenia-a-us-analysis
#14
Christophe Sapin, Ann Hartry, Siddhesh A Kamat, Maud Beillat, Ross A Baker, Anna Eramo
Schizophrenia presents a substantial clinical and economic burden to the health-care system. In QUAlity of LIfe with AbiliFY Maintena (QUALIFY), a randomized head-to-head study of aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg (AOM 400) compared with paliperidone palmitate (PP; 78-234 mg/mo), AOM 400 demonstrated greater improvement in health-related quality of life and functioning in patients with stable schizophrenia. The present analysis used health economics assessment data collected during the QUALIFY study to determine the direct medical and pharmacy costs and the cost-effectiveness associated with each treatment over 6 months...
2016: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648101/closing-the-knowledge-gap-on-cardiovascular-disease-in-type-2-diabetes-the-empa-reg-outcome-trial-and-beyond
#15
REVIEW
Elif A Oral
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with marked cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, including heart failure (HF). Until recently, an oral glucose-lowering agent that improved hyperglycemia as well as provided CV benefits in patients with T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD) was lacking. The newest class of glucose-lowering agents, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, includes canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin. Prior to the release of the LEADER trial results, the recent EMPA-REG OUTCOME study was the only dedicated CV trial to demonstrate a reduction in major adverse cardiac events, CV mortality, and all-cause mortality and a reduction in hospitalization for HF with empagliflozin, given on top of standard-of-care therapy in patients with T2DM and CVD...
2016: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540409/evaluating-cost-benefits-of-combination-therapies-for-advanced-melanoma
#16
Ivar S Jensen, Emily Zacherle, Christopher M Blanchette, Jie Zhang, Wes Yin
BACKGROUND: Although a number of monoimmunotherapies and targeted therapies are available to treat BRAF+ advanced melanoma, response rates remain relatively low in the range of 22-53% with progression-free survival (PFS) in the range of 4.8-8.8 months. Recently, combination targeted therapies have improved response rates to about 66-69%, PFS to 11.0-12.6 months and overall survival (OS) to 25.1-25.6 months. While combination immunotherapies have improved response rates of 67 compared with 19-29% with monotherapies and improved PFS of 11...
2016: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540408/influenza-vaccination-key-facts-for-general-practitioners-in-europe-a-synthesis-by-european-experts-based-on-national-guidelines-and-best-practices-in-the-united-kingdom-and-the-netherlands
#17
George Kassianos, Patricia Blank, Oana Falup-Pecurariu, Ernest Kuchar, Jan Kyncl, Raul Ortiz De Lejarazu, Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Gerrit A van Essen
Currently there is no influenza vaccination guidance for European general practitioners. Furthermore, although the European Council recommends a target seasonal influenza vaccination rate of 75% in the elderly (65 years and above) and in anyone aged >6 months with a chronic medical condition, there remain wide discrepancies throughout Europe. A harmonised guideline regarding not only vaccination strategy but also for the consistent diagnosis of influenza across Europe is essential to support a common approach for the implementation of seasonal influenza vaccination across Europe...
2016: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403194/clinical-and-cost-outcomes-from-different-hyaluronic-acid-treatments-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis-evidence-from-a-us-health-plan-claims-database
#18
Vinod Dasa, Mitch DeKoven, Kainan Sun, Allan Scott, Sooyeol Lim
BACKGROUND: Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) for knee osteoarthritis (OA) effectively reduces pain and delays total knee replacement (TKR) surgery; however, little is known about relative differences in clinical and cost outcomes among different HA products. OBJECTIVE: To compare disease-specific costs and risk of TKR among patients receiving different HA treatments in a commercially insured cohort of patients with knee OA in the USA. METHOD: Retrospective analyses using IMS Health's PharMetrics Plus Health Plan Claims Database were conducted by identifying knee OA patients with claims indicating initiation of HA treatment at an 'index date' during the selection period (2007-2010)...
2016: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403193/anticoagulation-for-the-prevention-of-stroke-in-non-valvular-af-in-general-practice-room-for-improvement
#19
Adam Ioannou, Sofia Metaxa, George Kassianos, Constantinos G Missouris
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess whether the recommendations and guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have been adopted in general practice (GP). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using the GP computer database (Hatfield, UK) on all 9400 patients to assess the quality of anticoagulation in patients with a recorded diagnosis of AF. RESULTS: Of the 180 patients with a diagnosis of AF, 107 (59...
2016: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403192/efficacy-of-telbivudine-with-conditional-tenofovir-intensification-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-results-from-the-2-year-roadmap-strategy
#20
Teerha Piratvisuth, Piyawat Komolmit, Henry Ly Chan, Tawesak Tanwandee, Wattana Sukeepaisarnjaroen, Mário G Pessoa, Eduardo Fassio, Suzane K Ono, Fernando Bessone, Jorge Daruich, Stefan Zeuzem, Michael Manns, Alkaz Uddin, Yuhong Dong, Aldo Trylesinski
BACKGROUND: A 2-year roadmap study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tenofovir intensification at Week 24 in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) receiving telbivudine. SCOPE: A prospective multicenter study was conducted in treatment-naive patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive CHB. All patients received telbivudine (600 mg/day) until Week 24. Thereafter, patients with detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (≥300 copies/mL) were administered tenofovir (300 mg/day) plus telbivudine, and patients with undetectable HBV DNA continued telbivudine monotherapy until Week 104...
2016: Drugs in Context
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