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Drugs in Context

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038660/febrile-seizures-an-overview
#1
REVIEW
Alexander Kc Leung, Kam Lun Hon, Theresa Nh Leung
Background: Febrile seizures are the most common neurologic disorder in childhood. Physicians should be familiar with the proper evaluation and management of this common condition. Objective: To provide an update on the current understanding, evaluation, and management of febrile seizures. Methods: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key terms 'febrile convulsions' and 'febrile seizures'. The search strategy included meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, observational studies, and reviews...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038659/cutaneous-side-effects-of-molecularly-targeted-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-solid-tumors
#2
REVIEW
Daniel I G Cubero, Beatrice Martinez Zugaib Abdalla, Jean Schoueri, Fabio Iazetti Lopes, Karine Corcione Turke, Jose Guzman, Auro Del Giglio, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos Machado Filho, Vanessa Salzano, Dolores Gonzalez Fabra
Background: Currently, molecularly targeted drugs are part of the therapeutic arsenal for the treatment of many neoplasms and are responsible for improvements in the quality of life and survival of patients. Although they act on proteins and components within biochemical pathways that are expressed to a greater extent in neoplastic cells, these drugs can also interfere with the activity of normal cells. Scope: This article reviews the cutaneous side effects of main molecularly targeted cancer therapies for solid tumors...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023004/first-line-alectinib-for-alk-positive-lung-cancer-is-there-room-for-further-improvement
#3
EDITORIAL
Alfredo Addeo, Giulio Metro
In the present editorial we describe the therapeutic achievements in the treatment of patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We focus on the major breakthroughs we have been witnessing in this context, from the introduction of crizotinib as the first approved targeted drug, to the meaningful improvement in terms of clinical benefit that alectinib, a second generation ALK-inhibitor, has recently provided over crizotinib. Finally, we address major trends of clinical research in this setting, and whether this might translate into further clinical improvement in the near future...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023003/adding-ezetimibe-to-statin-therapy-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#4
REVIEW
Marija Vavlukis, Ana Vavlukis
Background: Statins are the hypolipemic treatment of choice for hyperlipidemia with confirmed atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) protective effect, proven even in normolipemic patients. But in rare situations, even with a high-dose treatment regimen, or maximally tolerated statin dose treatment, treatment targets of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), according to the risk profile of the patient, cannot be achieved. Combination therapy with ezetimibe is an effective treatment choice, as it is one of the few hypolipemic drugs with proven ASCVD protective effect...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002715/regorafenib-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#5
REVIEW
Nicola Personeni, Tiziana Pressiani, Armando Santoro, Lorenza Rimassa
Over the past ten years, sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, has been the only systemic agent approved for first-line treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Whereas only recently lenvatinib was shown to be noninferior to sorafenib, in terms of survival, all other agents previously tested failed to prove noninferiority (or superiority) when compared with sorafenib. Similarly, in a second-line setting, most investigational drugs have failed to provide better survival outcomes than placebo...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942340/metformin-in-the-management-of-diabetes-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#6
REVIEW
Gagan Priya, Sanjay Kalra
This review explores the current place of metformin in the management of gestational diabetes (GDM) and type 2 diabetes during pregnancy and lactation. The rationale and basic pharmacology of metformin usage in pregnancy is discussed along with the evidence from observational and randomized controlled trials in women with GDM or overt diabetes. There seems to be adequate evidence of efficacy and short-term safety of metformin in relation to maternal and neonatal outcomes in GDM, with possible benefits related to lower maternal weight gain and lower risk of neonatal hypoglycemia and macrosomia...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899755/combination-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-hypertension
#7
REVIEW
Carolina Guerrero-García, Alberto Francisco Rubio-Guerra
Hypertension is a major preventable risk factor for atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. Although modern and effective antihypertensive drugs are available, most patients remain with a suboptimal blood pressure control. Most hypertensive patients will need a combination of antihypertensive agents to achieve the therapeutic goals - recent guidelines recommend initiating treatment with two drugs in those patients with a systolic blood pressure >20 mmHg and/or a diastolic blood pressure >10 mmHg above the goals, and in those patients with high cardiovascular risk...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899754/immunotherapy-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#8
EDITORIAL
Matteo Santoni, Francesco Massari, Vincenzo Di Nunno, Alessandro Conti, Alessia Cimadamore, Marina Scarpelli, Rodolfo Montironi, Liang Cheng, Nicola Battelli, Antonio Lopez-Beltran
Advances in understanding the mechanisms of tumour-induced immunosuppression have led to the development of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in cancer patients, including those with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The optimal combination between immunotherapy and targeted agents (as well as the possible favourable sequential therapy of these two classes of drugs) remains an open question at this moment. Several trials are currently underway to assess the combination of anti-programmed-death 1 (PD-1) or anti-PD-ligand(L)1 agents with other immunotherapies or with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872449/how-to-manage-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections
#9
REVIEW
Matteo Bassetti, Antonio Vena, Antony Croxatto, Elda Righi, Benoit Guery
Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa have become a real concern in hospital-acquired infections, especially in critically ill and immunocompromised patients. The major problem leading to high mortality lies in the appearance of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, a vast number of approaches to develop novel anti-infectives is currently pursued. Diverse strategies range from killing (new antibiotics) to disarming (antivirulence) the pathogen. In this review, selected aspects of P. aeruginosa antimicrobial resistance and infection management will be addressed...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707029/cardiac-myosin-activators-for-heart-failure-therapy-focus-on-omecamtiv-mecarbil
#10
REVIEW
Edgardo Kaplinsky, Gordon Mallarkey
Heart failure continues to be a major global health problem with a pronounced impact on morbidity and mortality and very limited drug treatment options especially with regard to inotropic therapy. Omecamtiv mecarbil is a first-in-class cardiac myosin activator, which increases the proportion of myosin heads that are tightly bound to actin and creates a force-producing state that is not associated with cytosolic calcium accumulation. Phase I and phase II studies have shown that it is safe and well tolerated...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692852/emollient-treatment-of-atopic-dermatitis-latest-evidence-and-clinical-considerations
#11
REVIEW
Kam Lun Hon, Jeng Sum Charmaine Kung, Wing Gi Gigi Ng, Ting Fan Leung
Aim: To review current classes of emollients in the market, their clinical efficacy in atopic dermatitis (AD) and considerations for choice of an emollient. Methods: PubMed Clinical Queries under Clinical Study Categories (with Category limited to Therapy and Scope limited to Narrow) and Systematic Reviews were used as the search engine. Keywords of 'emollient or moisturizer' and 'atopic dermatitis' were used. Overview of findings: Using the keywords of 'emollient' and 'atopic dermatitis', there were 105 and 36 hits under Clinical Study Categories (with Category limited to Therapy and Scope limited to Narrow) and Systematic Reviews, respectively...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675049/administration-of-intravenous-morphine-for-acute-pain-in-the-emergency-department-inflicts-an-economic-burden-in-europe
#12
Montserrat Casamayor, Karen DiDonato, Marc Hennebert, Luca Brazzi, Gregor Prosen
Background: Acute pain is among the leading causes of referral to the emergency department (ED) in industrialized countries. Its management mainly depends on intensity. Moderate-to-severe pain is treated with intravenous (IV) administered opioids, of which morphine is the most commonly used in the ED. We have estimated the burden of IV administration of morphine in the five key European countries (EU5) using a micro-costing approach. Scope: A structured literature review was conducted to identify clinical guidelines for acute pain management in EU5 and clinical studies conducted in the ED setting...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632548/atopic-dermatitis-a-review-of-topical-nonsteroid-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Ariana Papier, Lindsay C Strowd
Background: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects up to 20% of children and 3% of adults globally. Although topical corticosteroids are considered to be the first-line agents, they can be associated with cutaneous and systemic adverse effects. Since the early 2000s, two new classes of nonsteroid topical therapies, topical calcineurin inhibitors and phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors, have been introduced and provide a safe treatment alternative. Method: We performed a search and review of clinical trials that examined the safety and efficacy of topical calcineurin inhibitors and PDE4 inhibitors...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623099/treatment-of-diverticular-disease-an-update-on-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#14
REVIEW
Marilia Carabotti, Bruno Annibale
Background: Diverticular disease (DD) is a common condition, especially in Western countries. In about 80% of patients, colonic diverticula remain asymptomatic (diverticulosis), while approximately 20% of patients may develop abdominal symptoms (symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease, SUDD) and, eventually complications as acute diverticulitis (AD). The management of this condition has been improved, and in the last five years European countries and the USA have published guidelines and recommendations...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623098/high-density-lipoprotein-hdl-functionality-and-its-relevance-to-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease
#15
REVIEW
Constantine E Kosmas, Ian Martinez, Andreas Sourlas, Kyriaki V Bouza, Frederick N Campos, Verenisse Torres, Peter D Montan, Eliscer Guzman
Several prospective epidemiological studies have shown that there is a clear inverse relationship between serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), even at low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels below 70 mg/dL. However, more recent evidence from genetic studies and clinical research has come to challenge the long-standing notion that higher HDL-C levels are always beneficial, while lower HDL-C levels are always detrimental. Thus, it becomes apparent that HDL functionality plays a much more important role in atheroprotection than circulating HDL-C levels...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623097/renal-effects-of-non-tenofovir-antiretroviral-therapy-in-patients-living-with-hiv
#16
REVIEW
Milena M McLaughlin, Aimee J Guerrero, Andrew Merker
A review of literature published regarding non-tenofovir antiretroviral agents causing renal adverse effects was conducted. The literature involving renal adverse effects and antiretroviral therapy is most robust with protease inhibitors, specifically atazanavir and indinavir, and includes reports of crystalluria, leukocyturia, nephritis, nephrolithiasis, nephropathy and urolithiasis. Several case reports describe potential nephropathy (including Fanconi syndrome) secondary to administration of abacavir, didanosine, lamivudine and stavudine...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535792/epidemiology-and-hospital-resources-use-in-the-treatment-of-ulcerative-colitis-at-gastroenterology-units-in-spain-epicure-study
#17
Ignacio Marín-Jiménez, Cristina Saro, Verónica Díaz, Manuel Barreiro-de Acosta, María Gómez-García, Ana Gutiérrez Casbas
Background and aim: Nationwide epidemiological data on ulcerative colitis (UC) in Spain are lacking. The primary objective was to assess the epidemiology of UC at hospital gastroenterology units and the use of hospital resources (characteristics and facilities) for the management of UC in Spain. Methods: A retrospective, multicenter, epidemiological, cross-sectional study (EPICURE study) analyzed data from hospital registries and records from UC patients admitted and treated in 2011 at a representative selection of Spanish sites...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497452/the-latest-evidence-for-possible-hiv-1-curative-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Hanh Thi Pham, Thibault Mesplède
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains a major health issue worldwide. In developed countries, antiretroviral therapy has extended its reach from treatment of people living with HIV-1 to post-exposure prophylaxis, treatment as prevention, and, more recently, pre-exposure prophylaxis. These healthcare strategies offer the epidemiological tools to curve the epidemic in rich settings and will be concomitantly implemented in developing countries. One of the remaining challenges is to identify an efficacious curative strategy...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483930/treatment-with-combined-dabrafenib-and-trametinib-in-braf-v600e-mutated-metastatic-malignant-melanoma-a-case-of-long-term-complete-response-after-treatment-cessation
#19
Sonia Brugnara, Mariacristina Sicher, Elena Maria Bonandini, Davide Donner, Franca Chierichetti, Mattia Barbareschi, Carlo Renè Girardelli, Orazio Caffo
Here, we report the case of a patient, diagnosed with BRAF V600E -mutated metastatic malignant melanoma M1a, who achieved a complete metabolic response after 7 months of treatment with the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib. After 31 months, the treatment was interrupted for patient's decision. To date October 2017, 18 months after the interruption of the treatment with the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib, follow-up Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans are still documenting complete metabolic response...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456568/harnessing-the-immune-system-in-the-battle-against-breast-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth S Nakasone, Sara A Hurvitz, Kelly E McCann
Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in women and the second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite major innovations in early detection and advanced therapeutics, up to 30% of women with node-negative breast cancer and 70% of women with node-positive breast cancer will develop recurrence. The recognition that breast tumors are infiltrated by a complex array of immune cells that influence their development, progression, and metastasis, as well as their responsiveness to systemic therapies has sparked major interest in the development of immunotherapies...
2018: Drugs in Context
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