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Drugs in Context

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456568/harnessing-the-immune-system-in-the-battle-against-breast-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Elizabeth S Nakasone, Sara A Hurvitz, Kelly E McCann
Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in women and the second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite major innovations in early detection and advanced therapeutics, up to 30% of women with node-negative breast cancer and 70% of women with node-positive breast cancer will develop recurrence. The recognition that breast tumors are infiltrated by a complex array of immune cells that influence their development, progression, and metastasis, as well as their responsiveness to systemic therapies has sparked major interest in the development of immunotherapies...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445409/suvorexant-for-insomnia-in-older-adults-a-perspective-review
#2
REVIEW
Rajesh R Tampi, Geetha Manikkara, Silpa Balachandran, Piyush Taparia, Stephanie Hrisko, Shilpa Srinivasan, Deena J Tampi
The aim of this review was to identify published randomized control trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of suvorexant for the treatment of insomnia among older adults (≥65 years). A literature search was conducted of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane collaboration databases for RCTs in any language evaluating suvorexant for the treatment of insomnia in older adults. Additionally, references of full-text articles that were included in this review were searched for further studies...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445408/needs-and-preferences-of-women-users-of-oral-contraceptives-in-selected-countries-in-central-and-eastern-europe
#3
Tomas Fait, Dmitry Buryak, Monica-Mihaela Cirstoiu, Eva Luczai, Rafal Janczura
Background: The availability of various oral contraceptive (OC) pill formulations with different hormone compositions suggests that there is potential to align a particular product with an individual user's needs and preferences. To explore this concept further, a survey was conducted of current users of OCs to define and confirm areas of specific needs, and to gain insight into their views and preferences for OC formulations. Methods: During November and December 2015, women users (n=615) of OCs in five Central and Eastern European countries were surveyed in face-to-face interviews conducted by experienced interviewers...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445407/practical-outpatient-pharmacotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Youngjung Kim, Laura M Hack, Elizabeth S Ahn, Jungjin Kim
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is commonly encountered in clinical practice. A combination of psychosocial intervention and pharmacotherapy is the cornerstone of AUD treatment. Despite their efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness, clinicians are reluctant to prescribe medications to treat individuals with AUD. Given the high rate of relapse with psychosocial intervention alone, increasing patient access to this underutilized treatment has the potential to improve clinical outcome in this difficult-to-treat population...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410685/lipocrinology-the-relationship-between-lipids-and-endocrine-function
#5
EDITORIAL
Sanjay Kalra, Gagan Priya
While lipids are an integral part of the endocrine clinic, the opposite is not necessarily true. The lipocrinology framework addresses this lacuna, by highlighting the similarities and multiple relationships between lipid and endocrine function. It reinforces the need to screen (clinically or biochemically) all dyslipidemic patients for endocrine disease and appropriate endocrine patients for dyslipidemia. Thus, it aims to improve clinical care for persons with lipid abnormalities as well as endocrine disease...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344053/an-overview-of-exposure-to-ethanol-containing-substances-and-ethanol-intoxication-in-children-based-on-three-illustrated-cases
#6
REVIEW
Kam Lun Hon, Alexander Kc Leung, Eddie Cheung, Bryan Lee, Michelle Mc Tsang, Alcy R Torres
Alcohol addiction and intoxication are major health problems worldwide. Acute alcohol intoxication is well reported in adults and adolescents but less frequently reported in children of younger ages. We report three anonymized cases of pediatric ethanol exposure and illustrate the different mechanisms of intoxication. In all cases, a focused history is the key to prompt diagnosis and timely management. Physicians should be aware of this potential poison in children presented with acute confusional or encephalopathic state...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344052/manidipine-an-antihypertensive-drug-with-positive-effects-on-metabolic-parameters-and-adrenergic-tone-in-patients-with-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Margarita SaizSatjes, Francisco Javier Martinez-Martin
Antihypertensive treatment of patients with diabetes should include those drugs with a positive effect on metabolic parameters. Most patients with diabetes require at least two antihypertensive agents. Combining a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor is a rational approach. However, not all dihydropyridines are equal with respect to their effects on metabolic parameters. Thus, manidipine exerts a positive effect on insulin resistance. However, this effect has not been observed with amlodipine...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225657/satisfaction-and-quality-of-life-of-allergic-patients-following-sublingual-five-grass-pollen-tablet-immunotherapy-in-spain
#8
Darío Antolín-Amerigo, Isabel A Tabar, Maria Del Mar Fernández-Nieto, Anna M Callejo-Melgosa, Francisco J Muñoz-Bellido, José C Martínez-Alonso, Jorge D Méndez-Alcalde, Marta Reche, Ana Rodríguez-Trabado, Ana Rosado-Ingelmo, Alicia Alonso-Gómez, Rosa Blanco-González, José A Alvarez-Fernandez, Isabel Botella, Ana Valls, Mercedes Cimarra, Carlos Blanco
Background: Five-grass pollen tablet is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). This trial sought to determine the satisfaction and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients undergoing this treatment. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, multicentre, observational, naturalistic study, following a discontinuous pre- and co-seasonal five-grass pollen regimen over two seasons in Spain (2012, 2013). The HRQoL of the patients was measured with the specific Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) for adults, adolescent (AdolRQLQ), or paediatric (PRQLQ) patients...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209403/lipid-lowering-interventions-targeting-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-pcsk9-an-emerging-chapter-in-lipid-lowering-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Constantine E Kosmas, Eddy DeJesus, Rosmery Morcelo, Frank Garcia, Peter D Montan, Eliscer Guzman
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a serine protease that is mainly expressed in the liver but can also be found in the intestine and kidneys. PCSK9 promotes the degradation of low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR) by reducing their recycling and targeting the receptors for lysosomal destruction, thereby decreasing the rate of removal of LDL-cholesterol from the circulation. Thus, interventions targeting PCSK9 by reducing its expression may lead to significant reductions of LDL-cholesterol and possibly decrease cardiovascular risk...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209402/analgesics-in-the-management-of-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-a-perspective-review
#10
REVIEW
Rajesh R Tampi, Corey Hassell, Pallavi Joshi, Deena J Tampi
The objective of this review was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of analgesics in reducing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) among older adults from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A literature search was conducted of PubMed, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, and Cochrane collaboration databases for RCTs in the English language that evaluated the use of analgesics in reducing the severity of BPSD among older adults. Additionally, references of full-text articles that were included in this review were searched for extra studies...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167693/approving-cancer-treatments-based-on-endpoints-other-than-overall-survival-an-analysis-of-historical-data-using-the-pace-continuous-innovation-indicators%C3%A2-cii
#11
Neon Brooks, Mario Campone, Silvia Paddock, Scott Shortenhaus, David Grainger, Jacqueline Zummo, Samuel Thomas, Rose Li
Background: There is an active debate about the role that endpoints other than overall survival (OS) should play in the drug approval process. Yet the term 'surrogate endpoint' implies that OS is the only critical metric for regulatory approval of cancer treatments. We systematically analyzed the relationship between U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and publication of OS evidence to understand better the risks and benefits of delaying approval until OS evidence is available...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167692/prognostic-and-predictive-factors-of-eribulin-efficacy-in-heavily-pretreated-patients-affected-by-metastatic-breast-cancer-correlation-with-tumor-biology-and-previous-therapies
#12
Sabrina Rossi, Alessandra Cassano, Antonia Strippoli, Giovanni Schinzari, Ettore D'Argento, Michele Basso, Carlo Barone
Background: Eribulin mesylate is currently approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Scope: The objective of this retrospective study is to find specific predictive criteria related to patient or tumor characteristics in order to select patients that might benefit the most from eribulin and define the correct treatment sequence. Findings: Forty-four patients with MBC who received eribulin in third or subsequent lines of therapy in a single Italian center were considered eligible...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167691/long-term-efficacy-and-safety-of-fourth-line-multikinase-inhibitor-treatment-with-lenvatinib-in-a-young-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-patient
#13
S Morelli, E Puxeddu
Lenvatinib, a multikinase inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of patients with radioiodine-refractory metastatic thyroid cancer on the basis of a Phase III, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that showed longer progression-free survival in the drug-treated arm. Here, we report the case of a young papillary thyroid cancer patient, pretreated with three other kinase inhibitors, who achieved a long-term clinical benefit from lenvatinib in the fourth-line setting.
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167690/synchronous-gists-associated-with-multiple-sporadic-tumors-a-case-report
#14
Danila Comandini, Azzurra Damiani, Alessandro Pastorino
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare neoplasms, but they also represent the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract originating from the cell of Cajal. GIST incidence ranges around 1% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Approximately 5% of all GISTs have a hereditary etiology. The remaining 95% of GISTs are considered sporadic events, with up to 75% of cases driven by a constitutional activation of the c-KIT proto-oncogene. GISTs are generally solitary lesions. Nonetheless, multiple sporadic GISTs can occur and present as synchronous or metachronous tumors, usually associated with familial GIST...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706556/corrigendum-pharmacoeconomic-comparison-of-aripiprazole-once-monthly-and-paliperidone-palmitate-from-a-head-to-head-clinical-trial-in-schizophrenia-a-us-analysis
#15
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 212301 in vol. 5, PMID: 27708677.].
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706555/advances-in-iron-chelation-therapy-transitioning-to-a-new-oral-formulation
#16
Nirmish R Shah
Iron overload is a concern for patients who require repeated red-blood-cell transfusions due to conditions such as sickle cell disease, thalassemia, or myelodysplastic syndromes. The recommended treatment for removing excess iron in these patients is iron chelation therapy. Currently available iron chelators include deferoxamine, which is administered by injection, and deferasirox and deferiprone, both of which are administered orally. Adherence to iron chelator therapy is an important consideration and may be affected by side effects...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392826/nepa-a-new-fixed-combination-of-netupitant-and-palonosetron-is-a-cost-effective-intervention-for-the-prevention-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-in-the-uk
#17
REVIEW
Helene Cawston, Francois Bourhis, Jennifer Eriksson, Pierfrancesco Ruffo, Paolo D'Agostino, Marco Turini, Lee Schwartzberg, Alistair McGuire
BACKGROUND: The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of NEPA, an oral fixed combination netupitant (NETU, 300 mg) and palonosetron (PA, 0.5 mg) compared with aprepitant and palonosetron (APPA) or palonosetron (PA) alone, to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients undergoing treatment with highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC or MEC) in the UK. SCOPE: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were undertaken to compare NEPA with currently recommended anti-emetics...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210286/bilastine-in-allergic-rhinoconjunctivitis-and-urticaria-a-practical-approach-to-treatment-decisions-based-on-queries-received-by-the-medical-information-department
#18
REVIEW
Amalia Leceta, Ander Sologuren, Román Valiente, Cristina Campo, Luis Labeaga
BACKGROUND: Bilastine is a safe and effective commonly prescribed non-sedating H1-antihistamine approved for symptomatic treatment in patients with allergic disorders such as rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. It was evaluated in many patients throughout the clinical development required for its approval, but clinical trials generally exclude many patients who will benefit in everyday clinical practice (especially those with coexisting diseases and/or being treated with concomitant drugs)...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182142/elemental-calcium-intake-associated-with-calcium-acetate-calcium-carbonate-in-the-treatment-of-hyperphosphatemia
#19
Rosamund J Wilson, J Brian Copley
BACKGROUND: Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. SCOPE: A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990167/relative-bioavailability-of-three-formulations-of-galunisertib-administered-as-monotherapy-in-patients-with-advanced-or-metastatic-cancer
#20
Ivelina Gueorguieva, Ann Cleverly, Durisala Desaiah, Analia Azaro, Joan Seoane, Irene Braña, Elisabet Sicart, Colin Miles, Michael M Lahn, Malcolm I Mitchell, Jordi Rodon
OBJECTIVE: Galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate), an inhibitor of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway, is currently under investigation in several clinical trials involving multiple tumor types. The primary objective of this study was to assess relative bioavailability of two new galunisertib formulations developed using the roller compaction (RC) dry-milled (RCD) and RC slurry-milled (RCS) processes, compared with the existing formulation developed using the high-sheer wet granulation (HSWG) process...
2016: Drugs in Context
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