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Journal of Equine Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955165/histopathological-findings-of-apical-fracture-of-the-proximal-sesamoid-bones-in-young-thoroughbred-foals
#1
Fumio Sato, Yoshiro Endo, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Masataka Tominari, Harutaka Murase, Mutsuki Ishimaru, Kenji Korosue
Although radiographic findings at the apical portion of the proximal sesamoid bone (PSB) are often observed in young Thoroughbred foals, conflicting findings, either fractures or apparent secondary ossifications centers, have been reported. Three cases (aged 2, 5, and 7 weeks) were identified in 30 necropsied foals (0-31 weeks old). Histopathologically, the subchondral trabecular woven bone was fractured and exhibited focal necrosis of woven bone, fibrin exudate, and/or fibrosis within the foci. In the 7-week-old case, proliferations of chondrocytes were also observed...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955164/computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-for-the-initial-stage-of-equine-temporohyoid-osteoarthropathy-in-a-thoroughbred-foal
#2
Tomohiro Inui, Kazutaka Yamada, Megumi Itoh, Masashi Yanagawa, Tohru Higuchi, Akiko Watanabe, Yui Imamura, Mako Urabe, Naoki Sasaki
Temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO) is characterized by progressive osseous proliferation of the stylohyoid and petrous temporal bones. Generally, diagnosis is confirmed by guttural pouch endoscopy and skull radiography. In the present case, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in a 6-month-old Thoroughbred foal showing signs of head tilt and unilateral ear droop, consistent with the presence of a vestibular disease and unilateral facial paralysis. CT revealed bony fusion and proliferation of the right temporohyoid joint, while MRI revealed that otitis media was responsible for THO...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955163/anesthetic-management-with-sevoflurane-combined-with-alfaxalone-medetomidine-constant-rate-infusion-in-a-thoroughbred-racehorse-undergoing-a-long-time-orthopedic-surgery
#3
Ai Wakuno, Tatsuya Maeda, Kazumichi Kodaira, Takuya Kikuchi, Minoru Ohta
A three-year old Thoroughbred racehorse was anesthetized with sevoflurane and oxygen inhalation anesthesia combined with constant rate infusion (CRI) of alfaxalone-medetomidine for internal fixation of a third metacarpal bone fracture. After premedication with intravenous (IV) injections of medetomidine (6.0 µg/kg IV), butorphanol (25 µg/kg IV), and midazolam (20 µg/kg IV), anesthesia was induced with 5% guaifenesin (500 ml/head IV) followed immediately by alfaxalone (1.0 mg/kg IV). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and CRIs of alfaxalone (1...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955162/characteristic-findings-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-and-computed-tomography-ct-for-severe-chronic-laminitis-in-a-thoroughbred-horse
#4
Kazutaka Yamada, Tomohiro Inui, Megumi Itoh, Masashi Yanagawa, Fumio Sato, Masataka Tominari, Fumiaki Mizobe, Miori Kishimoto, Naoki Sasaki
A Thoroughbred horse with severe chronic laminitis of both forelimbs was evaluated on the same day with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Both MRI and CT revealed loss of the dorsal aspect of the cortical bone of the 3rd phalanx and sclerosis. CT reflected the status of the horny layer and bone of the affected feet, while MRI depicted inflammation of the laminar corium, together with tendon edema. On the 3-dimensional CT venogram, vessels were visualized in both the right and left forelimbs, although there was a difference in the vasculature of the coronary plexus and circumflex vessels between the right and left forelimbs...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955161/changes-in-heart-rate-and-heart-rate-variability-as-a-function-of-age-in-thoroughbred-horses
#5
Hajime Ohmura, James H Jones
We investigated changes in heart rate (HR) and HR variability as a function of age in newborn foals to old Thoroughbred horses. Experiments were performed on a total of 83 healthy and clinically normal Thoroughbred horses. Resting HR decreased with age from birth. The relationship between age and HR fit the equation Y=48.2X(-0.129)(R(2)=0.705); the relationship between age and HR for horses 0-7 years old fit the equation Y=44.1X(-0.179)(R(2)=0.882). Seven-day-old horses had the highest HR values (106 ± 10...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955160/signal-changes-in-standing-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-osseous-injury-at-the-origin-of-the-suspensory-ligament-in-four-thoroughbred-racehorses-under-tiludronic-acid-treatment
#6
Fumiaki Mizobe, Motoi Nomura, Tomohiro Kato, Yasuo Nambo, Kazutaka Yamada
Problems associated with the proximal metacarpal region, such as an osseous injury associated with tearing of Sharpey's fibers or an avulsion fracture of the origin of the suspensory ligament (OISL), are important causes of lameness in racehorses. In the present study, four Thoroughbred racehorses (age range, 2-4 years) were diagnosed as having forelimb OISL and assessed over time by using standing magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI). At the first sMRI examination, all horses had 3 characteristic findings, including low signal intensity within the trabecular bone of the third metacarpus on T1-weighted images, intermediate-to-high signal intensity surrounded by a hypointense rim on T2*-weighted images, and high signal intensity on fat-suppressed images...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955159/comparison-of-physical-body-growth-and-metabolic-and-reproductive-endocrine-functions-between-north-and-south-climates-of-japan-in-trained-thoroughbred-yearling-horses
#7
Siriwan Tangyuenyong, Fumio Sato, Yasuo Nambo, Harutaka Murase, Yoshiro Endo, Tomomi Tanaka, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe
This study aimed to compare body growth, metabolic, and reproductive hormonal changes in trained Thoroughbred yearling horses under different climate conditions with and without light supplementation (LS). Thoroughbred yearlings raised at research centers of the Japan Racing Association in Hokkaido (north) or Miyazaki (south) were divided into control and LS groups. In the LS groups, 44 colts and 47 fillies from Hokkaido and 11 colts and 11 fillies from Miyazaki were exposed to LS with an extended photoperiod of 14...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955158/how-to-minimise-the-incidence-of-transport-related-problem-behaviours-in-horses-a-review
#8
Amanda York, Judith Matusiewicz, Barbara Padalino
This review aims to provide practical outcomes on how to minimise the incidence of transport-related problem behaviours (TRPBs) in horses. TRPBs are unwanted behaviours occurring during different phases of transport, most commonly, a reluctance to load and scrambling during travelling. TRPBs can result in injuries to horses and horse handlers, horse trailer accidents, disruption of time schedules, inability to attend competitions, and poor performance following travel. Therefore, TRPBs are recognised as both a horse-related risk to humans and a human-related risk to horses...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721125/evaluating-the-potential-roles-of-the-gray-and-extension-loci-in-the-coat-coloration-of-thoroughbred-racing-horses
#9
Takahiro Sakamoto, Jeffrey A Fawcett, Hideki Innan
Horses have substantial variation in coat color, and the genetic loci responsible for the coat color variations have been well investigated. It has been believed that some color variations should follow a single-locus Mendelian law. Examples include the Gray locus that causes the gray phenotype and the Extension locus that specifies the chestnut phenotype. We reevaluated the roles of the Gray and Extension loci by using a large number of mating records of Thoroughbred racing horses. We showed that the data indeed fits the Mendelian law extremely well for the two loci...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721124/association-between-exercise-induced-pulmonary-hemorrhage-and-inflammatory-airway-disease-in-polo-ponies
#10
Katia Moreira da Silva, Juliana Nabuco Pereira Otaka, Carlos Alexandre Paula Gonçalves, Estevão Grossi Aguiar Silva, Nayro Xavier de Alencar, Daniel Augusto Barroso Lessa
The respiratory system is essential for health and high athletic performance in horses. Respiratory diseases have been recognized as having a major impact on training equine animals and are commonly cited as the second most common cause of wasted training time. Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is an important cause of poor performance in young racehorses. Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) is considered a major issue for the equine industry because of its high prevalence and association with reduced athletic performance...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721123/aborted-fetal-sizes-of-thoroughbred-horses-in-hidaka-japan-between-2005-and-2015
#11
Harutaka Murase, Masaki Miyazawa, Takehiro Harada, Midori Ozawa, Fumio Sato, Tetsuro Hada
The degree of fetal growth restriction has been unclear in equine reproduction. In this study, 2,195 fetuses from 2,137 abortions during 11 seasons were examined to determine the causes of abortion, and fetal size dimensions (crown rump length and body weight) were measured. In total, 900 cases (42.1%) of abortion were identified as caused by viral infection (215, 10.1%), bacterial infection (156, 7.3%), fungal infection (25, 1.2%), circulation failure (406, 19.0%), multiple causes (66, 3.1%), deformity (13, 0...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721122/hypoxic-training-increases-maximal-oxygen-consumption-in-thoroughbred-horses-well-trained-in-normoxia
#12
Hajime Ohmura, Kazutaka Mukai, Yuji Takahashi, Toshiyuki Takahashi, James H Jones
Hypoxic training is effective for improving athletic performance in humans. It increases maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) more than normoxic training in untrained horses. However, the effects of hypoxic training on well-trained horses are unclear. We measured the effects of hypoxic training on V̇O2max of 5 well-trained horses in which V̇O2max had not increased over 3 consecutive weeks of supramaximal treadmill training in normoxia which was performed twice a week. The horses trained with hypoxia (15% inspired O2) twice a week...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721121/does-the-injection-of-platelet-rich-plasma-induce-changes-in-the-gene-expression-and-morphology-of-intact-thoroughbred-skeletal-muscle
#13
Kentaro Fukuda, Hirofumi Miyata, Atsutoshi Kuwano, Taisuke Kuroda, Norihisa Tamura, Yasumitsu Kotoyori, Yoshinori Kasashima
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy is promising for treating skeletal muscle injuries in human athletes by promoting muscle regeneration. It might also be useful for treating muscle injuries in equine athletes. In the present study, muscle regeneration induced by injection of PRP into intact muscle of Thoroughbred was investigated. Autologous PRP and saline were injected twice into intact left and right gluteus medius muscles of seven clinically healthy Thoroughbreds. Muscle samples were collected from the injection sites by needle biopsy at 2 and 7 days after PRP injection...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400704/effects-of-dystocia-on-blood-gas-parameters-acid-base-balance-and-serum-lactate-concentration-in-heavy-draft-newborn-foals
#14
Yuki Kimura, Takahiro Aoki, Akiko Chiba, Yasuo Nambo
Dystocia is often lethal for neonatal foals; however, its clinicopathological features remain largely unknown. We investigated the effect of dystocia on the foal blood profile. Venous blood samples were collected from 35 foals (5 Percheron and 30 crossbreds between Percheron, Belgian, and Breton heavy draft horses) at 0 hr, 1 hr, 12 hr and 1 day after birth. Dystocia was defined as prolonged labor >30 min with strong fetal traction with or without fetal displacement. The dystocia group (n=13) showed lower mean values for pH (P<0...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400703/new-methods-for-isolation-of-keratolytic-bacteria-inducing-intractable-hoof-wall-cavity-gidoh-in-a-horse-double-screening-procedures-of-the-horn-powder-agar-translucency-test-and-horn-zymography
#15
Atsutoshi Kuwano, Hidekazu Niwa, Katsuhiko Arai
To establish a new system to isolate keratolytic bacteria from the hoof wall cavity (Gidoh) of a racehorse, we invented the horn powder agar-translucency (HoPAT) test and horn zymography (HZ). Using routine bacteriological techniques and these methods, we isolated five strains of keratolytic soil bacteria, which were then identified by means of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing analysis. The findings from the study on the horse suggested that Brevibacterium luteolum played the main role in the local fragility of the hoof, eventually forming a Gidoh in coordination with four other strains of keratolytic bacteria...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400702/application-of-a-wearable-gps-unit-for-examining-interindividual-distances-in-a-herd-of-thoroughbred-dams-and-their-foals
#16
Fumio Sato, Tomoki Tanabe, Harutaka Murase, Masataka Tominari, Masahito Kawai
Global positioning system (GPS) units are now lightweight and compact. They have proven useful for analyzing the behavioral characteristics of horses in pastures. Because the GPS records data in latitude and longitude, it may be feasible to calculate the distance between GPS units. The present study aimed to confirm the applicability of GPS units in behavioral studies on horses. For this, we analyzed the accuracy of the distances calculated from GPS units using Hubeny's distance formula and of the monthly changes in interindividual distances obtained from GPS units worn by Thoroughbred dams and their foals in a pasture until weaning...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400701/studies-on-the-exercise-physiology-of-draft-horses-performed-in-japan-during-the-1950s-and-1960s
#17
Atsushi Hiraga, Shigeru Sugano
Although the total number of horses raised in Japan dramatically decreased after World War II, because draft horses were still used for farm work in paddy fields and on farms during the period of the 1950s and 1960s, a performance test for selecting better draft horses was needed. In order to determine the most suitable size of draft horses for Japanese farm conditions, the working power of horses weighing from 185 to 622 kg was evaluated by performing an endurance test, several kinds of working power tests, and maximum pulling power tests...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974877/validation-of-the-bispectral-index-as-an-indicator-of-anesthetic-depth-in-thoroughbred-horses-anesthetized-with-sevoflurane
#18
Hirotaka Tokushige, Masashi Kakizaki, Hirotaka Ode, Atsushi Okano, Jun Okada, Taisuke Kuroda, Ai Wakuno, Minoru Ohta
To evaluate the bispectral index (BIS) as an indicator of anesthetic depth in Thoroughbred horses, BIS values were measured at multiple stages of sevoflurane anesthesia in five horses anesthetized with guaifenesin and thiopental following premedication with xylazine. There was no significant difference between the BIS values recorded at end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations of 2.8% (median 60 ranging from 47 to 68) and 3.5% (median 71 ranging from 49 to 82) in anesthetized horses. These BIS values during anesthesia were significantly lower (P<0...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974876/evaluation-of-housekeeping-genes-for-quantitative-gene-expression-analysis-in-the-equine-kidney
#19
Sara Azarpeykan, Keren E Dittmer
Housekeeping genes (HKGs) are used as internal controls for normalising and calculating the relative expression of target genes in RT-qPCR experiments. There is no unique universal HKG and HKGs vary among organisms and tissues, so this study aimed to determine the most stably expressed HKGs in the equine kidney. The evaluated HKGs included 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), 28S ribosomal RNA (28S), ribosomal protein L32 (RPL32), β-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDHA), zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ), and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1)...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974875/profiling-of-exercise-induced-transcripts-in-the-peripheral-blood-cells-of-thoroughbred-horses
#20
Teruaki Tozaki, Mio Kikuchi, Hironaga Kakoi, Kei-Ichi Hirota, Kazutaka Mukai, Hiroko Aida, Seiji Nakamura, Shun-Ichi Nagata
Transcriptome analyses based on DNA microarray technology have been used to investigate gene expression profiles in horses. In this study, we aimed to identify exercise-induced changes in the expression profiles of genes in the peripheral blood of Thoroughbred horses using DNA microarray technology (15,429 genes on 43,603 probes). Blood samples from the jugular vein were collected from six horses before and 1 min, 4 hr, and 24 hr after all-out running on a treadmill. After the normalization of microarray data, a total of 26,830 probes were clustered into four groups and 11 subgroups showing similar expression changes based on k-mean clustering...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
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