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Journal of Equine Science

Laura Crotch-Harvey, Leigh-Anne Thomas, Hilary J Worgan, Jamie-Leigh Douglas, Diane E Gilby, Neil R McEwan
Anthelmintics are used as anti-worming agents. Although known to affect their target organisms, nothing has been published regarding their effect on other digestive tract organisms or on metabolites produced by them. The current work investigated effects of fenbendazole, a benzimidazole anthelmintic, on bacteria and ciliates in the equine digestive tract and on and their major metabolites. Animals receiving anthelmintic treatment had high faecal egg counts relative to controls. Analysis was performed over two weeks, with temporal differences detected in bacterial populations but with no other significant differences detected...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Riccardo Rinnovati, Barbara Bianchin Butina, Jessica Bianchi, Armando Foglia, Carlotta Lambertini, Sara Del Magno
Branchial remnant cysts are an uncommon cause of masses of the throatlatch area in horses. Two methods of treatment have been proposed in literature, both with complications. This manuscript proposes a method (marsupialization and sclerotherapy) for the treatment of a cyst in a 1.5-year-old Arabian filly. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonographic, radiographic and endoscopic examinations, revealing an anechoic fluid-filled structure and a well-defined capsule not in communication with other structures. After emptying the cyst, the skin was sutured circumferentially to the cyst wall; it was then flushed first with a solution of ethanol and povidone-iodine, then with sterile saline...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Hironaga Kakoi, Mio Kikuchi, Teruaki Tozaki, Kei-Ichi Hirota, Shun-Ichi Nagata, Seiji Hobo, Masaki Takasu
The distribution of Y chromosomal haplotypes in Japanese native horse populations was investigated to obtain genetic information on these populations. Here, 159 male/gelded horses from eight local populations were investigated, and three Y haplotypes (JHT-1, JHT-2, and JHT-3) were identified by analyzing five Y-linked loci. Five populations had only JHT-1, whereas two populations had only JHT-2. One population had JHT-1 and JHT-3. Based on the geographical distribution of these haplotypes and previously reported haplotypes for other Asian horses, JHT-1 is considered to be a major haplotype in ancestral native horses...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Yuki Kimura, Motoki Sasaki, Kenichi Watanabe, Pramod Dhakal, Fumio Sato, Kazuyoshi Taya, Yasuo Nambo
Activin is secreted from equine uterine glands and plays important roles in establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mares. This study aimed to localize activin receptors (ActRs) IA/B and IIA/B using immunohistochemistry in the uteroplacental tissues of seven pregnant Thoroughbred mares. At the time of tissue collection, the mares were at the following days of pregnancy: 88, 120, 161, 269, 290, 313, and 335 days. We fixed the uteroplacental tissues in 4% paraformaldehyde and obtained serial sections that were subsequently stained for analysis...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Rajesh Kumar Vaid, Karuppusamy Shanmugasundaram, Taruna Anand, Bidhan Chandra Bera, Mamta Tigga, Ramesh Dedar, Thachamvally Riyesh, Shashank Bardwaj, Nitin Virmani, Bhupendra Nath Tripathi, Rajkumar Singh
Bordetella bronchiseptica is a well-known Gram-negative bacterial pathogen causing a plethora of diseases in different animals. Although its infection has been reported from pigs and dogs in India, no report of B. bronchiseptica from horses is described. We report for the first time, isolation, identification and characterization of strains of B. bronchiseptica from respiratory infection in horses from different states in India. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed resistance to penicillins, ceftazidime, and chloramphanicol...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Felipe Gomes Ferreira Padilha, Kênia Balbi El-Jaick, Liane de Castro, Aline Dos Santos Moreira, Ana Maria Reis Ferreira
Polymorphisms in MSTN have previously been associated with equine performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify variants in MSTN intron 1 in 16 Brazilian Sport Horses selected for competition in eventing and their possible effects of selection on performance. Among the nine variants identified, eight had already been reported in previous studies or genomic databases, although they showed differences in frequencies when compared with other horse breeds. Moreover, a new mutation was identified in two horses, both in heterozygous form...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Shuntaro Urayama, Daisuke Arima, Fumiaki Mizobe, Yuta Shinzaki, Motoi Nomura, Yohei Minamijima, Kanichi Kusano
Although hyperglycemia at admission with colic has been reported to have a poor prognosis, there is no report specifically about acute colitis with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in horses. In this study, we measured blood glucose (Glu), insulin (Ins), and cortisol (Cor) levels in 17 Thoroughbred racehorses diagnosed as having acute colitis with SIRS, and examined the relationship between time-dependent changes in Glu, Ins, and Cor and prognosis. Glu levels were high in 3 horses at admission, but thereafter no horses had persistently high Glu levels...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Yoko Nakamae, Akikazu Ishihara, Megumi Itoh, Masashi Yanagawa, Naoki Sasaki, Kazutaka Yamada
Computed tomography (CT) was performed for an 18-year-old female pony with enterolithiasis in the prone and supine positions. CT images from the prone position revealed displacement of the large dorsal colon, which contained an enterolith to the ventral side of the abdomen, and those from the supine position revealed displacement to the dorsal side. A high-density material suggestive of a metallic foreign body was also observed in the enterolith core. An enterolith (422 g, 104 mm) was surgically removed from the large dorsal colon...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Yuki Kimura, Shingo Haneda, Takahiro Aoki, Hidefumi Furuoka, Wataru Miki, Natsuko Fukumoto, Motozumi Matsui, Yasuo Nambo
The combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) and ultrasonographic images of uteroplacental tissues were investigated in 35 pregnant heavy draft horses in Months 7-12 of pregnancy. The mares were divided into three groups: those pathologically diagnosed as placentitis (placentitis group, n=3); those who had abortion, premature birth, or fetal malformation (abnormal group, n=7); and those who had no abnormal findings (normal group, n=25). In the normal group, CTUP increased as pregnancy progressed from Months 7 (median, 7...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Masato Satoh, Tohru Higuchi, Satoshi Inoue, Tadahiro Gotoh, Harutaka Murase, Yasuo Nambo
This is a retrospective study of uterine torsion (UT) in seven mares. In two cases, serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations were also investigated. The mare and foal/fetus survival rate was 57% (4/7). Four cases presented with clockwise torsion, and two cases presented with counterclockwise torsion. The direction was undetermined in one case. The degree of torsion varied. Correction of torsion was performed by ventral midline celiotomy in all cases. In the two cases with measured hormone levels, elevated levels of P4 were decreased through medication...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
Daisuke Miyakoshi, Fumio Sato, Harutaka Murase, Yuji Inoue, Mitsumori Shikichi, Katsuroku Iwata, Kazuhiko Okai, Katsumi Ito, Yasuo Nambo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate foaling rates of mares that were rebred after the pregnancy loss in same reproductive season and to examine factors influencing them in Hidaka, Japan. The study included 82 Thoroughbred mares that had experienced pregnancy loss. The foaling rate of the mares that were rebred after pregnancy loss was 57.3%. The foaling rate decreased as the period until detection of pregnancy loss increased. Aging and lower body condition score of mares decreased the foaling rate.
2017: Journal of Equine Science
Shingo Ishikawa, Chie Horinouchi, Ryugo Mizoguchi, Asuka Senokuchi, Rie Kamikakimoto, Daiki Murata, Takashi Hatazoe, Teruaki Tozaki, Kazuhiro Misumi, Seiji Hobo
The sizes of Japanese native horses have drastically decreased, and protection of these populations is important for Japanese horse culture. Social trials as well as scientific attempts are necessary for maintaining the breed. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have potential as a cell source for various cell therapies. However, there have been no reports on MSCs of Japanese native horses. We aimed to isolate and characterize MSCs from a Japanese native horse, the Noma horse. Plastic-adherent and self-replicating cells were isolated from a Noma horse's peripheral blood (PB)...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
Ana R Flores, Ana Azinhaga, Elisabete Pais, Fátima Faria, Francisco Nunes, Fátima Gartner, Irina Amorim
This report describes an ocular mast cell tumor in a 13-year-old female sport horse. Clinical examination revealed a solitary firm mass located in the ocular mucosa, protruding from behind the left lower eyelid. The lesion was surgically removed and submitted to histopathology. Microscopically, the mass was composed of sheets of well-differentiated neoplastic round cells circumscribed by delicate connective tissue. Positive Giemsa and Toluidine Blue staining confirmed the presence of cytoplasmic granules. Neoplastic cells showed strong membranous and mild diffuse cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for c-KIT and a low KI-67 proliferative index...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
Fumiaki Mizobe, Ai Wakuno, Jun Okada, Tasuku Otsuka, Yuhiro Ishikawa, Shinjiro Kurimoto
A total of 20 racehorses with longitudinal fractures underwent internal fixation surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia combined with infusion of medetomidine (3 µg/kg/hr) alone (10 horses, group M) or medetomidine and fentanyl (7 µg/kg/hr) (10 horses, group FM). In group FM, the end-tidal sevoflurane concentration during surgery was maintained significantly lower than in group M (2.8-2.9% for group M vs. 2.2-2.6% for group FM, P<0.01). The mean arterial blood pressure was maintained over 70 mmHg using dobutamine infusion (group M, 0...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
Parichart Tesena, Wasamon Korchunjit, Jane Taylor, Tuempong Wongtawan
Gastric tissue biopsy and gene expression analysis are important tools for disease diagnosis and study of the physiology of the equine stomach. However, RNA extraction from gastric biopsy samples is a complex procedure because the samples contain low quantities of RNA and are contaminated with mucous protein and bacterial flora. The objectives of these studies were to compare the performance of RNA extraction methods and to investigate the sensitivity of commercial qPCR master mixes for gene expression analysis of gastric biopsy samples...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
Teruaki Tozaki, Mio Kikuchi, Hironaga Kakoi, Kei-Ichi Hirota, Shun-Ichi Nagata
Body weight is an important trait to confirm growth and development in humans and animals. In Thoroughbred racehorses, it is measured in the postnatal, training, and racing periods to evaluate growth and training degrees. The body weight of mature Thoroughbred racehorses generally ranges from 400 to 600 kg, and this broad range is likely influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Therefore, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Equine SNP70 BeadChip was performed to identify the genomic regions associated with body weight in Japanese Thoroughbred racehorses using 851 individuals...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
Fumio Sato, Yoshiro Endo, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Masataka Tominari, Harutaka Murase, Mutsuki Ishimaru, Kenji Korosue
Although radiographic findings at the apical portion of the proximal sesamoid bone (PSB) are often observed in young Thoroughbred foals, conflicting findings, either fractures or apparent secondary ossifications centers, have been reported. Three cases (aged 2, 5, and 7 weeks) were identified in 30 necropsied foals (0-31 weeks old). Histopathologically, the subchondral trabecular woven bone was fractured and exhibited focal necrosis of woven bone, fibrin exudate, and/or fibrosis within the foci. In the 7-week-old case, proliferations of chondrocytes were also observed...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
Tomohiro Inui, Kazutaka Yamada, Megumi Itoh, Masashi Yanagawa, Tohru Higuchi, Akiko Watanabe, Yui Imamura, Mako Urabe, Naoki Sasaki
Temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO) is characterized by progressive osseous proliferation of the stylohyoid and petrous temporal bones. Generally, diagnosis is confirmed by guttural pouch endoscopy and skull radiography. In the present case, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in a 6-month-old Thoroughbred foal showing signs of head tilt and unilateral ear droop, consistent with the presence of a vestibular disease and unilateral facial paralysis. CT revealed bony fusion and proliferation of the right temporohyoid joint, while MRI revealed that otitis media was responsible for THO...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
Ai Wakuno, Tatsuya Maeda, Kazumichi Kodaira, Takuya Kikuchi, Minoru Ohta
A three-year old Thoroughbred racehorse was anesthetized with sevoflurane and oxygen inhalation anesthesia combined with constant rate infusion (CRI) of alfaxalone-medetomidine for internal fixation of a third metacarpal bone fracture. After premedication with intravenous (IV) injections of medetomidine (6.0 µg/kg IV), butorphanol (25 µg/kg IV), and midazolam (20 µg/kg IV), anesthesia was induced with 5% guaifenesin (500 ml/head IV) followed immediately by alfaxalone (1.0 mg/kg IV). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and CRIs of alfaxalone (1...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
Kazutaka Yamada, Tomohiro Inui, Megumi Itoh, Masashi Yanagawa, Fumio Sato, Masataka Tominari, Fumiaki Mizobe, Miori Kishimoto, Naoki Sasaki
A Thoroughbred horse with severe chronic laminitis of both forelimbs was evaluated on the same day with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Both MRI and CT revealed loss of the dorsal aspect of the cortical bone of the 3rd phalanx and sclerosis. CT reflected the status of the horny layer and bone of the affected feet, while MRI depicted inflammation of the laminar corium, together with tendon edema. On the 3-dimensional CT venogram, vessels were visualized in both the right and left forelimbs, although there was a difference in the vasculature of the coronary plexus and circumflex vessels between the right and left forelimbs...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
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