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Journal of Equine Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400704/effects-of-dystocia-on-blood-gas-parameters-acid-base-balance-and-serum-lactate-concentration-in-heavy-draft-newborn-foals
#1
Yuki Kimura, Takahiro Aoki, Akiko Chiba, Yasuo Nambo
Dystocia is often lethal for neonatal foals; however, its clinicopathological features remain largely unknown. We investigated the effect of dystocia on the foal blood profile. Venous blood samples were collected from 35 foals (5 Percheron and 30 crossbreds between Percheron, Belgian, and Breton heavy draft horses) at 0 hr, 1 hr, 12 hr and 1 day after birth. Dystocia was defined as prolonged labor >30 min with strong fetal traction with or without fetal displacement. The dystocia group (n=13) showed lower mean values for pH (P<0...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400703/new-methods-for-isolation-of-keratolytic-bacteria-inducing-intractable-hoof-wall-cavity-gidoh-in-a-horse-double-screening-procedures-of-the-horn-powder-agar-translucency-test-and-horn-zymography
#2
Atsutoshi Kuwano, Hidekazu Niwa, Katsuhiko Arai
To establish a new system to isolate keratolytic bacteria from the hoof wall cavity (Gidoh) of a racehorse, we invented the horn powder agar-translucency (HoPAT) test and horn zymography (HZ). Using routine bacteriological techniques and these methods, we isolated five strains of keratolytic soil bacteria, which were then identified by means of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing analysis. The findings from the study on the horse suggested that Brevibacterium luteolum played the main role in the local fragility of the hoof, eventually forming a Gidoh in coordination with four other strains of keratolytic bacteria...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400702/application-of-a-wearable-gps-unit-for-examining-interindividual-distances-in-a-herd-of-thoroughbred-dams-and-their-foals
#3
Fumio Sato, Tomoki Tanabe, Harutaka Murase, Masataka Tominari, Masahito Kawai
Global positioning system (GPS) units are now lightweight and compact. They have proven useful for analyzing the behavioral characteristics of horses in pastures. Because the GPS records data in latitude and longitude, it may be feasible to calculate the distance between GPS units. The present study aimed to confirm the applicability of GPS units in behavioral studies on horses. For this, we analyzed the accuracy of the distances calculated from GPS units using Hubeny's distance formula and of the monthly changes in interindividual distances obtained from GPS units worn by Thoroughbred dams and their foals in a pasture until weaning...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400701/studies-on-the-exercise-physiology-of-draft-horses-performed-in-japan-during-the-1950s-and-1960s
#4
Atsushi Hiraga, Shigeru Sugano
Although the total number of horses raised in Japan dramatically decreased after World War II, because draft horses were still used for farm work in paddy fields and on farms during the period of the 1950s and 1960s, a performance test for selecting better draft horses was needed. In order to determine the most suitable size of draft horses for Japanese farm conditions, the working power of horses weighing from 185 to 622 kg was evaluated by performing an endurance test, several kinds of working power tests, and maximum pulling power tests...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974877/validation-of-the-bispectral-index-as-an-indicator-of-anesthetic-depth-in-thoroughbred-horses-anesthetized-with-sevoflurane
#5
Hirotaka Tokushige, Masashi Kakizaki, Hirotaka Ode, Atsushi Okano, Jun Okada, Taisuke Kuroda, Ai Wakuno, Minoru Ohta
To evaluate the bispectral index (BIS) as an indicator of anesthetic depth in Thoroughbred horses, BIS values were measured at multiple stages of sevoflurane anesthesia in five horses anesthetized with guaifenesin and thiopental following premedication with xylazine. There was no significant difference between the BIS values recorded at end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations of 2.8% (median 60 ranging from 47 to 68) and 3.5% (median 71 ranging from 49 to 82) in anesthetized horses. These BIS values during anesthesia were significantly lower (P<0...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974876/evaluation-of-housekeeping-genes-for-quantitative-gene-expression-analysis-in-the-equine-kidney
#6
Sara Azarpeykan, Keren E Dittmer
Housekeeping genes (HKGs) are used as internal controls for normalising and calculating the relative expression of target genes in RT-qPCR experiments. There is no unique universal HKG and HKGs vary among organisms and tissues, so this study aimed to determine the most stably expressed HKGs in the equine kidney. The evaluated HKGs included 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), 28S ribosomal RNA (28S), ribosomal protein L32 (RPL32), β-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDHA), zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ), and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1)...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974875/profiling-of-exercise-induced-transcripts-in-the-peripheral-blood-cells-of-thoroughbred-horses
#7
Teruaki Tozaki, Mio Kikuchi, Hironaga Kakoi, Kei-Ichi Hirota, Kazutaka Mukai, Hiroko Aida, Seiji Nakamura, Shun-Ichi Nagata
Transcriptome analyses based on DNA microarray technology have been used to investigate gene expression profiles in horses. In this study, we aimed to identify exercise-induced changes in the expression profiles of genes in the peripheral blood of Thoroughbred horses using DNA microarray technology (15,429 genes on 43,603 probes). Blood samples from the jugular vein were collected from six horses before and 1 min, 4 hr, and 24 hr after all-out running on a treadmill. After the normalization of microarray data, a total of 26,830 probes were clustered into four groups and 11 subgroups showing similar expression changes based on k-mean clustering...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974874/effects-of-a-single-use-of-the-gnrh-analog-buserelin-on-the-induction-of-ovulation-and-endocrine-profiles-in-heavy-draft-mares
#8
Wataru Miki, Hiroyuki Oniyama, Naomasa Takeda, Yuki Kimura, Shingo Haneda, Motozumi Matsui, Kazuyoshi Taya, Yasuo Nambo
We observed structural changes in the follicles and uterus of heavy draft mares during estrus and examined the effect of a single injection of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog buserelin on ovulation and endocrine profiles. Twenty-two heavy draft mares were divided into a buserelin-treated group (n=8) and a control group (n=14). Mares were given an intramuscular injection of 40 µg buserelin when they presented signs of estrus to a teaser stallion, had ≥45 mm diameter follicles, and presented decreased uterine edema compared with the previous examination...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974873/quantitative-evaluation-of-cervical-cord-compression-by-computed-tomographic-myelography-in-thoroughbred-foals
#9
Kazutaka Yamada, Fumio Sato, Tetsuro Hada, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Hiroki Ikeda, Kahori Nishihara, Naoki Sasaki, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi, Yasuo Nambo
Five Thoroughbred foals (age, 8-33 weeks; median age, 31 weeks; weight, 122-270 kg; median weight, 249 kg) exhibiting ataxia with suspected cervical myelopathy (n=4) and limb malformation (n=1) were subjected to computed tomographic (CT) myelography. The areas of the subarachnoid space and cervical cord were measured on transverse CT images. The area of the cervical cord was divided by the area of subarachnoid space, and stenosis ratios were quantitatively evaluated and compared on the basis of histopathological examination...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974872/studies-on-exercise-physiology-and-performance-testing-of-racehorses-performed-in-japan-during-the-1930s-using-recovery-rate-as-an-index
#10
Atsushi Hiraga, Shigeru Sugano
The history of research on the exercise physiology of racehorses in Japan dates back to the 1930s. A research report entitled "Studies on exercise physiology and performance testing of the racehorse", published in 1933 by Shigeo Matsuba and Torao Shimamura of The University of Tokyo, was epoch-making and the most important study in the history of equine exercise physiology in Japan. Research results were reported from 92 Thoroughbred racehorses in a large-scale project during the period of 1928 to 1932 at the Shimofusa Imperial Farm and the Koiwai Farm, which were the two greatest racehorse farms at that time...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703408/reference-range-of-blood-biomarkers-for-oxidative-stress-in-thoroughbred-racehorses-2-5-years-old
#11
Kanichi Kusano, Masahiko Yamazaki, Masataka Kiuchi, Kouki Kaneko, Katsuhiro Koyama
The oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium is known to play an important role in equine medicine and equine exercise physiology. There are abundant findings in this field; however, not many studies have been conducted for reference ranges of oxidative stress biomarkers in horses. This study was conducted to determine the reference values of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) using blood samples from 372 (191 males, 181 females) Thoroughbred racehorse aged 2 to 5 (3...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703407/four-cases-of-equine-motor-neuron-disease-in-japan
#12
Naoki Sasaki, Yui Imamura, Akio Sekiya, Megumi Itoh, Hidefumi Furuoka
In this study, fasciculation of the limbs and tongue was observed in four horses kept by a riding club. Neurogenic muscle atrophy was also observed in biopsy of pathological tissues. In addition, in two cases that subjected to autopsy, Bunina-like bodies of inclusion in the cell bodies of neurons in the spinal cord ventral horn were confirmed, leading to a diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease (EMND). Serum vitamin E concentrations varied between 0.3 and 0.4µg/ml, which is significantly lower than the levels in normal horses...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703406/autopsy-imaging-for-cardiac-tamponade-in-a-thoroughbred-foal
#13
Kazutaka Yamada, Fumio Sato, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Tohru Higuchi, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi, Naoki Sasaki, Yasuo Nambo
Autopsy imaging (Ai), postmortem imaging before necropsy, is used in human forensic medicine. Ai was performed using computed tomography (CT) for a 1-month-old Thoroughbred foal cadaver found in a pasture. CT revealed pericardial effusion, collapse of the aorta, bleeding in the lung lobe, gas in the ventricles and liver parenchyma, and distension of the digestive tract. Rupture in the left auricle was confirmed by necropsy; however, it was not depicted on CT. Therefore, Ai and conventional necropsy are considered to complement each other...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703405/sequence-variants-of-biec2-808543-near-lcorl-are-associated-with-body-composition-in-thoroughbreds-under-training
#14
Teruaki Tozaki, Fumio Sato, Mutsuki Ishimaru, Mio Kikuchi, Hironaga Kakoi, Kei-Ichi Hirota, Shun-Ichi Nagata
Ligand-dependent nuclear receptor compressor-like (LCORL) encodes a transcription factor, and its polymorphisms are associated with measures of skeletal frame size and adult height in several species. Recently, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BIEC2-808543 located upstream of LCORL was identified as a genetic diagnostic marker associated with withers height in Thoroughbreds. In this study, 322 Thoroughbreds-in-training were genotyped for BIEC2-808543 to evaluate the association between genotype and body composition traits, including body weight, withers height, the ratio of body weight to withers height, chest circumference, and cannon circumference...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703404/serological-evidence-of-equine-influenza-virus-in-horse-stables-in-kaduna-nigeria
#15
Clement A Meseko, David O Ehizibolo, Edith C Nwokike, Yiltawe S Wungak
Equine influenza virus (EIV) is a major cause of acute respiratory diseases in horses in most parts of the world that results in severe economic losses. Information on the epidemiology of EIV in tropical Africa is scanty. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the presence of influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) in 284 horse sera in Kaduna State, Northern Nigeria. The ELISA-positive sera were further examined for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies to two strains each of H3N8 and H7N3 subtypes of influenza A virus...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703403/epidemiology-of-racing-injuries-in-thoroughbred-racehorses-with-special-reference-to-bone-fractures-japanese-experience-from-the-1980s-to-2000s
#16
Yousuke Maeda, Michiko Hanada, Masa-Aki Oikawa
This report describes the descriptive epidemiology of racing fractures that occurred from the 1980s to 2000s on racetracks of the Japan Racing Association (JRA). The incidence of racehorse fractures during flat racing was approximately 1-2%. Fractures occurring during a race are more likely to occur in a forelimb. Fractures mostly occur at the third and fourth corners of oval tracks and on the home stretch. They also occur more frequently at the time of changing the leading limb. Comparison of the incidence of racing fracture between before and after reconstruction of the geometrical configuration of a racetrack revealed that there was an outstanding reduction in the number of serious fractures in the year before and after reconstruction...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330401/oxidative-stress-markers-in-thoroughbred-horses-after-castration-surgery-under-inhalation-anesthesia
#17
Nao Tsuzuki, Naoki Sasaki, Kanichi Kusano, Yoshiro Endo, Shidow Torisu
Oxidative stress has been reported to occur during surgery. It is important to reduce intraoperative oxidative stress to improve the postoperative prognosis. However, there are no reports regarding oxidative stress related to surgery in horses. In the present study, we measured pre and postsurgical diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP); the oxidative stress index (OSI) was then calculated (OSI=d-ROMs/BAP × 100). d-ROMs were not significantly different between the pre and postsurgical periods...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330400/a-retrospective-study-of-radiographic-abnormalities-in-the-repositories-of-2-year-old-thoroughbred-in-training-sales-in-japan
#18
Daisuke Miyakoshi, Hiroyuki Senba, Mitsumori Shikichi, Masaya Maeda, Ryo Shibata, Kazuhiro Misumi
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of radiographic abnormalities of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses that were listed at in-training sales in Japan, on whether they started to race or not at 2-3 years of age. Radiographs of 850 2-year-old Thoroughbreds in the in-training sales repository from 2007 to 2010 were reviewed, and 26 categories of radiographic abnormalities were found. Forty-three horses (5.1%, 43/850) did not start a race at 2-3 years of age. In accordance with the racing results for this age category, as determined by Fisher's exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis, none of the radiographic abnormalities were significantly related to failure to start a race...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330399/characteristics-and-multipotency-of-equine-dedifferentiated-fat-cells
#19
Daiki Murata, Atsushi Yamasaki, Shouta Matsuzaki, Takafumi Sunaga, Makoto Fujiki, Satoshi Tokunaga, Kazuhiro Misumi
Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have been shown to be multipotent, similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we aimed to establish and characterize equine DFAT cells. Equine adipocytes were ceiling cultured, and then dedifferentiated into DFAT cells by the seventh day of culture. The number of DFAT cells was increased to over 10 million by the fourth passage. Flow cytometry of DFAT cells showed that the cells were strongly positive for CD44, CD90, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I; moderately positive for CD11a/18, CD105, and MHC class II; and negative for CD34 and CD45...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330398/in-vitro-analysis-of-the-effect-of-supplementation-with-activated-charcoal-on-the-equine-hindgut
#20
J L Edmunds, H J Worgan, K Dougal, S E Girdwood, J-L Douglas, N R McEwan
The present study uses in vitro analytical techniques to investigate the effect of activated charcoal on the microbial community of the equine hindgut and the metabolites they produce. Incubations were performed in Wheaton bottles using a 50 ml incubation of a high-energy feed or a low-energy feed, plus bottles with no added food source, together with five levels of activated charcoal (0, 10, 25, 50 or 100 mg per bottle) and fecal samples as a bacterial inoculum. Using this method the rate of gas production, volatile fatty acid and ammonia concentrations, and pH values were analyzed and found to vary depending on the addition of feed, but the activated charcoal had no effect (P>0...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
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