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Frontiers in Public Health

Sifundo P Zwane, Shelley-Ann M McGee, Fatima Suleman
Background: Of the different types of pneumonia, community acquired pneumonia (CAP), has been identified as the leading cause of infectious morbidity and mortality in the western and developing countries. To eradicate the bacterial cause of CAP, medical doctors) often tend to prescribe a differing cocktail of medicine which may be costly for the health care system. Aim: To analyze the cost of oral and/or intravenous antibiotic medicine use in different treatment approaches for treating CAP in adult inpatients from the health care system perspective...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Seiritsu Ogura, Mihajlo Michael Jakovljevic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Gina M Besenyi, Benjamin Schooley, Gabrielle M Turner-McGrievy, Sara Wilcox, Sonja A Wilhelm Stanis, Andrew T Kaczynski
Empowering and engaging youth in advocacy and participatory action research (PAR) for healthy community environments is an emerging approach to reducing the childhood obesity epidemic. Technology is a promising strategy for engaging youth in such efforts. The Community Park Audit Tool (CPAT) is user-friendly tool for evaluating the ability of parks to promote youth physical activity. Recently an electronic version of the tool (eCPAT) was developed and validated. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of eCPAT mobile technology on youth empowerment and advocacy...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Ayse Cal, Mukerrem Kabatas Yildiz, Ilknur Aydin Avci
Introduction: Breast cancer is a common problem and it is important to understand the beliefs that increase awareness of breast cancer and guide early diagnosis behaviors. This research is planned to examine the knowledge and fear levels of breast cancer along with the spiritual characteristics of nurses. Methods: This is a descriptive type research. The domain of the research consists of women nurses working in Health Sciences University Samsun Education and Research Hospital. Sampling was not undertaken, rather 327 nurses who were on duty between January and May of 2016 and were willing to cooperate were incorporated into the study...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Duan Zhao, Catherine A Staton, Qing He, Blandina Theophil Mmbaga, Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci
Aims: To develop Swahili versions of the Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DrInC) and evaluate its psychometric properties among a mixed population in Tanzania. Methods: A Swahili version of the DrInC was developed by a panel of bilingual Swahili and English speakers through translation and back-translation. The translated DrInC was administered to a sample of Tanzanian injury patients and a sample of the general population. The validity and reliability of the scale were tested using standard statistical methods...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Isabel Lopes de Carvalho, Paula Nascimento, Maria Sofia Núncio, Miguel Toscano Rico
The authors report the case of a 47-year-old man who walked in the countryside on the island of Bornholm, during the summer period. Three days later, fever, myalgias and adynamia began. The serological tests, Real-time PCR and isolation of the bacteria from the culture of lymph biopsy confirmed the presence of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica .
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa, Mezna A AlMarzooqi
Background: Although the benefits of physical activity are well acknowledged, a high percentage of Saudi population, especially females, remain essentially physically inactive. Getting inactive people to start participating in physical activity and to keep exercising remains a great challenge. Physical activity initiatives in the country have not been previously documented. Therefore, the aim of this article was to provide a narrative review of the physical activity initiatives and discusses influencing factors...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Lucille Malan, Quinten Labuschagne, Erich Brechtelsbauer, Debra A Goff, Natalie Schellack
Antimicrobial stewardship encompasses a wide range of processes and interventions designed to ensure that antimicrobials are used in the most effective manner. An important, but often neglected process to include is medicine procurement within hospitals, as the untimely administration of antimicrobials has a direct impact on patient care and antimicrobial resistance. A tender system (an open Request for Proposal, RFP) in South Africa is used in the procurement process to supply medicines and pharmaceutical supplies, whereas in the United States, each hospital is responsible for their own procurement processes...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Manijeh Alavi, Mohammad Reza Khodaie Ardakani, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Homeira Sajjadi, Mohsen Shati, Mehdi Noroozi, Ameneh Setareh Forouzan
Background: Responsiveness as a non-medical, non-financial goal of the health system is of special importance to people with physical disability. The current study assessed the experiences of people with physical disabilities when they encounter rehabilitation centers in Tehran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran, the capital of Iran. The sample consisted of 610 people with physical disabilities referred to 10 comprehensive rehabilitation centers (CRCs) selected by Quota sampling. Data were collected by a standard responsiveness questionnaire proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and were analyzed by a standard protocol...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Alexander Niyazov, Denise Lenci
With rising US healthcare costs, population health decision-makers have expressed interest in receiving pre-approval information to help with the budgeting and forecasting needed to accommodate pharmaceutical and medical device launches. Additionally, there has been a strong emphasis placed on the economics and quality of new products. Manufacturers have historically been reluctant to share pre-approval or healthcare economic information (HCEI) due to unclear regulatory guidance for these types of communications...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Shoba Ramanadhan, Rebekah H Nagler, Jaclyn M Alexander-Molloy, Kasisomayajula Viswanath
Background: Graphic health warnings (GHWs) on cigarette packages offer the potential to support tobacco cessation and prevention of initiation. Guidance for supporting implementation at the local level is limited, which can lead to missed opportunities to amplify the health impact of GHWs. This study examines the potential for local organizations engaged in tobacco control in underserved communities to support GHW implementation. Materials and Methods: Key informant interviews were conducted with 20 leaders in the three partner communities of Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester, Massachusetts...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Ashlea D Williams, Terryann C Clark, Sonia Lewycka
Objectives: To explore the relationships between Māori cultural identity, ethnic discrimination and mental health outcomes for Māori youth in New Zealand. Study Design: Nationally representative, anonymous cross-sectional study of New Zealand secondary school students in 2012. Methods: Secondary analysis of Māori students ( n = 1699) from the national Youth'12 secondary school students survey was undertaken. Theoretical development and exploratory factor analysis were undertaken to develop a 14-item Māori Cultural Identity Scale (MCIS)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Rachel Strom Chambers, Summer Rosenstock, Angie Lee, Novalene Goklish, Francene Larzelere, Lauren Tingey
Introduction: American Indian (AI) youth experience poor sexual health outcomes. Research indicates the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) is a robust model for understanding how sexual risk and protective behaviors are associated with condom use intention (CUI). Studies indicate the constructs of the PMT which influence CUI vary by sex and sexual experience. This analysis explores associations between PMT constructs and CUI by sex and sexual experience among AI youth who participated in the Respecting the Circle of Life (RCL) trial, a sexual and reproductive health intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Neal A Palafox, Martina Reichhardt, John Ray Taitano, Mavis Nitta, Helentina Garstang, Sheldon Riklon, Livinson Taulung, Lee E Buenconsejo-Lum
The United States Affiliated Pacific Island Jurisdictions (USAPIJ) are politically associated to the United States (US) as US Territories (Guam, American Samoa), a US Commonwealth (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), and as sovereign nations linked to the US through Compacts of Free Association [Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), Republic of Palau (ROP)]. Cervical cancer incidence in the RMI is the highest in the world, mammography services are not available in the FSM and only Guam has on-island oncology services...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Pierre P M Thomas, Ramesh R Allam, Elena Ambrosino, Jelena Malogajski, Jonathan A Lal, Servaas A Morré, Remco P H Peters
Chlamydia trachomatis is the world's most prevalent bacterial Sexually Transmitted infection (STI). It is associated with a wide range of health consequences and sequelae in both the short and long term. Enhanced control of urogenital C. trachomatis infection is particularly important in low- and middle-income countries such as India, where most of the burden goes unnoticed and where limited systematic data is available to gauge the current situation. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently issued its latest strategy on STIs, which is aligned with the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Anne C Wheeler, Shari Miller, Amanda Wylie, Anne Edwards
Women with an FMR1 premutation may be at increased genetic risk for stress vulnerability. This increased vulnerability, when combined with stressful parenting that can result from raising children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), may result in negative physical and emotional outcomes. Mindfulness and acceptance have been found to be protective factors for parents of children with similar behavioral challenges, but these traits have not previously been explored among mothers with a child with FXS. This study explored the associations of child disability severity with maternal stress, anxiety, depression, and physical health symptoms in 155 biological mothers of children with FXS...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Gérard Demazeau, Adrien Plumecocq, Philippe Lehours, Patrice Martin, Leslie Couëdelo, Claude Billeaud
Background: The main process used to pasteurize human milk is the low-temperature, long-time Holder method. More recently, the high-temperature, short-time method has been investigated. Both processes lead to the appropriate inactivation of vegetative bacterial forms but are ineffective against bacterial spores. Research Aims/Questions: We aimed to accomplish two main objectives: inactivation of all pathogens, including spores; and preservation of the activity of milk components. Design/Methods: Recently, a novel high-hydrostatic pressure process has been developed by HPBioTECH...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Kimberly A Horn, Robert P Pack, Robert Trestman, Gerard Lawson
Opioid use disorder impedes dependent parents' abilities to care for their children. In turn, children may languish in unpredictability and persistent chaos. Societal responses to these children are often guided by a belief that unless the drug dependent parent receives treatment, there is little help for the child. While a preponderance of the drug dependence research is adult-centric, a significant body of research demonstrates the importance of not only addressing the immediate well being of the children of drug dependent caregivers but preventing the continuing cycle of drug dependence...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Karen Gardner, Rachael Kearns, Lisa Woodland, Mariela Silveira, Myna Hua, Milena Katz, Klara Takas, Julie McDonald
Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), but its prevalence is growing worldwide, especially among young people. Although often perceived as less harmful than other methods of tobacco use because the smoke passes through water, accumulating evidence shows harmful effects and that some smokers become addicted. Interventions that deglamourise and denormalise use have been recommended but little is known about the range and impact of different health prevention and promotion interventions...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Aaron L Leppin, Janet M Okamoto, Paige W Organick, Anjali D Thota, Francisco J Barrera-Flores, Mark L Wieland, Rozalina G McCoy, Robert P Bonacci, Victor M Montori
Background: Multisector collaboratives are increasingly popular strategies for improving population health. To be comprehensive, collaboratives must coordinate the activities of many organizations across a geographic region. Many policy-relevant models encourage creation and use of centralized hub organizations to do this work, yet there is little guidance on how to evaluate implementation of such hubs and track their network reach. We sought to demonstrate how social network analysis (SNA) could be used for this purpose...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
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