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Frontiers in Public Health

Katrina Spilsbury, Diana Rosman, Janine Alan, Anna M Ferrante, James H Boyd, James B Semmens
BACKGROUND: Hospitals and death registries in Australia are operated under individual state government jurisdictions. Some state borders are located in heavily populated areas or are located near to major capital cities. Mortality indicators for hospital located near state borders may not be estimated accurately if patients are lost as they cross state borders. The aim of this study was to evaluate how cross-jurisdictional linkage of state hospital and death records across state borders may improve estimation of the hospital standardized mortality ratio (HSMR), a tool used in Australia as a hospital performance indicator...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Jonathan F Easton, Christopher R Stephens, Heriberto Román Sicilia
We study the relationship among real, self-perceived, and desired body mass index (BMI) in 21,288 adults from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012, analyzing the effect of sex and diagnosis of obesity/overweight by a healthcare professional. Self-perceived and desired BMI are analyzed via a figure rating scale question and compared to real BMI. Only 8.8 and 6.1% of the diagnosed and non-diagnosed obese, respectively, correctly identify themselves as such. For the obese, 20.2% of non-diagnosed and 12...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Chuguang Wei, Jin Han, Yuqing Zhang, Walter Hannak, Zhengkui Liu
PURPOSE: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-traumatic growth (PTG) are two different outcomes that may occur after experiencing traumatic events. Meanwhile, the traumatic exposure level and emotion response played an important role in the process. The present study first evaluated the relationship between PTSD, PTG, and traumatic exposure level and then compared the characteristics of emotional response through response time of the affective priming paradigm. METHODS: For the purpose of evaluating the relationship between PTSD, PTG, and trauma exposure level, a sample of 2,395 participants completed measures of posttraumatic stress disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) and a trauma exposure-related survey, and Pearson's correlation analysis for the scales were conducted...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Xiaoxue Liu, Jennifer Yip, Rachel Zeig-Owens, Jessica Weakley, Mayris P Webber, Theresa M Schwartz, David J Prezant, Michael D Weiden, Charles B Hall
OBJECTIVES: In a cohort of rescue/recovery workers exposed to the dust that resulted from the collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC), we assessed how a diagnosis of obstructive airways disease (OAD) affected the likelihood of a subsequent diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We also assessed whether OAD acted as a mediator of the association between exposure to the WTC rescue/recovery effort and CRS and GERD diagnoses. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we analyzed Fire Department of the City of New York physician diagnoses of OAD, CRS, and GERD that were first documented between September 11, 2001, and September 10, 2011, among 8,968 WTC-exposed firefighters...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Lauren F Collins, Benjamin D Anderson, Gregory C Gray
With multiple available vaccines and antivirals, seasonal influenza A is typically a self-limited acutely debilitating illness in young healthy adults. Here, we illustrate unexpected morbidity and mortality in a relatively young and healthy patient seen at a large tertiary care academic medical center for seasonal influenza A (H3N2) complicated by community-acquired pneumonia, hypoxic respiratory failure, septic shock, and death.
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Nobuyo Ohtani, Kenji Kitagawa, Kinuyo Mikami, Kasumi Kitawaki, Junko Akiyama, Maho Fuchikami, Hidehiko Uchiyama, Mitsuaki Ohta
BACKGROUND: There are many obvious health benefits to riding, including developing a strong core and legs, but there are also many less obvious benefits, such as increased confidence and introspection. Few studies have addressed the effects of horseback riding on children and the mechanisms underlying how riding affects humans. We examined the effects of horseback riding on the ability to distinguish Go/No-go tasks and solve arithmetic problems in children. METHODS: The subjects were 34 boys and 72 girls, aged 10-12 years old, which were divided into three groups (horse riding, walking, and resting)...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Timothy J J Inglis, Nadia Urosevic
The United Nations General Assembly debate on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) recognizes the global significance of AMR. Much work needs to be done on technology capability and capacity to convert the strategic intent of the debate into operational plans and tangible outcomes. Enhancement of the biomedical science-clinician interface requires better exploitation of systems biology tools for in-laboratory and point of care methods that detect sepsis and characterize AMR. These need to link sepsis and AMR data with responsive, real-time surveillance...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Kristie Kulinski, Casey DiCocco, Shannon Skowronski, Phantane Sprowls
The mission of the Administration for Community Living (ACL) is to maximize the independence, well-being, and health of older adults, people with disabilities across the lifespan, and their families and caregivers. In direct alignment with this mission is ACL's support of evidence-based falls prevention programs in communities throughout the United States. Since 2014, the Administration on Aging (AoA), part of ACL, has invested nearly $14 million in entities such as state agencies, nonprofits, and universities to expand access to proven community-based falls prevention programs...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Yan Jiang, Yu Wang, Yang Li, Yuming Zhang, Yinjun Zhao, Xiaojun Wang, Chi Ma, Shuangge Ma
BACKGROUND: Compared to outpatient treatment and self-treatment, inpatient treatment corresponds to more severe illness and poses more serious health and financial burden to patients. The goal of this study is to provide an updated and comprehensive description of the prevalence, characteristics, and cost of inpatient treatment for the middle-aged and elderly in Central China, which is highly populated, less-developed, and agriculture-dominating. METHODS: A survey was conducted in August 2013 in the Henan province...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Hannah Grace Southall, Sarah E DeYoung, Curt Andrew Harris
A cornerstone of effective disaster management is that response should always begin and end at the local level (1). The response to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Liberia, West Africa, was a combination of independent efforts by many nations and organizations. Many of these independent efforts ignored or were not able to work with the local levels of emergency management in Liberia. This oversight occurred because of the Liberian's mistrust of both their government and foreign aid groups, as well as the lack of cultural competency demonstrated by the aid groups...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Suzanna R Dillon, David Adams, Leah Goudy, Melissa Bittner, Scott McNamara
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to evaluate empirical support for the use of exercise as an evidence-based practice (EBP) for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), aged 1-21 years, using the Adapted Physical Activity Taxonomy (APAT) (1). METHOD: A systematic review of research, published within the past 10 years and accessible in SPORTDiscus, ProQuest Nursing, Science Direct, ERIC, Ovid MEDLINE, and PsychINFO databases, was conducted following seven inclusion criteria...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Chiara Frazzoli, Paola Gherardi, Navneet Saxena, Giancarlo Belluzzi, Alberto Mantovani
One Health involves the multifaceted environment-animal-human web: nevertheless, the role of toxicological issues has yet to be fully explored in this context. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination of feeds is a risk for the health of several farm animals, including fishes; milk is the only food of animal origin where a significant feed-food carry over may occur. The main AFB1-related compound present in milk is the hydroxy-metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Besides contamination of raw milk, AFM1 is of concern for the whole dairy chain; AFM1 may also contaminate the milk of several other ruminants used for milk/dairy production...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Bachir Sarr, Meena Fernandes, Louise Banham, Donald Bundy, Amaya Gillespie, Brie McMahon, Francis Peel, K C Tang, Andy Tembon, Lesley Drake
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To document the progression of school health and nutrition and its integration within the education sector in sub-Saharan Africa between 2000 and 2015. BACKGROUND: School health and nutrition programs have contributed to "Education for All" objectives by helping ensure that children benefit from quality education and reach their educational potential. METHODS: Analysis of education sector plans (ESPs) in terms of the Focusing Resources on Effective School Health (FRESH) framework and the World Bank Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER) School Health survey from a set of countries in sub-Saharan Africa...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Nick Verhaeghe, Delfine Lievens, Lieven Annemans, Freya Vander Laenen, Koen Putman
BACKGROUND: Alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and psychoactive pharmaceuticals' use is associated with a higher likelihood of developing several diseases and injuries and, as a consequence, considerable health-care expenditures. There is yet a lack of consistent methodologies to estimate the economic impact of addictive substances to society. The aim was to assess the methodological approaches applied in social cost studies estimating the economic impact of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and psychoactive pharmaceuticals...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Alycia N Sullivan, Margie E Lachman
Physical activity is closely linked with health and well-being; however, many Americans do not engage in regular exercise. Older adults and those with low socioeconomic status are especially at risk for poor health, largely due to their sedentary lifestyles. Fitness technology, including trackers and smartphone applications (apps), has become increasingly popular for measuring and encouraging physical activity in recent years. However, many questions remain regarding the effectiveness of this technology for promoting behavior change...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
David C Perlman, Ashly E Jordan, Denis Nash
BACKGROUND: To examine the application of continuum models to tuberculosis, HIV, and other conditions; to theorize the concept of continua; and to learn lessons that could inform the development of improved care and prevention continua as public health metrics. METHODS: An analytic review of literature drawn from several fields of health care. RESULTS: The continuum construct is now part of public health evaluation systems for HIV, and is increasingly used in public health and the medical literature...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Ibitola O Asaolu, Chioma T Okafor, Jennifer C Ehiri, Heather M Dreifuss, John E Ehiri
BACKGROUND: Women's empowerment is hypothesized as a predictor of reproductive health outcomes. It is believed that empowered girls and women are more likely to delay marriage, plan their pregnancies, receive prenatal care, and have their childbirth attended by a skilled health provider. The objective of this study was to assess the association between women's empowerment and use of modern contraception among a representative sample of Nigerian women. METHODS: This study used the 2003, 2008, and 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Kogilavani Subermaniam, Ridgwan Welfred, Pathmawathi Subramanian, Karuthan Chinna, Fatimah Ibrahim, Mas S Mohktar, Maw Pin Tan
BACKGROUND: Falls and fall-related injuries are increasingly serious issues among elderly inpatients due to population aging. The bed-exit alarm has only previously been evaluated in a handful of studies with mixed results. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of a modular bed absence sensor device (M-BAS) in detecting bed exits among older inpatients in a middle income nation in East Asia. METHODS: Patients aged ≥65 years on an acute geriatric ward who were able to mobilize with or without walking aids and physical assistance were recruited to the study...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Jared Michael Jashinsky, Brianna Magnusson, Carl Hanson, Michael Barnes
Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study's objective was to explore national news media's reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the shooting. Lawmakers were held responsible in 30% of pieces before and 66% after...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
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