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Frontiers in Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928641/evaluating-the-cost-effectiveness-of-proportional-assist-ventilation-plus-vs-pressure-support-ventilation-in-the-intensive-care-unit-in-two-countries
#1
Rhodri Saunders, Dimitris Geogopoulos
Background: Mechanical ventilation is an integral, but expensive, part of the intensive care unit (ICU). Optimal use of mechanical ventilation could save costs and improve patient outcomes. Here, the cost effectiveness of proportional assist ventilation (PAV™ ventilation by Medtronic) is estimated relative to pressure support ventilation (PSV). Methods: A cohort-level, clinical model was built using data from clinical trials. The model estimates patient-ventilator asynchrony >10%, tracheostomy, ventilator-associated pneumonia, other nosocomial infections, spontaneous breathing trial success, hypoxemia, and death...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922643/therefore-when-i-grow-up-i-want-to-become-an-aspirin-tablet
#2
Ian A Myles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922642/a-mixed-methods-approach-to-evaluate-partnerships-and-implementation-of-the-massachusetts-prevention-and-wellness-trust-fund
#3
Rebekka M Lee, Shoba Ramanadhan, Gina R Kruse, Charles Deutsch
Background: Strong partnerships are critical to integrate evidence-based prevention interventions within clinical and community-based settings, offering multilevel and sustainable solutions to complex health issues. As part of Massachusetts' 2012 health reform, The Prevention and Wellness Trust Fund (PWTF) funded nine local partnerships throughout the state to address hypertension, pediatric asthma, falls among older adults, and tobacco use. The initiative was designed to improve health outcomes through prevention and disease management strategies and reduce healthcare costs...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922641/improvements-in-heart-rate-variability-baroreflex-sensitivity-and-sleep-after-use-of-closed-loop-allostatic-neurotechnology-by-a-heterogeneous-cohort
#4
Hossam A Shaltout, Sung W Lee, Catherine L Tegeler, Joshua R Hirsch, Sean L Simpson, Lee Gerdes, Charles H Tegeler
Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) is an indicator of dynamic adaptability of the autonomic nervous system. Few interventions target upstream, cerebral cortex components of the heart-brain system for autonomic management. We report changes in HRV and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), associated with use of a noninvasive, closed-loop, allostatic, computer-guided, acoustic stimulation neurotechnology. Methods: Over 5 years, 220 subjects with heterogeneous neurological, cardiovascular, and psychophysiological conditions consecutively enrolled in a naturalistic, single-arm study exploring clinical effects associated with use of the neurotechnology...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911098/challenges-in-estimating-characteristics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-among-humans-enrolled-in-surveillance-studies
#5
Thanh-Thao Le, Maya Nadimpalli, Jianyong Wu, Christopher D Heaney, Jill R Stewart
Evaluating carriage of Staphylococcus aureus , an opportunistic pathogen of humans and animals capable of causing antibiotic-resistant infections, is epidemiologically important. However, clinical and epidemiological surveillance studies of S. aureus typically rely on characterizing one isolate per individual, which may not represent the actual population diversity in a carrier. The objective of this study was to determine if one isolate is sufficient for determining carrier status of particular strains or characteristics of S...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904626/the-use-of-estrone-3-glucuronide-and-pregnanediol-3-glucuronide-excretion-rates-to-navigate-the-continuum-of-ovarian-activity
#6
REVIEW
Leonard F Blackwell, Delwyn G Cooke, Simon Brown
The patterns of a woman's normal ovarian activity can take many forms from childhood to menopause. These patterns lie on a continuum ranging from no ovarian activity to a fully fertile ovulatory cycle, but among the other defined patterns are cycles with anovulatory ovarian activity, including luteinized unruptured follicles (LUFs), and ovulatory cycles with deficient or short luteal phases. For any woman, these patterns can occur in any order, and one can merge into the next, without an intervening bleed, or be missed entirely...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904625/towards-the-clinical-evaluation-of-the-luteal-phase-in-fertile-women-a-preliminary-study-of-normative-urinary-hormone-profiles
#7
María Elena Alliende, José Antonio Arraztoa, Ulises Guajardo, Fernando Mellado
Objective: To describe and evaluate urinary hormone profiles in the luteal phase. Setting and Patients: Twenty-five healthy fertile women, with regular ovulatory pattern cycles as assessed by temperature and cervical mucus, at a university based center. Methods: Daily urinary hormonal assessment of luteinizing hormone, estrone glucuronide, and pregnanediol glucuronide. This was done during 3 or more cycles, with 78 completed cycles. Samples were analyzed by both crude levels and levels adjusted for the hormone excretion rate...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900166/presence-and-persistence-of-salmonella-in-water-the-impact-on-microbial-quality-of-water-and-food-safety
#8
REVIEW
Huanli Liu, Chris A Whitehouse, Baoguang Li
Salmonella ranks high among the pathogens causing foodborne disease outbreaks. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Salmonella contributed to about 53.4% of all foodborne disease outbreaks from 2006 to 2017, and approximately 32.7% of these foodborne Salmonella outbreaks were associated with consumption of produce. Trace-back investigations have suggested that irrigation water may be a source of Salmonella contamination of produce and a vehicle for transmission. Presence and persistence of Salmonella have been reported in surface waters such as rivers, lakes, and ponds, while ground water in general offers better microbial quality for irrigation...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896471/agency-leaders-assessments-of-feasibility-and-desirability-of-implementation-of-evidence-based-practices-in-youth-serving-organizations-using-the-stages-of-implementation-completion
#9
Lawrence A Palinkas, Mark Campbell, Lisa Saldana
Background: This study examined influences on the decisions of administrators of youth-serving organizations to initiate and proceed with implementation of an evidence-based practice (EBP). Methods: Semi-structured interviews, developed using the Stages of Implementation Completion (SIC) as a framework, were conducted with 19 agency chief executive officers and program directors of 15 organizations serving children and adolescents. Results: Agency leaders' self-assessments of implementation feasibility and desirability prior to implementation (Pre-implementation) were influenced by intervention affordability, feasibility, requirements, validity, reliability, relevance, cost savings, positive outcomes, and adequacy of information; availability of funding, support from sources external to the agency, and adequacy of technical assistance; and staff availability and attitudes toward innovation in general and EBPs in particular, organizational capacity, fit between the EBP and agency mission and capacity, prior experience with implementation, experience with seeking evidence, and developing consensus...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896470/a-theory-based-contextual-nutrition-education-manual-enhanced-nutrition-teaching-skill
#10
Mojisola D Kupolati, Una E MacIntyre, Gerda J Gericke
Background: A theory-based contextual nutrition education manual (NEM) may enhance effective teaching of nutrition in schools. School nutrition education should lead to the realization of such benefits as improved health, scholarly achievement leading to manpower development and consequently the nation's development. The purpose of the study was to develop a contextual NEM for teachers of Grade 5 and 6 learners in the Bronkhorstspruit district, South Africa, and to assess teachers' perception on the use of the manual for teaching nutrition...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896469/how-could-the-ethical-management-of-health-data-in-the-medical-field-inform-police-use-of-dna
#11
Gaelle Krikorian, Joëlle Vailly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896468/protocol-for-an-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-population-level-intervention-study-in-victoria-australia-the-prepx-study
#12
Kathleen E Ryan, Anne Mak, Mark Stoove, Brian Price, Christopher K Fairley, Simon Ruth, Luxshimi Lal, Jason Asselin, Carol El-Hayek, Long Nguyen, Colin Batrouney, David Wilson, John Lockwood, Dean Murphy, Vincent J Cornelisse, Norman Roth, Jeff Willcox, Christina C Chang, Judy Armishaw, Ban K Tee, Matthew Penn, George Forgan-Smith, Christopher Williams, Jeff Montgomery, Kat Byron, Alison Coelho, Brent Allen, Jeremy Wiggins, Jenny Kelsall, Olga Vujovic, Michael West, Anna B Pierce, Daniel Gallant, Charlotte Bell, John B F de Wit, Jennifer F Hoy, Steve L Wesselingh, Robert M Grant, Edwina J Wright
Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the use of HIV anti-retroviral therapy to prevent HIV transmission in people at high risk of HIV acquisition. PrEP is highly efficacious when taken either daily, or in an on-demand schedule. In Australia co-formulated tenofovir-emtricitabine is registered for daily use for PrEP, however, this co-formulation is not listed yet on the national subsidized medicines list. We describe a study protocol that aims to demonstrate if the provision of PrEP to up to 3800 individuals at risk of HIV in Victoria, Australia reduces HIV incidence locally by 25% generally and 30% among GBM...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892596/developing-an-undergraduate-public-health-introductory-core-course-series
#13
Denise C Nelson-Hurwitz, Michelle Tagorda, Lisa Kehl, Opal V Buchthal, Kathryn L Braun
The number of undergraduate public health education programs is increasing, but few publications provide examples of introductory public health courses that provide foundational knowledge and meet 2016 Council on Education in Public Health (CEPH) accreditation standards. This article presents the development and testing of a three-course, introductory series in public health at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa (UHM). Development was informed by best pedagogical practices in education, web review of existing programs, literature review, key informant interviews, and accreditation standards...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888217/editorial-translation-of-genomic-results-into-public-health-practice
#14
EDITORIAL
Natasa Djordjevic, Stefania Boccia, Róza Ádány
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881720/screening-diagnosis-and-management-of-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorders-at-bwindi-community-hospital-uganda
#15
Yusufu Kuule, Andrew E Dobson, Anthony D Harries, Birungi Mutahunga, Alex G Stewart, Ewan Wilkinson
Introduction: The harmful use of alcohol is a growing global public health concern, with Sub-Saharan Africa at particular risk. A large proportion of adults in Uganda consume alcohol and the country has a high prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD), almost double that for the African region as a whole. Bwindi Community Hospital, in rural western Uganda, recently introduced a program of screening, diagnosis and management of AUD and we assessed how this worked. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in three departments (out-patients, adult in-patients and sexual & reproductive health) of Bwindi Community Hospital assessing numbers of patients screened, diagnosed and treated with AUD between January 2014 and June 2017...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881719/hormonal-predictors-of-abnormal-luteal-phases-in-normally-cycling-women
#16
Saman H Abdulla, Thomas P Bouchard, Rene A Leiva, Phil Boyle, Jean Iwaz, René Ecochard
Objective: Explore potential relationships between preovulatory, periovulatory, and luteal-phase characteristics in normally cycling women. Design: Observational study. Setting: Eight European natural family planning clinics. Patient(s): Ninety-nine women contributing 266 menstrual cycles. Intervention(s): The participants collected first morning urine samples that were analyzed for estrone-3 glucuronide (E1G), pregnanediol-3- alpha-glucuronide (PDG), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876341/editorial-international-partnerships-for-strengthening-health-care-workforce-capacity-models-of-collaborative-education-part-ii
#17
EDITORIAL
Jeanne M Leffers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876340/high-out-of-pocket-health-spending-in-countries-with-a-mediterranean-connection
#18
Simon Grima, Jonathan V Spiteri, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Carl Camilleri, Sandra C Buttigieg
In this study, we analyzed healthcare provision and health expenditure across six Mediterranean countries that adopt the National Health System (Beveridge model) and that form part of the European Union (EU) with the main aim being that of analyzing and comparing out-of-pocket health spending in countries with a European Mediterranean connection. To this end, we considered various economic indicators and statistics to derive commonalities and differences across these countries and also compared trends in these indicators to those observed across the rest of the EU...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876339/steroid-hormones-and-their-action-in-women-s-brains-the-importance-of-hormonal-balance
#19
REVIEW
Juan Pablo Del Río, María I Alliende, Natalia Molina, Felipe G Serrano, Santiago Molina, Pilar Vigil
Sex hormones significantly impact women's lives. Throughout the different stages of life, from menarche to menopause and all stages in between, women experience dramatic fluctuations in the levels of progesterone and estradiol, among other hormones. These fluctuations affect the body as a whole, including the central nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, sex hormones act via steroid receptors. They also have an effect on different neurotransmitters such as GABA, serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate. Additionally, studies show that sex hormones and their metabolites influence brain areas that regulate mood, behavior, and cognitive abilities...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872650/musculoskeletal-fitness-measures-are-not-created-equal-an-assessment-of-school-children-in-corpus-christi-texas
#20
Toyin Ajisafe, Theresa Garcia, Hsin-Chen Fanchiang
This study investigated current obesity prevalence and associations between musculoskeletal fitness test scores and the odds of being underweight, overweight, or obese compared to having a healthy weight in elementary school children in Corpus Christi, Texas. The sample analyzed consisted of 492 public elementary school children between kindergarten and fifth grade. Their ages ranged from 5 to 11 years. Trunk lift, 90° push-up, curl-up, and back saver sit and reach tests were administered. Weight status was determined using BMI scores and the CDC growth charts...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
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