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Frontiers in Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326304/hiv-diagnosis-and-treatment-through-advanced-technologies
#1
REVIEW
Hafiza Fizzah Zulfiqar, Aneeqa Javed, Sumbal, Bakht Afroze, Qurban Ali, Khadija Akbar, Tariq Nadeem, Muhammad Adeel Rana, Zaheer Ahmad Nazar, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Tayyab Husnain
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the chief contributor to global burden of disease. In 2010, HIV was the fifth leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in people of all ages and leading cause for people aged 30-44 years. It is classified as a member of the family Retroviridae and genus Lentivirus based on the biological, morphological, and genetic properties. It infects different cells of the immune system, such as CD4+ T cells (T-helper cells), dendritic cells, and macrophages. HIV has two subtypes: HIV-1 and HIV-2...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321393/an-integrated-approach-to-falls-prevention-a-model-for-linking-clinical-and-community-interventions-through-the-massachusetts-prevention-and-wellness-trust-fund
#2
Laura J Coe, Julie Ann St John, Santhi Hariprasad, Kalpana N Shankar, Patricia A MacCulloch, Amy L Bettano, Jean Zotter
Older adult falls continue to be a public health priority across the United States-Massachusetts (MA) being no exception. The MA Prevention and Wellness Trust Fund (PWTF) program within the MA Department of Public Health aims to reduce the physical and economic burdens of chronic health conditions by linking evidence-based clinical care with community intervention programs. The PWTF partnerships that focused on older adult falls prevention integrated the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Stopping Elderly Accidents, Death and Injuries toolkit into clinical settings...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321392/utilizing-behavior-change-techniques-to-elicit-adherence-to-clinical-practice-guidelines
#3
Daniel Ferreira
INTRODUCTION: Two 2-day continuing education seminars were developed to address the orthopedic physical therapy deficits in Guyana. Material was presented in a way to address all stages of behavior change. METHODS: Surveys evaluating preseminar and postseminar knowledge was conducted. Chart reviews to establish adherence to clinical practice guidelines were performed. RESULTS: Preseminar surveys revealed minimal knowledge of clinical practice guidelines, which was consistent with preseminar chart review data...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321391/inadequate-utilization-of-prenatal-care-services-socioeconomic-status-and-educational-attainment-are-associated-with-low-birth-weight-in-zimbabwe
#4
Sanni Yaya, Ghose Bishwajit, Michael Ekholuenetale, Vaibhav Shah
BACKGROUND: Globally, low birth weight (LBW) remains a leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality and poses significant challenges toward the progress of achieving infant mortality-related goals. Experience from developed countries shows that two major causes of LBW (premature delivery and intrauterine growth restriction) can be averted to a great extent by adequate utilization of maternal health-care services, during pregnancy. In this study, we attempt to measure the prevalence of LBW in Zimbabwe and explore the association between adequate utilization of prenatal care (PNC) services and LBW in Zimbabwe...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303240/ensuring-privacy-when-integrating-patient-based-datasets-new-methods-and-developments-in-record-linkage
#5
Adrian P Brown, Anna M Ferrante, Sean M Randall, James H Boyd, James B Semmens
In an era where the volume of structured and unstructured digital data has exploded, there has been an enormous growth in the creation of data about individuals that can be used for understanding and treating disease. Joining these records together at an individual level provides a complete picture of a patient's interaction with health services and allows better assessment of patient outcomes and effectiveness of treatment and services. Record linkage techniques provide an efficient and cost-effective method to bring individual records together as patient profiles...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303239/epidemiology-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-the-western-area-region-of-sierra-leone-2014-2015
#6
Margaret Lamunu, Olushayo Oluseun Olu, James Bangura, Zabulon Yoti, Thomas Takpau Samba, David Kabba Kargbo, Foday Mohamed Dafae, Muhammad Ali Raja, Noah Sempira, Michael Lyazi Ivan, Aarti Sing, Fredson Kurti-George, Negusu Worku, Pamela Mitula, Louisa Ganda, Robert Samupindi, Roland Conteh, Kande-Bure Kamara, Beatrice Muraguri, Michael Kposowa, Joseph Charles, Malimbo Mugaga, Christopher Dye, Anshu Banerjee, Pierre Formenty, Brima Kargbo, Raymond Bruce Aylward
INTRODUCTION: Western Area (WA) of Sierra Leone including the capital, Freetown, experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Ebola from 2014 to 2015. At the onset of the epidemic, there was little information about the epidemiology, transmission dynamics, and risk factors in urban settings as previous outbreaks were limited to rural/semi-rural settings. This study, therefore, aimed to describe the epidemiology of the outbreak and the factors which had most impact on the transmission of the epidemic and whether there were different drivers from those previously described in rural settings...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293552/redefining-board-certified-toxicologist-by-consumer-products-safety-commission-may-increase-potential-risk-of-exposure-to-carcinogens-among-consumers-in-united-states-of-america
#7
James L Unmack, Vergil C Bud Jenkins, Masood A Shammas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289679/efficacy-of-a-student-led-community-based-multifactorial-fall-prevention-program-stay-in-balance
#8
Cheryl A Der Ananian, Melanie Mitros, Matthew Paul Buman
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major public health concern in older adults. Recent fall prevention guidelines recommend the use of multifactorial fall prevention programs (FPPs) that include exercise for community-dwelling older adults; however, the availability of sustainable, community-based FPPs is limited. METHODS: We conducted a 24-week quasi-experimental study to evaluate the efficacy of a community-based, multifactorial FPP [Stay in Balance (SIB)] on dynamic and functional balance and muscular strength...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289678/improving-community-health-using-an-outcome-oriented-cqi-approach-to-community-engaged-health-professions-education
#9
Amy Clithero, Simone Jacquelyn Ross, Lyn Middleton, Carole Reeve, Andre-Jacques Neusy
Health professionals providing health-care services must have the relevant competencies and clinical experiences needed to improve population health outcomes in different contexts. Current models of health profession education often fail to produce a fit-for-purpose workforce ready and willing to provide relevant, quality care to underserved communities. Evidence is emerging that community-engaged and socially accountable health workforce education, i.e., aligned with priority health needs, produces a workforce ready and willing to work in partnership with underserved regions...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289677/the-implementation-and-evaluation-of-health-promotion-services-and-programs-to-improve-cultural-competency-a-systematic-scoping-review
#10
REVIEW
Crystal Sky Jongen, Janya McCalman, Roxanne Gwendalyn Bainbridge
BACKGROUND: Cultural competency is a multifaceted intervention approach, which needs to be implemented at various levels of health-care systems to improve quality of care for culturally and ethnically diverse populations. One level of health care where cultural competency is required is in the provision of health promotion services and programs targeted to diverse patient groups who experience health-care and health inequalities. To inform the implementation and evaluation of health promotion programs and services to improve cultural competency, research must assess both intervention strategies and intervention outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289676/disability-work-absenteeism-sickness-benefits-and-cancer-in-selected-european-oecd-countries-forecasts-to-2020
#11
Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Christina Malmose-Stapelfeldt, Olivera Milovanovic, Nemanja Rancic, Dubravko Bokonjic
BACKGROUND: Disability either due to illness, aging, or both causes remains an essential contributor shaping European labor markets. Ability of modern day welfare states to compensate an impaired work ability and absenteeism arising from incapacity is very diverse. The aims of this study were to establish and explain intercountry differences among selected European OECD countries and to provide forecasts of future work absenteeism and expenditures on wage replacement benefits. METHODS: Two major public registries, European health for all database and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development database (OECD Health Data), were coupled to form a joint database on 12 core indicators...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286745/outcomes-of-an-international-workshop-on-preconception-expanded-carrier-screening-some-considerations-for-governments
#12
Caron M Molster, Karla Lister, Selina Metternick-Jones, Gareth Baynam, Angus John Clarke, Volker Straub, Hugh J S Dawkins, Nigel Laing
BACKGROUND: Consideration of expanded carrier screening has become an emerging issue for governments. However, traditional criteria for decision-making regarding screening programs do not incorporate all the issues relevant to expanded carrier screening. Further, there is a lack of consistent guidance in the literature regarding the development of appropriate criteria for government assessment of expanded carrier screening. Given this, a workshop was held to identify key public policy issues related to preconception expanded carrier screening, which governments should consider when deciding whether to publicly fund such programs...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275594/enabling-continuous-quality-improvement-in-practice-the-role-and-contribution-of-facilitation
#13
Gillian Harvey, Elizabeth Lynch
Facilitating the implementation of continuous quality improvement (CQI) is a complex undertaking. Numerous contextual factors at a local, organizational, and health system level can influence the trajectory and ultimate success of an improvement program. Some of these contextual factors are amenable to modification, others less so. As part of planning and implementing healthcare improvement, it is important to assess and build an understanding of contextual factors that might present barriers to or enablers of implementation...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275593/intellectual-disability-and-assistive-technology-opening-the-gate-wider
#14
Fleur Heleen Boot, John Dinsmore, Chapal Khasnabis, Malcolm MacLachlan
The World Health Organization has launched a program to promote Global Cooperation on Assistive Technology (GATE). The objective of the GATE program is to improve access to high quality, affordable assistive technology for people with varying disabilities, diseases, and age-related conditions. As a first step, GATE has developed the assistive products list, a list of priority assistive products based on addressing the greatest need at population level. A specific group of people who can benefit from user appropriate assistive technology are people with intellectual disabilities...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265557/modified-delphi-consensus-to-suggest-key-elements-of-stepping-on-falls-prevention-program
#15
Jane E Mahoney, Lindy Clemson, Amy Schlotthauer, Karin A Mack, Terry Shea, Vicki Gobel, Sandy Cech
Falls among older adults result in substantial morbidity and mortality. Community-based programs have been shown to decrease the rate of falls. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded a research study to determine how to successfully disseminate the evidence-based fall prevention program (Stepping On) in the community setting. As the first step for this study, a panel of subject matter experts was convened to suggest which parts of the Stepping On fall prevention program were considered key elements, which could not be modified by implementers...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261580/a-blueprint-to-evaluate-one-health
#16
Simon R Rüegg, Barry J McMahon, Barbara Häsler, Roberto Esposito, Liza Rosenbaum Nielsen, Chinwe Ifejika Speranza, Timothy Ehlinger, Marisa Peyre, Maurizio Aragrande, Jakob Zinsstag, Philip Davies, Andrei Daniel Mihalca, Sandra C Buttigieg, Jonathan Rushton, Luís P Carmo, Daniele De Meneghi, Massimo Canali, Maria E Filippitzi, Flavie Luce Goutard, Vlatko Ilieski, Dragan Milićević, Helen O'Shea, Miroslav Radeski, Richard Kock, Anthony Staines, Ann Lindberg
One Health (OH) positions health professionals as agents for change and provides a platform to manage determinants of health that are often not comprehensively captured in medicine or public health alone. However, due to the organization of societies and disciplines, and the sectoral allocation of resources, the development of transdisciplinary approaches requires effort and perseverance. Therefore, there is a need to provide evidence on the added value of OH for governments, researchers, funding bodies, and stakeholders...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261579/physical-activity-and-survival-among-long-term-cancer-survivor-and-non-cancer-cohorts
#17
Anthony S Gunnell, Sarah Joyce, Stephania Tomlin, Dennis R Taaffe, Prue Cormie, Robert U Newton, David Joseph, Nigel Spry, Kristjana Einarsdóttir, Daniel A Galvão
Evidence suggests physical activity improves prognosis following cancer diagnosis; however, evidence regarding prognosis in long-term survivors of cancer is scarce. We assessed physical activity in 1,589 cancer survivors at an average 8.8 years following their initial diagnosis and calculated their future mortality risk following physical activity assessment. We also selected a cancer-free cohort of 3,145 age, sex, and survey year group-matched cancer-free individuals from the same source population for comparison purposes...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261578/preparation-of-european-public-health-professionals-in-the-twenty-first-century
#18
Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Robert Otok
The public health profession in Europe has a leadership role for ensuring European's health in the twenty-first century and therefore must assume responsibility for advancing education for research and practice. Three fundamental questions are explored: (1) What are the main public health problems facing public health professionals; (2) What are their existing competencies after training; and (3) What competencies do European employers expect? The European Schools of Public Health assessed their best success to be in the field of health promotion, followed by disease prevention including identification of priority health problems, and elimination of health hazards in the community...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261577/self-reported-perceptions-of-weight-and-eating-behavior-of-school-children-in-sunderland-england
#19
REVIEW
Alison McInnes, David Blackwell
The main aim of this study was to determine the self-reported perceptions of weight and eating behaviors of school-age children in Sunderland in the North East of England. The results presented are derived from data collected by a Health-Related Behaviour Survey developed by Schools and Students Health Education Unit at Exeter University, and this study is based on analysis of the data set collected for Sunderland. A total of 12,213 pupils from nine secondary schools completed the questionnaire biennially from 1996 to 2012...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243587/estimating-the-healthiness-of-internet-recipes-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Christoph Trattner, David Elsweiler, Simon Howard
A government's response to increasing incidence of lifestyle-related illnesses, such as obesity, has been to encourage people to cook for themselves. The healthiness of home cooking will, nevertheless, depend on what people cook and how they cook it. In this article, one common source of cooking inspiration-Internet-sourced recipes-is investigated in depth. The energy and macronutrient content of 5,237 main meal recipes from the food website Allrecipes.com are compared with those of 100 main meal recipes from five bestselling cookery books from popular celebrity chefs and 100 ready meals from the three leading UK supermarkets...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
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