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Frontiers in Public Health

Yousif El Safi Himeidan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Dhiraj Agarwal, Dhiraj Dhotre, Rutuja Patil, Yogesh Shouche, Sanjay Juvekar, Sundeep Salvi
Health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) is a population-based health and vital event registration system that monitors demographic and health events in a geographically defined population at regular intervals. Human microbiome research in the past decade has been the field of increasingly intense research much due to its demonstrated impact upon various health conditions including human chronic airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Many confounding factors have been revealed to play a role in shaping the microbiome in chronic airway diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Martina C Cornel, Carla G van El
More than 15 years after the publication of the sequence of the human genome, the resulting changes in health care have been modest. At the same time, some promising examples in genetic services become visible, which contribute to the prevention of chronic disease such as cancer. These are discussed to identify barriers and facilitating factors for the implementation of genetic services. Examples from oncogenetics illustrate a high risk of serious disease where prevention is possible, especially in relatives...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Robert Trevethan
When people's knowledge and awareness are the subject of public health research, the meanings applied to the words knowledge and awareness are often unclear. Although frequently used interchangeably without that being problematic, these words sometimes appear to have different intended meanings but those meanings are not made explicit or, despite the meanings having been made explicit, they are not adhered to. It is necessary to overcome obscurities when knowledge and awareness are intended to represent different domains...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Cameron Lister, Hannah Payne, Carl L Hanson, Michael D Barnes, Siena F Davis, Todd Manwaring
Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Effie Ioannidou
Periodontitis, a complex polymicrobial inflammatory disease, is a public health burden affecting more than 100 million people and being partially responsible for tooth loss. Interestingly, periodontitis has a documented higher prevalence in men as compared to women signifying a possible sex/gender entanglement in the disease pathogenesis. Although relevant evidence has treated sex/gender in a simplistic dichotomous manner, periodontitis may represent a complex inflammatory disease model, in which sex biology may interfere with gender social and behavioral constructs affecting disease clinical phenotype...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Divya S Bhatia, Abigail D Harrison, Muriel Kubeka, Cecilia Milford, Angela Kaida, Francis Bajunirwe, Ira B Wilson, Christina Psaros, Steven A Safren, David R Bangsberg, Jennifer A Smit, Lynn T Matthews
BACKGROUND: This qualitative study investigated gender power inequalities as they contribute to relationship dynamics and HIV-serostatus disclosure among men and women living with HIV in Durban, South Africa. HIV serodiscordance among men and women within stable partnerships contributes to high HIV incidence in southern Africa, yet disclosure rates remain low. Given the emphasis on prevention for HIV-serodiscordant couples, this research supports the urgent need to explore how best to support couples to recognize that they are part of this priority population and to access appropriate prevention and treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Donaldson F Conserve, Michelle Teti, Grace Shin, Juliet Iwelunmor, Lara Handler, Suzanne Maman
INTRODUCTION: Disclosure of parental human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to their children remains a difficult process for parents living with HIV (PLWH). In order to identify the best strategies to facilitate parental HIV disclosure, it is necessary to examine the efficacy of existing interventions designed to help PLWH parents with the disclosure process to their children. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the efficacy of interventions designed to assist PLWH disclose their HIV status to their children...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Susan M Moffat, Lyndie A Foster Page, W Murray Thomson
New Zealand's School Dental Service (SDS) was founded in 1921, partly as a response to the "appalling" state of children's teeth, but also at a time when social policy became centered on children's health and welfare. Referring to the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) conceptual framework, this review reflects upon how SDS policy evolved in response to contemporary constraints, challenges, and opportunities and, in turn, affected oral health. Although the SDS played a crucial role in improving oral health for New Zealanders overall and, in particular, children, challenges in addressing oral health inequalities remain to this day...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Jin Cheng, Ri-Chu Wang, Xing Yin, Lin Fu, Zheng-Kui Liu
AIM: This study aimed to test the relationship between length of residence and mental health in a school-based sample of migrant children who studied in migrant schools. METHODS: A total of 7,296 rural-to-urban migrant children were recruited from 58 schools in Beijing and assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Children's Depression Inventory. RESULTS: A quadratic relationship was found between mental health and length of residence...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
William A Satariano, Constance Wang, Melissa E Kealey, Elaine Kurtovich, Elizabeth A Phelan
OBJECTIVE: To address whether neighborhood factors, together with older adults' levels of health and functioning, suggest new combinations of risk factors for falls and new directions for prevention. To explore the utility of Grade-of-Membership (GoM) analysis to conduct this descriptive analysis. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study of 884 people aged ≥65 years from Alameda County, CA, Cook County, IL, Allegheny County, PA, and Wake and Durham counties, NC...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Jan Hexamer Tepe, Lawrence J Tepe
Each year many dentists embark on mission trips to foreign countries. This article shares what one group learned in their journey over the course of 17 years to bring oral health to a rural community in Honduras. The group began by delivering acute dental care, but soon realized that this treatment would never change the status of oral health in the community. Year by year they learned what worked and what did not. A school-based dental prevention program was initiated using proven preventive techniques to demonstrate to the community that prevention of oral disease was possible...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Mahmut Yaşar Çeliker, Yos Pagnarith, Kazumi Akao, Dim Sophearin, Sokchea Sorn
Cancer care with curative intent remains difficult to manage in many resource-limited settings such as Cambodia. Cambodia has a small workforce with limited financial and health-care resources resulting in delayed diagnoses and availability of limited therapeutic tools. Thus, palliative care becomes the primary form of care in most cases. Although palliative care is becoming an integral part of medical care in developed countries, this concept remains poorly understood and utilized in developing countries. Angkor Hospital for Children serves a relatively large pediatric population in northern Cambodia...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Elena Boriani, Roberto Esposito, Chiara Frazzoli, Peter Fantke, Tine Hald, Simon R Rüegg
Health intervention systems are complex and subject to multiple variables in different phases of implementation. This constitutes a concrete challenge for the application of translational science in real life. Complex systems as health-oriented interventions call for interdisciplinary approaches with carefully defined system boundaries. Exploring individual components of such systems from different viewpoints gives a wide overview and helps to understand the elements and the relationships that drive actions and consequences within the system...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Shirley Telles, Sachin Kumar Sharma, Nilkamal Singh, Acharya Balkrishna
BACKGROUND: The characteristics of yoga practitioners and factors motivating people to practice yoga have been studied in the US and in Australia. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of yoga users in India, the factors that motivate them to practice yoga, and the yoga techniques of choice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a one-time, cross-sectional survey based on convenience sampling. Inclusion criteria were (a) a minimum of 1 week experience of yoga and (b) at least 10 years of age...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Michelle Eckerle, Heather L Crouse, Msandeni Chiume, Ajib Phiri, Peter N Kazembe, Hanny Friesen, Tisungane Mvalo, Marideth C Rus, Elizabeth F Fitzgerald, Allyson McKenney, Irving F Hoffman, Megan Coe, Beatrice M Mkandawire, Charles Schubert
INTRODUCTION: To achieve sustained reductions in child mortality in low- and middle-income countries, increased local capacity is necessary. One approach to capacity building is support offered via partnerships with institutions in high-income countries. However, lack of cooperation between institutions can create barriers to successful implementation of programs and may inadvertently weaken the health system they are striving to improve. A coordinated approach is necessary. BACKGROUND: Three U...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Philip B Maffetone, Ivan Rivera-Dominguez, Paul B Laursen
The global overfat pandemic is a serious public health crisis that places a substantial burden on economic resources in developed countries. The term overfat refers to the presence of excess body fat that can impair health, even for normal weight non-obese individuals. Excess body fat is associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction, a clinical situation that can progressively worsen, potentially leading to various common disease risk factors, chronic diseases, increased morbidity and mortality, and reduced quality of life...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Lakkhina Troeung, Nita Sodhi-Berry, Angelita Martini, Eva Malacova, Hooi Ee, Peter O'Leary, Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, David B Preen
AIMS: To examine trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and colonoscopy history in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) aged 15-39 years in Western Australia (WA) from 1982 to 2007. DESIGN: Descriptive cohort study using population-based linked hospital and cancer registry data. METHOD: Five-year age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of CRC were calculated for all AYAs and by sex. Temporal trends in CRC incidence were investigated using Joinpoint regression analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Eileen M Stuart-Shor, Elizabeth Cunningham, Laura Foradori, Elizabeth Hutchinson, Martha Makwero, Jill Smith, Jane Kasozi, Esther M Johnston, Aliasgar Khaki, Elisa Vandervort, Fabiola Moshi, Vanessa B Kerry
The World Health Organization estimates a global deficit of about 12.9 million skilled health professionals (midwives, nurses, and physicians) by 2035. These shortages limit the ability of countries, particularly resource-constrained countries, to deliver basic health care, to respond to emerging and more complex needs, and to teach, graduate, and retain their future health professionals-a vicious cycle that is perpetuated and has profound implications for health security. The Global Health Service Partnership (GHSP) is a unique collaboration between the Peace Corps, President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, Seed and host-country institutions, which aims to strengthen the breadth and quality of medical and nursing education and care delivery in places with dire shortages of health professionals...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Chris A Martin, Breana M Dieringer, Daniel W McNeil
BACKGROUND: Orthodontics has inherent demands, requiring regular appointments and active patient engagement, but relatively little is established in regard to rates of completion of treatment and possible factors affecting successful completion. These factors may be particularly important for cultural minority groups, such as those in rural Appalachia, given the environmental, social, and economic complexities affecting access to and utilization of treatment. DESIGN AND METHODS: A naturalistic study design was employed, using retrospective data from a rural outpatient general dental office in July 2012...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
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