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Frontiers in Public Health

Amedeo D'Angiulli
According to the latest estimates, about 2 billion children around the world are exposed to severe urban outdoor air pollution. Transdisciplinary, multi-method findings from epidemiology, developmental neuroscience, psychology, and pediatrics, show detrimental outcomes associated with pre- and postnatal exposure are found at all ages. Affected brain-related functions include perceptual and sensory information processing, intellectual and cognitive development, memory and executive functions, emotion and self-regulation, and academic achievement...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Ivan Lerner, Raphaël Veil, Dinh-Phong Nguyen, Vinh Phuc Luu, Rodolphe Jantzen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Alexander Freis, Tanja Freundl-Schütt, Lisa-Maria Wallwiener, Sigfried Baur, Thomas Strowitzki, Günter Freundl, Petra Frank-Herrmann
The interval of peak fertility during the menstrual cycle is of limited duration, and the day of ovulation varies, even in women with fairly regular cycles. Therefore, menstrual cycle apps identifying the "fertile window" for women trying to conceive must be quite precise. A deviation of a few days may lead the couple to focus on less- or non-fertile days for sexual intercourse and thus may be worse than random intercourse. The aim of the present investigation was to develop a scoring system for rating available apps for determining the fertile window and secondarily pilot test 12 apps currently available in both German and English (consisting of 6 calendar-based apps: Clue Menstruations- und Zykluskalender, Flo Menstruationskalender, Maya-Mein Periodentracker, Menstruationskalender Pro, Period Tracker Deluxe, and WomanLog-Pro-Kalender; 2 calculothermal apps: Ovy and Natural Cycles; and 4 symptothermal apps: myNFP, Lady Cycle, Lily, and OvuView)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Tomasz Holecki, Piotr Romaniuk, Joanna Woźniak-Holecka, Adam R Szromek, Magdalena Syrkiewicz-Świtała
In Poland, following the example of other EU countries, the first maps of health needs prepared by the Ministry of Health were presented in 2016. The maps constitute a foundation for rational decision-making in the management of health care resources, being potentially useful for all actors in health system. This refers in particular to the institutions responsible for distribution of funds and contracting health service, but also for decision-makers, who determine the scope of funds to be utilized in the health system, or the structure of benefits provided to patients...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Olivier Ségéral, Eric Nerrienet, Sansothy Neth, Bruno Spire, Vohith Khol, Laurent Ferradini, Saramony Sarun, Chandara Mom, Sopheak Ngin, Charlotte Charpentier, Pagnaroat Men, Marion Mora, Vun Mean Chhi, Penhsun Ly, Vonthanak Saphonn
Background: Assessment of virological outcomes among HIV-infected patients receiving protease (PR) inhibitor-based second-line regimen are uncommon in Cambodia. The objective of this study is to assess the virological effectiveness of this regimen as well as impact of adherence boosting for patients experiencing virological failure. Methods: The 2PICAM study (Clinicaltrial: NCT01801618) is a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults on PR inhibitor-based second-line regimen since at least 6 months, conducted in 13 representative sites, comprising more than 90% of the target population...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Giovanni Gherardi, Luca Agostino Vitali, Roberta Creti
Background: Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen responsible for a broad range of infections, from uncomplicated to more severe and invasive diseases with high mortality and morbidity. Epidemiological surveillance has been crucial to detect changes in the geographical and temporal variation of the disease pattern; for this purpose the M protein gene ( emm) gene typing is the most widely used genotyping method, with more than 200 emm types recognized...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Pål Lagestad, Roland van den Tillaar, Asgeir Mamen
Several studies have investigated activity levels among adolescents, but no study has examined longitudinal changes in physical activity (PA) level, body mass, and oxygen uptake among the same adolescents from the age of 14 to 19 years. The present study examined data from a research project that included a group of randomly selected students ( N  = 116) with objective measurements of PA (accelerometer data), self-reported PA level, and body mass and oxygen uptake during a 5-year period. The results show a significant decrease in the accelerometer-based PA level over time, from age 14 to 19...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Melody Goodman, Sarah Lyons, Lorraine T Dean, Cassandra Arroyo, James Aaron Hipp
Objectives: Racial residential segregation affects food landscapes that dictate residents' food environments and is associated with obesity risk factors, including individual dietary patterns and behaviors. We examine if food behaviors and environments mediate the association between segregation and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks living in the St. Louis and Kansas City metro regions from 2012 to 2013 were surveyed on dietary behaviors, food environment, and BMI ( n  = 1,412)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Olga Horvat, Vesna Mijatović, Boris Milijasević, Ana Tomas, Milica Paut Kusturica, Zdenko Tomić, Ana Sabo
There is little published information about antibiotic utilization in outpatients in Serbia. The objective of this study was to determine the amount and structure of outpatient antibiotic use in South Backa District (SBD) in Serbia, to assess prescibing quality of antibiotics and to compare with results from Scandinavian countries. Data on the antibiotic use were collected from all private and state-owned pharmacies from January through March 2008 in SBD. Results were expressed as the number of defined daily doses/1,000 inhabitants/day...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Eyob Alemayehu Gebreyohannes, Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Tamrat Befekadu Abebe
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable, chronic, and progressive disease that can lead to serious complications and even to premature death. A closer understanding of the DM patients' specific obstacles will provide a greater clarity of the factors influencing their disease-related quality of life and coping with daily life. The study aimed to evaluate the obstacles of DM patients attending ambulatory clinic of the University of Gondar Hospital (UOGH), Northwest Ethiopia...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Gabrielle Laing, Maurizio Aragrande, Massimo Canali, Sara Savic, Daniele De Meneghi
One health thinking for health interventions is increasingly being used to capture previously unseen stakeholders and impacts across people, animals, and the environment. The Network for One Health Evaluation (NEOH) proposes a systems-based framework to quantitatively assess integration and highlight the added value (theory of change) that this approach will bring to a project. This case study will retrospectively evaluate the pioneering use of a One Health (OH) approach during an international collaboration (satellite project to tackle production losses due to tick-borne disease in cattle in Southern Zambia in late 1980s)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Benjamin W Chrisinger, Ana Ramos, Fred Shaykis, Tanya Martinez, Ann W Banchoff, Sandra J Winter, Abby C King
Over the last 6 years, a coordinated "healthy corner store" network has helped an increasing number of local storeowners stock healthy, affordable foods in Camden, New Jersey, a city with high rates of poverty and unemployment, and where most residents have little or no access to large food retailers. The initiative's funders and stakeholders wanted to directly engage Camden residents in evaluating this effort to increase healthy food access. In a departure from traditional survey- or focus group-based evaluations, we used an evidence-based community-engaged citizen science research model (called Our Voice ) that has been deployed in a variety of neighborhood settings to assess how different features of the built environment both affect community health and wellbeing, and empower participants to create change...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Evanthia P Perikleous, Paschalis Steiropoulos, Emmanouil Paraskakis, Theodoros C Constantinidis, Evangelia Nena
Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly emerging into a new trend among adolescents, signaling a new époque, that of vapers. E-cigarettes are battery-powered nicotine delivery devices that heat a typically flavoring liquid solution into an aerosol mist that users inhale, allowing them to imitate the act of conventional smoking. There are concerns about the impact of e-cigarettes at both individual and public health level. Aim: To discuss the characteristics of the most vulnerable, to become e-cigarette users, group of adolescents and to further highlight their behaviors and characteristics...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Maria Manuela Rosado, Myrtill Simkó, Mats-Olof Mattsson, Claudio Pioli
In recent years, the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on the immune system have received a considerable interest, not only to investigate possible negative health impact but also to explore the possibility to favorably modulate immune responses. To generate beneficial responses, the immune system should eradicate pathogens while "respecting" the organism and tolerating irrelevant antigens. According to the current view, damage-associated molecules released by infected or injured cells, or secreted by innate immune cells generate danger signals activating an immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Evelyn Kaambo, Charlene Africa, Ramadhani Chambuso, Jo-Ann Shelley Passmore
A healthy vaginal microbiota is considered to be significant for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections. However, certain vaginal bacterial commensal species serve an important first line of defense of the body. Any disruption of this microbial barrier might result in a number of urogenital conditions including aerobic vaginitis (AV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). The health of the vagina is closely associated with inhabitant microbiota. Furthermore, these microbes maintain a low vaginal pH, prevent the acquisition of pathogens, stimulate or moderate the local innate immune system, and further protect against complications during pregnancies...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Jennifer Jean Crowley, Celia Laur, Harrison David Edward Carter, Glenys Jones, Sumantra Ray
Nutrition is an important component of public health and health care, including in education and research, and in the areas of policy and practice. This statement was the overarching message during the third annual International Summit on Medical Nutrition Education and Research, held at Wolfson College, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, in August 2017. This summit encouraged attendees to think more broadly about the impact of nutrition policy on health and communities, including the need to visualize the complete food system from "pre-farm to post-fork...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Vanessa Allom, Michelle Jongenelis, Terry Slevin, Stacey Keightley, Fiona Phillips, Sarah Beasley, Simone Pettigrew
Background: Reflecting the increasing prevalence of online media, many mass media health campaigns are now delivered using both television (TV) and online media formats. The aim of this study was to evaluate a smoking cessation mass media campaign according to the cost-effectiveness of the various combinations of TV and online media formats to inform future media buying decisions. Methods: A quasi-experimental interrupted time series approach was employed. The campaign was delivered in seven 1-week bursts using TV, online video (OV), or online display (OD) (e...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Firoz Ahmed Mamin, Rieke Hayes
Background: The demand for health services in developing countries often outweighs provision. This article describes the present condition of physiotherapy in Bangladesh. Physiotherapy is not recognized as a profession by the government. There is no single registration and regulation body. The health-related and economic benefits of physiotherapy are not felt by the majority of Bangladeshi citizens. Areas covered: The burden of disease is changing, and Bangladesh needs a profession that specializes in physical rehabilitation to face these challenges...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Aliya Hussaini, Carmen Llanes Pulido, Semonti Basu, Nalini Ranjit
Place-based health efforts account for the role of the community environment in shaping decisions and circumstances that affect population well-being. Such efforts, rooted as they are in the theory that health is socially determined, mobilize resources for health promotion that are not typically used, and offer a more informed and robust way of promoting health outcomes within a community. Common criticisms of place-based work include the difficulty of replication , since engagement is so specific to a place, and limited sustainability of the work, in the absence of continued institutional structures, both within the community and supporting structures outside the community, to keep these initiatives resilient...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Janya McCalman, Ross Bailie, Roxanne Bainbridge, Karen McPhail-Bell, Nikki Percival, Deborah Askew, Ruth Fagan, Komla Tsey
Continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes for improving clinical care and health outcomes have been implemented by primary health-care services, with resultant health-care impacts. But only 10-20% of gain in health outcomes is contributed by health-care services; a much larger share is determined by social and cultural factors. This perspective paper argues that health care and health outcomes can be enhanced through applying CQI as a systems approach to comprehensive primary health care. Referring to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian context as an example, the authors provide a systems framework that includes strategies and conditions to facilitate evidence-based and local decision making by primary health-care services...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
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