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Frontiers in Public Health

Ian J Cooke, Rohan D Jeremiah, Nataka J Moore, Karriem Watson, Michael A Dixon, Gregory L Jordan, Marcus Murray, Mary K Keeter, Courtney M P Hollowell, Adam B Murphy
In the United States, African-Americans' (AAs) HIV infection rates are higher than any other racial group, and AA men who have sex with women (MSW) are a significant proportion of new cases. There is little research into AA MSW HIV/AIDS knowledge, barriers, and facilitators of HIV testing in Chicago. We enrolled a convenience sample of AA MSW from a community health clinic who completed self-administered surveys assessing HIV knowledge and testing-related barriers and facilitators. The survey was a combination of questions from several validated instruments, and additional questions were written based on key informant interviews with social scientists to tailor the questionnaire for AA men living on the South Side of Chicago...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Philip B Maffetone, Ivan Rivera-Dominguez, Paul B Laursen
For the first time in human history, the number of obese people worldwide now exceeds those who are underweight. However, it is possible that there is an even more serious problem-an overfat pandemic comprised of people who exhibit metabolic health impairments associated with excess fat mass relative to lean body mass. Many overfat individuals, however, are not necessarily classified clinically as overweight or obese, despite the common use of body mass index as the clinical classifier of obesity and overweight...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Samantha Battams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Sean Shenghsiu Huang, Richard A Hirth, Dean G Smith
An extensive literature is devoted to differences between for-profit and non-profit health-care providers' prices, utilization, and quality. Less is known about for-profit and non-profit managers' compensation and its relationship with financial and quality performance. The aim of this study is to examine whether for-profit and non-profit nursing homes place differential weights on financial and quality performance in determining managers' compensation. Using a unique 8-year dataset on Ohio nursing homes, fixed-effect regression models of managers' compensation include financial and quality performance as well as other explanatory variables concerning firm and market characteristics and manager qualifications...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Paula Kiyomi Onaga Yokota, Alexandre Rodrigues Marra, Talita Rantin Belucci, Elivane da Silva Victor, Oscar Fernando Pavão Dos Santos, Michael B Edmond
BACKGROUND: Central venous catheters are significant risk factors for bloodstream infection (BSI), which are directly associated with increased morbidity and mortality. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort study for the time period of July 2011-June 2014 in patients with central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) to determine the microbiological profile and antimicrobial adequacy of patients with CLABSI in a tertiary hospital. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-one CLABSI cases were identified...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Lauren M Menger, John Rosecrance, Lorann Stallones, Ivette Noami Roman-Muniz
Industrialized dairy production in the U.S. relies on an immigrant, primarily Latino/a, workforce to meet greater production demands. Given the high rates of injuries and illnesses on U.S. dairies, there is pressing need to develop culturally appropriate training to promote safe practices among immigrant, Latino/a dairy workers. To date, there have been few published research articles or guidelines specific to developing effective occupational safety and health (OSH) training for immigrant, Latino/a workers in the dairy industry...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Manisha A Kulkarni, Rachelle E Desrochers, Debora C Kajeguka, Robert Diotrephes Kaaya, Andrew Tomayer, Eliningaya J Kweka, Natacha Protopopoff, Franklin W Mosha
INTRODUCTION: Malaria prevalence has declined in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania over the past 10 years, particularly at lower altitudes. While this decline has been related to the scale-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets to achieve universal coverage targets, it has also been attributed to changes in environmental factors that are important for enabling and sustaining malaria transmission. OBJECTIVES: Herein, we apply spatial analytical approaches to investigate the impact of environmental and demographic changes, including changes in temperature, precipitation, land cover, and population density, on the range of the major malaria vector species Anopheles arabiensis in two districts of Tanzania, situated on the southern slope of Mount Kilimanjaro...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Mohanad Aleeban, Tim K Mackey
Every year on the 12th month of the Islamic calendar, 2-3 million Muslims from over 160 countries migrate to Holy sites in Saudi Arabia to perform the Hajj, representing one of the largest mass gathering events worldwide. Yet, the Hajj poses several challenges to global health and public safety, including the unique health risks posed by seasonal variability when Hajj occurs during summer months. Specifically, pilgrims taking the journey to Mecca are at higher risk for heat illnesses, heat-related injuries and exhaustion, and stampedes, when summer temperatures can reach up to 48...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Silvia Bacci, Francesco Bartolucci, Liliana Minelli, Manuela Chiavarini
INTRODUCTION: The literature about the determinants of a preterm birth is still controversial. We approach the analysis of these determinants distinguishing between woman's observable characteristics, which may change over time, and unobservable woman's characteristics, which are time invariant and explain the dependence between the typology (normal or preterm) of consecutive births. METHODS: We rely on a longitudinal dataset about 28,603 women who delivered for the first time in the period 2005-2013 in the Umbria Region (Italy)...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Matthew Lee Smith, Sofia Chaudhary, Sharon Nieb, Rana Bayakly, Kathleen Graham, Elizabeth Head
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Anthea M Burnett, Anna Morse, Thomas Naduvilath, Andrea Boudville, Hugh R Taylor, Ross Bailie
BACKGROUND: Routine eye and vision assessments are vital for the detection and subsequent management of vision loss, which is particularly important for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who face higher rates of vision loss than other Australians. In order to guide improvements, this paper will describe patterns, variations, and gaps in these eye and vision assessments for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. METHODS: Clinical audits from 124 primary healthcare centers (sample size 15,175) from five Australian states and territories were conducted during 2005-2012...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Nga Thi Thu Vu, Martin Holt, Huong Thi Thu Phan, Lan Thi La, Gioi Minh Tran, Tung Thanh Doan, John de Wit
INTRODUCTION: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a key population for HIV infection in Vietnam, and the use of amphetamine type substances (ATS) is prevalent and possibly increasing in this population. The reported analysis examines the association between ATS use before or during sex and HIV infection among MSM in Hanoi, Vietnam. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of 210 MSM was conducted in Hanoi, Vietnam, in late 2014. Men tested for HIV and answered questions about demographic characteristics, sexual sensation seeking, depression, belief in HIV prevention strategies, homosexuality-related stigma and discrimination, recent accessing of HIV prevention services, sexual behaviors and ATS, and other drug use behaviors...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Yifan Wang, Lingdan Wu, Hongli Zhou, Jiaojing Xu, Guangheng Dong
Internet search has become the most common way that people deal with issues and problems in everyday life. The wide use of Internet search has largely changed the way people search for and store information. There is a growing interest in the impact of Internet search on users' affect, cognition, and behavior. Thus, it is essential to develop a tool to measure the changes in psychological characteristics as a result of long-term use of Internet search. The aim of this study is to develop a Questionnaire on Internet Search Dependence (QISD) and test its reliability and validity...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Andrew Harnish, William Dieter, Albert Crawford, Tiffany E Shubert
BACKGROUND: Older adults at a high risk of falls may be referred to a physical therapist. A physical therapy episode of care is designed for the transition of an older adult from a high fall risk to a moderate to low fall risk. However, these episodes of care are limited in time and duration. There is compelling evidence for the efficacy of group-based exercise classes to address risk, and transitioning an older adult from physical therapy to a group-based program may be an effective way to manage risk through the continuum of care...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Diksha Sapkota, Bihungum Bista, Shiva Raj Adhikari
BACKGROUND: Road traffic accidents, considered as global tragedies, are in increasing trend; however, the safety situation is very severe in developing countries incurring substantial amount of human, economic, and social costs. Motorcycle crashes, the commonest form, occur mostly in economically active population. However, there is limited number of studies on economic burden of motorcycle crashes. This study aims to estimate the total cost and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to motorbike accidents among victims of Kathmandu Valley...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Vicki Shah, Anandu Dileep, Carolyn Dickens, Vicki Groo, Betty Welland, Jerry Field, Matthew Baumann, Jose D Flores, Adhir Shroff, Zhongsheng Zhao, Yingwei Yao, Diana J Wilkie, Andrew D Boyd
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study's objective was to evaluate a patient-centered educational electronic tablet application, "My Interventional Drug-Eluting Stent Educational App" (MyIDEA) to see if there was an increase in patient knowledge about dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and medication possession ratio (MPR) compared to treatment as usual. METHODS: In a pilot project, 24 elderly (≥50 years old) research participants were recruited after a drug-eluting stent...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Lily O'Donoughue Jenkins, Paul M Kelly, Nicolas Cherbuin, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: Currently, little is known about the types of evidence used by policy makers. This study aimed to investigate how policy makers in the health domain use and evaluate evidence and how this differs from academic epidemiologists. By having a better understanding of how policy makers select, evaluate, and use evidence, academics can tailor the way in which that evidence is produced, potentially leading to more effective knowledge translation. METHODS: An exploratory mixed-methods study design was used...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Mindy Renfro, Donna B Bainbridge, Matthew Lee Smith
INTRODUCTION: Evidence-based fall prevention (EBFP) programs significantly decrease fall risk, falls, and fall-related injuries in community-dwelling older adults. To date, EBFP programs are only validated for use among people with normal cognition and, therefore, are not evidence-based for adults with intellectual and/or developmental disorders (IDD) such as Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, cerebral vascular accident, or traumatic brain injury. BACKGROUND: Adults with IDD experience not only a higher rate of falls than their community-dwelling, cognitively intact peers but also higher rates and earlier onset of chronic diseases, also known to increase fall risk...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Elizabeth A Phelan, Julia Herbert, Carol Fahrenbruch, Benjamin A Stubbs, Hendrika Meischke
Falls account for a substantial portion of 9-1-1 calls, but few studies have examined the potential for an emergency medical system role in fall prevention. We tested the feasibility and effectiveness of an emergency medical technician (EMT)-delivered, at-scene intervention to link elders calling 9-1-1 for a fall with a multifactorial fall prevention program in their community. The intervention was conducted in a single fire department in King County, Washington and consisted of a brief public health message about the preventability of falls and written fall prevention program information left at scene...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Richard P Mann, Faisal Mushtaq, Alan D White, Gabriel Mata-Cervantes, Tom Pike, Dalton Coker, Stuart Murdoch, Tim Hiles, Clare Smith, David Berridge, Suzanne Hinchliffe, Geoff Hall, Stephen Smye, Richard M Wilkie, J Peter A Lodge, Mark Mon-Williams
Big datasets have the potential to revolutionize public health. However, there is a mismatch between the political and scientific optimism surrounding big data and the public's perception of its benefit. We suggest a systematic and concerted emphasis on developing models derived from smaller datasets to illustrate to the public how big data can produce tangible benefits in the long term. In order to highlight the immediate value of a small data approach, we produced a proof-of-concept model predicting hospital length of stay...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
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