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Frontiers in Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230388/blood-body-fluid-exposure-and-needle-stick-sharp-injury-among-nurses-working-in-public-hospitals-southwest-ethiopia
#1
Yeshitila Belay Belachew, Tefera Belachew Lema, Gugssa Nemera Germossa, Yohannes Mehretie Adinew
Background: Every health professional around the world is at risk of blood/body fluid exposure and needle stick/sharp injury as a result of exposure to blood or body fluids and needle or sharp injuries. However, the extent of these hazards and their driving forces are not well documented in Ethiopia. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess determinants of blood/body fluid exposure and needle stick/sharp injury among nurses working in Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based census was conducted among 318 nurses working in Jimma zone public hospitals from March 10 to 30, 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226121/facts-and-fallacies-in-the-debate-on-glyphosate-toxicity
#2
Robin Mesnage, Michael N Antoniou
The safety profile of the herbicide glyphosate and its commercial formulations is controversial. Reviews have been published by individuals who are consultants and employees of companies commercializing glyphosate-based herbicides in support of glyphosate's reapproval by regulatory agencies. These authors conclude that glyphosate is safe at levels below regulatory permissible limits. In contrast, reviews conducted by academic scientists independent of industry report toxic effects below regulatory limits, as well as shortcomings of the current regulatory evaluation of risks associated with glyphosate exposures...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226120/teaching-undergraduate-students-to-visualize-and-communicate-public-health-data-with-infographics
#3
Justin D Shanks, Betty Izumi, Christina Sun, Allea Martin, Carmen Byker Shanks
The purpose of this study was to explore the degree to which an infographic assignment facilitated student learning around health science issues, as well as the ways in which the assignment was an effective teaching tool. The objectives of the assignment were to (1) understand the purposes of and potential uses for infographics, (2) cultivate creative visual communication skills, and (3) disseminate a complex health topic to diverse audiences. The infographic assignment was developed at Montana State University and piloted at Portland State University...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226119/substitution-of-formal-and-informal-home-care-service-use-and-nursing-home-service-use-health-outcomes-decision-making-preferences-and-implications-for-a-public-health-policy
#4
Chia-Ching Chen, Tetsuji Yamada, Taeko Nakashima, I-Ming Chiu
Objectives: The purposes of this study are: (1) to empirically identify decision-making preferences of long-term health-care use, especially informal and formal home care (FHC) service use; (2) to evaluate outcomes vs. costs based on substitutability of informal and FHC service use; and (3) to investigate health outcome disparity based on substitutability. Methodology and data: The methods of ordinary least squares, a logit model, and a bivariate probit model are used by controlling for socioeconomic, demographic, and physical/mental health factors to investigate outcomes and costs based substitutability of informal and formal health-care use...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218306/adolescents-responses-to-a-school-based-prevention-program-promoting-healthy-eating-at-school
#5
Roel C J Hermans, Hanneke de Bruin, Junilla K Larsen, Fréderike Mensink, Annet C Hoek
Background: To improve the effectiveness of school-based programs that aim to promote adolescents' healthy food choices, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. This study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents' food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a specific school-based prevention program, i.e., the Dutch "Healthy School Canteen Program." Methods: This study used a mixed-methods research design...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218305/editorial-continuous-quality-improvement-cqi-advancing-understanding-of-design-application-impact-and-evaluation-of-cqi-approaches
#6
EDITORIAL
Ross Bailie, Jodie Bailie, Sarah Larkins, Edward Broughton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218304/from-invention-to-innovation-risk-analysis-to-integrate-one-health-technology-in-the-dairy-farm
#7
Andrea Lombardo, Carlo Boselli, Simonetta Amatiste, Simone Ninci, Chiara Frazzoli, Roberto Dragone, Alberto De Rossi, Gerardo Grasso, Alberto Mantovani, Giovanni Brajon
Current Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) approaches mainly fit for food industry, while their application in primary food production is still rudimentary. The European food safety framework calls for science-based support to the primary producers' mandate for legal, scientific, and ethical responsibility in food supply. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary project ALERT pivots on the development of the technological invention (BEST platform) and application of its measurable (bio)markers-as well as scientific advances in risk analysis-at strategic points of the milk chain for time and cost-effective early identification of unwanted and/or unexpected events of both microbiological and toxicological nature...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218303/dynamic-regimes-of-el-ni%C3%A3-o-southern-oscillation-and-influenza-pandemic-timing
#8
Olusegun Steven Ayodele Oluwole
El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) dynamics has been shown to drive seasonal influenza dynamics. Severe seasonal influenza epidemics and the 2009-2010 pandemic were coincident with chaotic regime of ENSO dynamics. ENSO dynamics from 1876 to 2016 were characterized to determine if influenza pandemics are coupled to chaotic regimes. Time-varying spectra of southern oscillation index (SOI) and sea surface temperature (SST) were compared. SOI and SST were decomposed to components using the algorithm of noise-assisted multivariate empirical mode decomposition...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214151/association-between-depression-and-factors-affecting-career-choice-among-jordanian-nursing-students
#9
Said Yousef, Mariam Athamneh, Emad Masuadi, Haitham Ahmad, Tom Loney, Hamdy F Moselhy, Fatma Al-Maskari, Iffat ElBarazi
Background: Although stress reaction is high among nursing staff and nursing students in the Middle East and its effect on life is known, there are scant studies reporting on these clinical and social features. In addition, there are no studies reporting on factors that influence career choice among this group. Aim: This study aimed to investigate factors that influence career choice among nursing students and their possible association with depressive symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214150/the-physiocam-a-novel-non-contact-sensor-to-measure-heart-rate-variability-in-clinical-and-field-applications
#10
Maria I Davila, Gregory F Lewis, Stephen W Porges
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable indicator of health status and a sensitive index of autonomic stress reactivity. Stress negatively affects physical and psychological wellness by decreasing cardiovascular health and reducing quality of life. Wearable sensors have made it possible to track HRV during daily activity, and recent advances in mobile technology have reduced the cost and difficulty of applying this powerful technique. Although advances have made sensors smaller and lighter, some burden on the subject remains...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214149/measurements-of-radiofrequency-radiation-with-a-body-borne-exposimeter-in-swedish-schools-with-wi-fi
#11
Lena K Hedendahl, Michael Carlberg, Tarmo Koppel, Lennart Hardell
Introduction: Wireless access to the Internet is now commonly used in schools. Many schools give each student their own laptop and utilize the laptops and wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) connection for educational purposes. Most children also bring their own mobile phones to school. Since children are obliged by law to attend school, a safe environment is important. Lately, it has been discussed if radiofrequency (RF) radiation can have long-term adverse effects on children's health. Method: This study conducted exposimetric measurements in schools to assess RF emissions in the classroom by measuring the teachers' RF exposure in order to approximate the children's exposure...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209605/the-effect-of-cigarette-smoking-during-pregnancy-on-endocrine-pancreatic-function-and-fetal-growth-a-pilot-study
#12
Fatima Lockhart, Anthony Liu, Bernard Linton Champion, Michael John Peek, Ralph Kay Heinrich Nanan, Alison Sally Poulton
Introduction: Cigarette smoking in pregnancy is a common cause of fetal growth restriction. We aimed to investigate endocrine pancreatic function of mother-infant dyads in relation to cigarette smoking, as a possible mechanism for the poor fetal growth. Methods: Prospective study of smoking mothers (10 cigarettes or more per day, self-reported to the midwife) and non-smoker control mothers during their first pregnancy. Insulin, glucose, C-peptide, HbA1C, fructosamine, prolactin, serotonin, and cortisol were measured in maternal blood at 24-26 weeks and in umbilical cord blood at birth...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209604/development-of-all-india-institute-of-medical-sciences-modified-international-clinical-epidemiology-network-diagnostic-instrument-for-neuromotor-impairments-in-children-aged-1%C3%A2-month-to-18%C3%A2-years
#13
Sheffali Gulati, Harsh Patel, Biswaroop Chakrabarty, Rachana Dubey, N K Arora, R M Pandey, Vinod K Paul, Konanki Ramesh, Vyshakh Anand, Ankit Meena
Introduction: There is shortage of specialists for the diagnosis of children with neuromotor impairments (NMIs), especially in resource limited settings. Existing International Clinical Epidemiology Network (INCLEN) instrument for diagnosing NMI have been validated for children aged 2-9 years. The current study modified the same including wider symptomatology and age group (1 month to 18 years). Methods: The Modified INCLEN diagnostic tool (INDT) was developed by a team of experts by modifying the existing tool to widen the age range (1 month to 18 years) and include broader symptomatology (inclusion of milestones from the first 2 years of life and better elucidation of cerebellar and extrapyramidal features) in a tertiary care teaching hospital of North India between January and April 2015...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209603/sensitivity-specificity-and-predictive-values-foundations-pliabilities-and-pitfalls-in-research-and-practice
#14
Robert Trevethan
Within the context of screening tests, it is important to avoid misconceptions about sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. In this article, therefore, foundations are first established concerning these metrics along with the first of several aspects of pliability that should be recognized in relation to those metrics. Clarification is then provided about the definitions of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values and why researchers and clinicians can misunderstand and misrepresent them. Arguments are made that sensitivity and specificity should usually be applied only in the context of describing a screening test's attributes relative to a reference standard; that predictive values are more appropriate and informative in actual screening contexts, but that sensitivity and specificity can be used for screening decisions about individual people if they are extremely high; that predictive values need not always be high and might be used to advantage by adjusting the sensitivity and specificity of screening tests; that, in screening contexts, researchers should provide information about all four metrics and how they were derived; and that, where necessary, consumers of health research should have the skills to interpret those metrics effectively for maximum benefit to clients and the healthcare system...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209602/economic-evaluation-and-budget-impact-analysis-of-vaccination-against-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-infection-in-thailand
#15
Surachai Kotirum, Charung Muangchana, Sirirat Techathawat, Piyameth Dilokthornsakul, David Bin-Chia Wu, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
Current study aimed to estimate clinical and economic outcomes of providing the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination as a national vaccine immunization program in Thailand. A decision tree combined with Markov model was developed to simulate relevant costs and health outcomes covering lifetime horizon in societal and health care payer perspectives. This analysis considered children aged under 5 years old whom preventive vaccine of Hib infection are indicated. Two combined Hib vaccination schedules were considered: three-dose series (3 + 0) and three-dose series plus a booster does (3 + 1) compared with no vaccination...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209601/information-quality-challenges-of-patient-generated-data-in-clinical-practice
#16
Peter West, Max Van Kleek, Richard Giordano, Mark Weal, Nigel Shadbolt
A characteristic trend of digital health has been the dramatic increase in patient-generated data being presented to clinicians, which follows from the increased ubiquity of self-tracking practices by individuals, driven, in turn, by the proliferation of self-tracking tools and technologies. Such tools not only make self-tracking easier but also potentially more reliable by automating data collection, curation, and storage. While self-tracking practices themselves have been studied extensively in human-computer interaction literature, little work has yet looked at whether these patient-generated data might be able to support clinical processes, such as providing evidence for diagnoses, treatment monitoring, or postprocedure recovery, and how we can define information quality with respect to self-tracked data...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204421/weight-related-barriers-for-overweight-students-in-an-elementary-physical-education-classroom-an-exploratory-case-study-with-one-physical-education-teacher
#17
Mary Odum, Corliss W Outley, E Lisako J McKyer, Christine A Tisone, Sharon L McWhinney
Introduction: As physical performance may be more difficult for overweight children than for their non-overweight peers, understanding how weight impacts student performance in the physical education (P.E.) classroom could inform school-based obesity prevention programming. Materials and methods: This qualitative case study examined one elementary physical educator's perspectives of overweight students' weight-related experiences in her classroom. Narratives were elicited during an in-depth interview and analyzed using structural and thematic analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204420/editorial-international-perspectives-on-health-and-safety-among-dairy-workers-challenges-solutions-and-the-future
#18
EDITORIAL
Martina Carola Jakob, John Rosecrance
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201865/an-inexpensive-high-temporal-resolution-electronic-sun-journal-for-monitoring-personal-day-to-day-sun-exposure-patterns
#19
Nathan J Downs, Alfio V Parisi, Harry Butler, Alex Rawlings, Raja Salem Elrahoumi
Exposure to natural sunlight, specifically solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation contributes to lifetime risks of skin cancer, eye disease, and diseases associated with vitamin D insufficiency. Improved knowledge of personal sun exposure patterns can inform public health policy; and help target high-risk population groups. Subsequently, an extensive number of studies have been conducted to measure personal solar UV exposure in a variety of settings. Many of these studies, however, use digital or paper-based journals (self-reported volunteer recall), or employ cost prohibitive electronic UV dosimeters (that limit the size of sample populations), to estimate periods of exposure...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201864/a-review-of-the-mycotoxin-enniatin-b
#20
REVIEW
Alessandra Prosperini, Houda Berrada, María José Ruiz, Francesca Caloni, Teresa Coccini, Leon J Spicer, Maria Chiara Perego, Alessandra Lafranconi
Mycotoxin enniatin B (ENN B) is a secondary metabolism product by Fusarium fungi. It is a well-known antibacterial, antihelmintic, antifungal, herbicidal, and insecticidal compound. It has been found as a contaminant in several food commodities, particularly in cereal grains, co-occurring also with other mycotoxins. The primary mechanism of action of ENN B is mainly due to its ionophoric characteristics, but the exact mechanism is still unclear. In the last two decades, it has been a topic of great interest since its potent mammalian cytotoxic activity was demonstrated in several mammalian cell lines...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
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