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Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science

Lorra Garey, Samantha G Farris, Norman B Schmidt, Michael J Zvolensky
Despite the clinically-significant association between perceived stress and smoking, there is little understanding of the mechanisms underlying this relation. The present study examined smoking-specific experiential avoidance as an explanatory mechanism linking perceived stress and smoking, including nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to cessation, and problems reported during past quit attempts among treatment-seeking daily smokers (n = 365; 48.5% female; Mage = 38.02; SD = 13.10). Results indicated that smoking-specific experiential avoidance had a significant, indirect effect on perceived stress and the studied smoking criterion variables...
January 2016: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science
E C Martin, N Galloway-Williams, M G Cox, R A Winett
OBJECTIVE: Vigorous physical activity (PA) has been promoted for improving cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). However, therapeutic techniques designed to engage participants in vigorous PA have fallen short; one reason for this may be the unpleasant physical sensations associated with vigorous exercise (e.g., temporary shortness of breath and mild muscle soreness). Mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may be helpful at improving adherence to vigorous PA levels...
October 2015: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science
Joseph R Bardeen, Matthew T Tull, Erin N Stevens, Kim L Gratz
Anxiety sensitivity (AS) and the tendency to avoid emotions have both been identified as vulnerability factors for the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Furthermore, both cross-sectional and prospective research have provided evidence that emotional avoidance and AS interact to predict anxiety symptoms, such that AS may only be associated with anxiety-related pathology among those who exhibit a tendency to avoid their emotions. The purpose of the present study was to determine if this moderator model extends to PTSD within a sample of substance dependent patients...
July 2015: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science
Anthony Biglan, Yvonne Barnes-Holmes
Despite extensive knowledge of how to prevent or ameliorate serious diseases, natural disasters, environmental degradation, and a wide range of other problems, we often fail to take action that that would prevent or mitigate these problematic outcomes. In short, although we may have sound scientific knowledge about threats to future wellbeing, we appear to have limited insight into how to benefit from this knowledge. With this paper, we argue that our current scientific understanding of how to act in light of the future is limited, but we offer a theoretical analysis of future-oriented behavior at both individual and organizational levels...
July 1, 2015: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science
James E Yadavaia, Steven C Hayes, Roger Vilardaga
Self-compassion has been shown to be related to several types of psychopathology, including traumatic stress, and has been shown to improve in response to various kinds of interventions. Current conceptualizations of self-compassion fit well with the psychological flexibility model, which underlies acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). However, there has been no research on ACT interventions specifically aimed at self-compassion. This randomized trial therefore compared a 6-hour ACT-based workshop targeting self-compassion to a wait-list control...
October 1, 2014: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science
Walter R Roth, Roger Vilardaga, Nathanael Wolfe, Jonathan B Bricker, Michael G McDonell
The fast adoption of smartphone applications (apps) by behavioral scientists pose a new host of opportunities as well as knowledge and interdisciplinary challenges. Therefore, this brief report will discuss the lessons we have learned during the development and testing of smartphone apps for behavior change, and provide the reader with guidance and recommendations about this design and development process. We hope that the guidance and perspectives presented in this brief report will empower behavioral scientists to test the efficacy of smartphone apps for behavior change, further advance the contextual behavioral etiology of behavioral disorders and help move the field towards personalized behavior change technologies...
October 1, 2014: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science
Michael J Bordieri, Matthew T Tull, Michael J McDermott, Kim L Gratz
The relationship between cannabis use and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received increased scientific scrutiny in recent years. Consistent with this research, studies provide evidence that many individuals with PTSD use cannabis to reduce negative affect and other unpleasant internal experiences associated with PTSD. However, no research to date has explored factors that may be associated with an increased likelihood of cannabis misuse among individuals with PTSD. Consequently, this study explored the moderating role of experiential avoidance (EA; defined as the tendency to engage in strategies to reduce unpleasant private experiences) in the PTSD-cannabis dependence relationship among a sample of 123 Criterion A trauma-exposed patients in residential substance abuse treatment...
October 1, 2014: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science
Lucas P K Morgan, Jessica R Graham, Sarah A Hayes-Skelton, Susan M Orsillo, Lizabeth Roemer
Because most behavioral treatments are time-limited, skills and practices that foster long-term maintenance of gains made during treatment are of critical importance. While some studies have found mindfulness practice to be associated with improvements in outcome variables over the course of treatment (Vettese et al., 2009), very little is known about the effects of continued mindfulness practice following treatment termination. The current study examined the relationships between separate single item measurements of three types of mindfulness practices (formal, informal, and mindfulness of breath in daily life) and longer-term outcomes in worry, clinician-rated anxiety severity, and quality of life following treatment with an acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in two separate treatment studies...
July 1, 2014: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science
Sabrina M Darrow, William C Follette
Alexithymia is a term used to describe individuals who seem unable to experience or at least describe emotions. This paper offers a theoretical interpretation of alexithymia from a radical behaviorist perspective. While there have been attempts to explain the etiology of alexithymia, the current analysis is unique in that it provides direct treatment implications. The pragmatic analysis described focuses on the verbal behavior of individuals rather than looking "inside" for explanations. This is supported by a review of experimental research that has failed to find consistencies among alexithymic individuals' physiological responding...
April 2014: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science
Sabrina M Darrow, Glenn C Callaghan, Jordan T Bonow, William C Follette
The evidence based assessment (EBA) movement stresses the importance of psychological measures with strong psychometric properties and clinical utility. The Functional Idiographic Assessment Template system (FIAT; Callaghan, 2006) is a functional analytic behavioral approach to the assessment of interpersonal functioning for use with therapies like Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP; Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1991). While research has begun to demonstrate the clinical utility of the FIAT, its psychometric properties have not been explored...
April 1, 2014: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science
Ryan C Shorey, JoAnna Elmquist, Heather Zucosky, Jeniimarie Febres, Hope Brasfield, Gregory L Stuart
Dating violence among college students represents a prevalent and serious problem. An abundance of research has examined risk and protective factors for dating violence, although only recently has research begun to focus on risk and protective factors that could be amenable to change in intervention programs. One potential risk factor for dating violence may be experiential avoidance. Using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire - II (AAQ-II; Bond et al., 2011), we examined whether experiential avoidance was associated with male perpetrated dating violence after controlling for age, relationship satisfaction, and alcohol use...
April 1, 2014: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science
Roger Vilardaga, Jonathan Bricker, Michael McDonell
Mobile technologies are growing rapidly around the world to broad demographics of society. These technologies hold great promise for their integration with Single Case Designs (SCDs) and the study of individuals in their natural environment. This paper discusses the theoretical, methodological and analytic implications of these tools for the advancement of the contextual behavioral etiology of behavioral disorders, and their remediation. We hope this paper will highlight the scientific advantages of combining mobile technologies and SCDs and encourage their adoption among CBS scientists...
April 1, 2014: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science
Michael E Levin, Jason B Luoma, Jason Lillis, Steven C Hayes, Roger Vilardaga
The current study sought to develop and test the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire - Stigma (AAQ-S), a measure of psychological flexibility with stigmatizing thoughts. A sample of 604 undergraduate students completed an online survey, which included an initial pool of 43 AAQ-S items as well as measures related to psychological flexibility and stigma. Expert judge ratings and factor analysis were used to identify and refine two distinct subscales; psychological flexibility and psychological inflexibility relating to stigmatizing thoughts...
January 2014: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science
Jason Lillis, Kathleen E Kendra
Behavioral weight loss programs achieve substantial short-term weight loss; however attrition and poor weight loss maintenance remain significant problems. Recently, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been used in an attempt to improve long-term outcomes. This conceptual article outlines the standard behavioral and ACT approach to weight control, discusses potential benefits and obstacles to combing approaches, briefly reviews current ACT for weight control outcome research, and highlights significant empirical questions that remain...
January 2014: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science
Anthony Biglan, Dennis D Embry
We present a framework for a pragmatic science of cultural evolution. It is now possible for behavioral science to systematically influence the further evolution of cultural practices. As this science develops, it may become possible to prevent many of the problems affecting human wellbeing. By cultural practices, we refer to everything that humans do, above and beyond instinctual or unconditioned behaviors: not only art and literature, but also agriculture, manufacturing, recreation, war making, childrearing, science-everything...
October 15, 2013: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science
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