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Science and Technology of Advanced Materials

Nipa Debnath, Takahiko Kawaguchi, Harinarayan Das, Shogo Suzuki, Wataru Kumasaka, Naonori Sakamoto, Kazuo Shinozaki, Hisao Suzuki, Naoki Wakiya
In this study, we report about the occurrence of phase separation through spinodal decomposition (SD) in spinel manganese ferrite (Mn ferrite) thin films grown by Dynamic Aurora pulsed laser deposition. The driving force behind this SD in Mn ferrite films is considered to be an ion-impingement-enhanced diffusion that is induced by the application of magnetic field during film growth. The phase separation to Mn-rich and Fe-rich phases in Mn ferrite films is confirmed from the Bragg's peak splitting and the appearance of the patterned checkerboard-like domain in the surface...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Tatsumi Ishihara, Petros Sofronis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Seonwoo Kim, Kuniko Suzuki, Ai Sugie, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Masafumi Yoshida, Yuji Suzuki
Charge trap in amorphous perfluoro-polymer electret is studied, focusing on electron trap site and trap energy. Low-energy inverse photoelectron spectroscopy is adopted to measure solid-state electron affinity (EA) of cyclic transparent optical polymer (CYTOP). EA of CYTOP CTL-S is discovered by compensating the unwanted charge-up effect. Negatively-charged electret materials (polyethylene, ethylene-tetra-fluoro-ethylene, poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene, and CYTOP) are analyzed by quantum mechanical calculation...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Ivan Gutierrez-Urrutia, Cheng-Lin Li, Xin Ji, Satoshi Emura, Koichi Tsuchiya
We have performed quantitative analysis of {332}〈113〉 twinning in a β-Ti-15Mo (wt.%) alloy by in situ scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). Microstructure-twinning relations were evaluated by statistical analysis of the evolving twin structure upon deformation at room temperature. Our analysis reveals that at the early stages of deformation ( ε < 1.5 to 2.0%), primary twinning is mainly determined by the applied macroscopic stress resolved on the twin system. Most of the primary twins (~70-80% of the analyzed twins) follow Schmid's law with respect to the macroscopic stress, and most of the growth twins (~ 85% of the analyzed twins) correspond to the higher stressed variant...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Ester M Palmero, Javier Rial, Javier de Vicente, Julio Camarero, Björn Skårman, Hilmar Vidarsson, Per-Olof Larsson, Alberto Bollero
Searching for high-performance permanent magnets components with no limitation in shape and dimensions is highly desired to overcome the present design and manufacturing restrictions, which affect the efficiency of the final devices in energy, automotive and aerospace sectors. Advanced 3D-printing of composite materials and related technologies is an incipient route to achieve functional structures avoiding the limitations of traditional manufacturing. Gas-atomized MnAlC particles combined with polymer have been used in this work for fabricating scalable rare earth-free permanent magnet composites and extruded flexible filaments with continuous length exceeding 10 m...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Alfonso Sepúlveda, Jan Speulmanns, Philippe M Vereecken
The growing demand of flexible electronic devices is increasing the requirements of their power sources. The effect of bending in thin-film batteries is still not well understood. Here, we successfully developed a high active area flexible all-solid-state battery as a model system that consists of thin-film layers of Li4 Ti5 O12 , LiPON, and Lithium deposited on a novel flexible ceramic substrate. A systematic study on the bending state and performance of the battery is presented. The battery withstands bending radii of at least 14 mm achieving 70% of the theoretical capacity...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Tianzhuo Zhan, Ryo Yamato, Shuichiro Hashimoto, Motohiro Tomita, Shunsuke Oba, Yuya Himeda, Kohei Mesaki, Hiroki Takezawa, Ryo Yokogawa, Yibin Xu, Takashi Matsukawa, Atsushi Ogura, Yoshinari Kamakura, Takanobu Watanabe
For harvesting energy from waste heat, the power generation densities and fabrication costs of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are considered more important than their conversion efficiency because waste heat energy is essentially obtained free of charge. In this study, we propose a miniaturized planar Si-nanowire micro-thermoelectric generator (SiNW-μTEG) architecture, which could be simply fabricated using the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible process. Compared with the conventional nanowire μTEGs, this SiNW-μTEG features the use of an exuded thermal field for power generation...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Qi Zhang, Feng Hao, Jianbao Li, Yangying Zhou, Yaxuan Wei, Hong Lin
Perovskite solar cells have recently drawn significant attention for photovoltaic applications with a certified power conversion efficiency of more than 22%. Unfortunately, the toxicity of the dissolvable lead content in these materials presents a critical concern for future commercial development. This review outlines some criteria for the possible replacement of lead by less toxic elements, and highlights current research progress in the application of low-lead halide perovskites as optically active materials in solar cells...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Hui Zhang, Johann Toudert
In a few years only, solar cells using hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites as optical absorber have reached record photovoltaic energy conversion efficiencies above 20%. To reach and overcome such values, it is required to tailor both the electrical and optical properties of the device. For a given efficient device, optical optimization overtakes electrical one. Here, we provide a synthetic review of recent works reporting or proposing so-called optical management approaches for improving the efficiency of perovskite solar cells, including the use of anti-reflection coatings at the front substrate surface, the design of optical cavities integrated within the device, the incorporation of plasmonic or dielectric nanostructures into the different layers of the device and the structuration of its internal interfaces...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Romain Carron, Enrico Avancini, Thomas Feurer, Benjamin Bissig, Paolo A Losio, Renato Figi, Claudia Schreiner, Melanie Bürki, Emilie Bourgeois, Zdenek Remes, Milos Nesladek, Stephan Buecheler, Ayodhya N Tiwari
Cu(In,Ga)Se2 based solar cells have reached efficiencies close to 23%. Further knowledge-driven improvements require accurate determination of the material properties. Here, we present refractive indices for all layers in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with high efficiency. The optical bandgap of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 does not depend on the Cu content in the explored composition range, while the absorption coefficient value is primarily determined by the Cu content. An expression for the absorption spectrum is proposed, with Ga and Cu compositions as parameters...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Chaolin Tan, Kesong Zhou, Wenyou Ma, Bonnie Attard, Panpan Zhang, Tongchun Kuang
Selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing of pure tungsten encounters nearly all intractable difficulties of SLM metals fields due to its intrinsic properties. The key factors, including powder characteristics, layer thickness, and laser parameters of SLM high density tungsten are elucidated and discussed in detail. The main parameters were designed from theoretical calculations prior to the SLM process and experimentally optimized. Pure tungsten products with a density of 19.01 g/cm3 (98.50% theoretical density) were produced using SLM with the optimized processing parameters...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Samy Almosni, Amaury Delamarre, Zacharie Jehl, Daniel Suchet, Ludmila Cojocaru, Maxime Giteau, Benoit Behaghel, Anatole Julian, Camille Ibrahim, Léa Tatry, Haibin Wang, Takaya Kubo, Satoshi Uchida, Hiroshi Segawa, Naoya Miyashita, Ryo Tamaki, Yasushi Shoji, Katsuhisa Yoshida, Nazmul Ahsan, Kentaro Watanabe, Tomoyuki Inoue, Masakazu Sugiyama, Yoshiaki Nakano, Tomofumi Hamamura, Thierry Toupance, Céline Olivier, Sylvain Chambon, Laurence Vignau, Camille Geffroy, Eric Cloutet, Georges Hadziioannou, Nicolas Cavassilas, Pierre Rale, Andrea Cattoni, Stéphane Collin, François Gibelli, Myriam Paire, Laurent Lombez, Damien Aureau, Muriel Bouttemy, Arnaud Etcheberry, Yoshitaka Okada, Jean-François Guillemoles
Photovoltaic generation has stepped up within the last decade from outsider status to one of the important contributors of the ongoing energy transition, with about 1.7% of world electricity provided by solar cells. Progress in materials and production processes has played an important part in this development. Yet, there are many challenges before photovoltaics could provide clean, abundant, and cheap energy. Here, we review this research direction, with a focus on the results obtained within a Japan-French cooperation program, NextPV, working on promising solar cell technologies...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Yu-Kyoung Kim, Kwang-Bok Lee, Seo-Young Kim, Ken Bode, Yong-Seok Jang, Tae-Young Kwon, Moo Heon Jeon, Min-Ho Lee
Magnesium alloys are biodegradable metals receiving increasing attention, but the clinical applications of these materials are delayed by concerns over the rapid corrosion rate and gas formation. Unlike corrosion, which weakens mechanical properties, the gas formation issue has received little attention. Therefore, we evaluated the gas formation and biological effects for Mg implants through preclinical (immersed in Earle's balanced salt solution and in vivo ) and clinical studies. The immersion test examined the gas volume and composition...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Chikako Sano, Hiroyuki Mitsuya, Shimpei Ono, Kazumoto Miwa, Hiroshi Toshiyoshi, Hiroyuki Fujita
A novel triboelectric energy harvester has been developed using an ionic liquid polymer with cations fixed at the surface. In this report, the fabrication of the device and the characterization of its energy harvesting performance are detailed. An electrical double layer was induced in the ionic liquid polymer precursor to attract the cations to the surface where they are immobilized using a UV-based crosslinking reaction. The finalized polymer is capable of generating an electrical current when contacted by a metal electrode...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Martin Neukom, Simon Züfle, Sandra Jenatsch, Beat Ruhstaller
We present an overview of opto-electronic characterization techniques for solar cells including light-induced charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage, impedance spectroscopy, transient photovoltage, charge extraction and more. Guidelines for the interpretation of experimental results are derived based on charge drift-diffusion simulations of solar cells with common performance limitations. It is investigated how nonidealities like charge injection barriers, traps and low mobilities among others manifest themselves in each of the studied cell characterization techniques...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Katsuya Iwaya, Takeo Ohsawa, Ryota Shimizu, Yoshinori Okada, Taro Hitosugi
The interfaces of complex oxide heterostructures exhibit intriguing phenomena not observed in their constituent materials. The oxide thin-film growth of such heterostructures has been successfully controlled with unit-cell precision; however, atomic-scale understandings of oxide thin-film surfaces and interfaces have remained insufficient. We examined, with atomic precision, the surface and electronic structures of oxide thin films and their growth processes using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Qingqing Sun, Koki Kanehira, Akiyoshi Taniguchi
Nanoparticles (NPs) elicit various physiological responses in cellular environment, and the effect of NPs on cell migration is of high interest. In this work, the effects of NPs on cell migration and their possible mechanisms were studied. Here, we showed that after exposure to pegylated titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -PEG NPs, where PEG stands for the polyethylene glycol), NCI-H292 cells exhibited slower migration than control cells. Furthermore, larger NPs inhibited cell migration much stronger than smaller NPs...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Thomas Feurer, Benjamin Bissig, Thomas P Weiss, Romain Carron, Enrico Avancini, Johannes Löckinger, Stephan Buecheler, Ayodhya N Tiwari
Multi-junction solar cells show the highest photovoltaic energy conversion efficiencies, but the current technologies based on wafers and epitaxial growth of multiple layers are very costly. Therefore, there is a high interest in realizing multi-junction tandem devices based on cost-effective thin film technologies. While the efficiency of such devices has been limited so far because of the rather low efficiency of semitransparent wide bandgap top cells, the recent rise of wide bandgap perovskite solar cells has inspired the development of new thin film tandem solar devices...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Jahan Zeb Gul, Memoon Sajid, Muhammad Muqeet Rehman, Ghayas Uddin Siddiqui, Imran Shah, Kyung-Hwan Kim, Jae-Wook Lee, Kyung Hyun Choi
Soft robots have received an increasing attention due to their advantages of high flexibility and safety for human operators but the fabrication is a challenge. Recently, 3D printing has been used as a key technology to fabricate soft robots because of high quality and printing multiple materials at the same time. Functional soft materials are particularly well suited for soft robotics due to a wide range of stimulants and sensitive demonstration of large deformations, high motion complexities and varied multi-functionalities...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Randy Jalem, Masanobu Nakayama, Yusuke Noda, Tam Le, Ichiro Takeuchi, Yoshitaka Tateyama, Hisatsugu Yamazaki
Increasing attention has been paid to materials informatics approaches that promise efficient and fast discovery and optimization of functional inorganic materials. Technical breakthrough is urgently requested to advance this field and efforts have been made in the development of materials descriptors to encode or represent characteristics of crystalline solids, such as chemical composition, crystal structure, electronic structure, etc. We propose a general representation scheme for crystalline solids that lifts restrictions on atom ordering, cell periodicity, and system cell size based on structural descriptors of directly binned Voronoi-tessellation real feature values and atomic/chemical descriptors based on the electronegativity of elements in the crystal...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
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