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Science and Technology of Advanced Materials

Gao Yang, Lihua Li, Wing Bun Lee, Man Cheung Ng
Monolayer graphene exhibits extraordinary properties owing to the unique, regular arrangement of atoms in it. However, graphene is usually modified for specific applications, which introduces disorder. This article presents details of graphene structure, including sp2 hybridization, critical parameters of the unit cell, formation of σ and π bonds, electronic band structure, edge orientations, and the number and stacking order of graphene layers. We also discuss topics related to the creation and configuration of disorders in graphene, such as corrugations, topological defects, vacancies, adatoms and sp3 -defects...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Peter J Holliman, Christopher Kershaw, Arthur Connell, Eurig W Jones, Robert Hobbs, Rosie Anthony, Leo Furnell, James McGettrick, Dawn Geatches, Sebastian Metz
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have been the subject of wide-ranging studies for many years because of their potential for large-scale manufacturing using roll-to-roll processing allied to their use of earth abundant raw materials. Two main challenges exist for DSC devices to achieve this goal; uplifting device efficiency from the 12 to 14% currently achieved for laboratory-scale 'hero' cells and replacement of the widely-used liquid electrolytes which can limit device lifetimes. To increase device efficiency requires optimized dye injection and regeneration, most likely from multiple dyes while replacement of liquid electrolytes requires solid charge transporters (most likely hole transport materials - HTMs)...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Ido Gardi, Yael G Mishael
A novel, stimuli-responsive composite, based on poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) brushes, end-grafted to montmorillonite clay (GPC), was designed as a regenerable sorbent for efficient removal of pollutants from water. We characterized the novel composite sorbent and its response to pH, employing Fourier transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis and zeta potential measurements. In comparison with conventional, electrostatically adsorbed PVP composites (APC), the GPC presented superior characteristics: higher polymer loading without polymer release, higher zeta potential and lower pH/charge dependency...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Yoshiyuki Nonoguchi, Ami Takata, Chigusa Goto, Takuya Kitano, Tsuyoshi Kawai
The effects of polymer structures on the thermoelectric properties of polymer-wrapped semiconducting carbon nanotubes have yet to be clarified for elucidating intrinsic transport properties. We systematically investigate thickness dependence of thermoelectric transport in thin films containing networks of conjugated polymer-wrapped semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Well-controlled doping experiments suggest that the doping homogeneity and then in-plane electrical conductivity significantly depend on film thickness and polymer species...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Meng Jin, Rao Fu, Changmei Sun, Rongjun Qu, Chunnuan Ji, Ying Zhang, Ying Wang
A series of bridged polysilsesquioxane (BPS) materials was synthesized by the sol-gel method from 3-chloropropyl trimethoxysilane, diethylenetriamine (DETA) or ethylenediamine. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and/or one of the two templates, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) or P123, were used in the co-condensation process to construct some of the porous adsorbents. The adsorption of Au(III) was the highest for samples without TEOS, especially for the DETA series with CTAB template. This study elucidates the synthesis and applications of BPS materials...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Andrei Ionut Mardare, Cezarina Cela Mardare, Jan Philipp Kollender, Silvia Huber, Achim Walter Hassel
A thin film combinatorial library deposited by co-sputtering of Hf, Nb and Ta was employed to characterise fundamental properties of the Hf-Nb-Ta system. Compositional mappings of microstructure and crystallography revealed similarities in alloy evolution. Distinct lattice distortion was observed upon addition of hexagonal Hf, leading to amorphisation of alloys containing more than 32 at.% Hf and less than 27 and 41 at.% Nb and Ta, respectively. Volta potential and open circuit potential mappings indicated minimal values for the highest Hf concentration...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Kiyoshi Kanie, Moe Sakaguchi, Fumiya Muto, Mami Horie, Masafumi Nakaya, Toshiyuki Yokoi, Atsushi Muramatsu
Substitution of Al atoms in a zeolite framework by catalytic metal atoms has attracted considerable attention because the catalytic behavior can be tuned by the substituted atoms. In the present study, Sn-substituted MFI-type silicates were synthesized using a hydrothermal reaction of an amorphous Si-O-Sn precursor prepared by mechanochemical grinding of SiO2 and Sn(OH)4 . The mechanochemical treatment was found to be a key technique for obtaining the amorphous Si-O-Sn precursor, where tetrahedral Sn4+ species were incorporated into the amorphous matrix...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Hiroyuki Akinaga, Hiroyuki Fujita, Masaki Mizuguchi, Takao Mori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Go Kawamura, Kazuhiro Ohara, Wai Kian Tan, Taichi Goto, Yuichi Nakamura, Mitsuteru Inoue, Hiroyuki Muto, Kazuhiro Yamaguchi, Aldo R Boccaccini, Atsunori Matsuda
We report a novel and inexpensive fabrication process of multiferroic nanocomposite via liquid phase using an anodic alumina template. The sol-gel spin-coating technique was used to coat the template with ferrimagnetic CoFe2 O4 . By dissolving the template with NaOH aqueous solution, a unique nanotube array structure of CoFe2 O4 was obtained. The CoFe2 O4 nanotube arrays were filled with, and sandwiched in, ferroelectric BaTiO3 layers by a sol-gel spin-coating method to obtain the composite. Its multiferroicity was confirmed by measuring the magnetic and dielectric hysteresis loops...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Alaa Fehaid, Akiyoshi Taniguchi
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely known to have anti-inflammatory properties, but the exact mechanism underlying this anti-inflammatory effect is not clearly understood. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is a major pro-inflammatory cytokine that is expressed in the early stage of cell inflammation and induces apoptosis by several known pathways. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of AgNPs on the response of lung epithelial cells to TNFα and the molecular mechanism of this response. Lung epithelial cell line NCI-H292 cells were exposed to AgNPs (5 µg/mL) and/or TNFα (20 ng/mL) for 24 h, then cellular uptake was analyzed using flow cytometry...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Norifusa Satoh, Masaji Otsuka, Tomoko Ohki, Akihiko Ohi, Yasuaki Sakurai, Yukihiko Yamashita, Takao Mori
To examine the potential of organic thermoelectrics (TEs) for energy harvesting, we fabricated an organic TE module to achieve 250 mV in the open-circuit voltage which is sufficient to drive a commercially available booster circuit designed for energy harvesting usage. We chose the π-type module structure to maintain the temperature differences in organic TE legs, and then optimized the p- and n-type TE materials' properties. After injecting the p- and n-type TE materials into photolithographic mold, we eventually achieved 250 mV in the open-circuit voltage by a method to form the upper electrodes...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Shengyang Fu, Wei Liu, Shiwei Liu, Shichang Zhao, Yufang Zhu
Silicate bioceramic scaffolds are of great interest in bone tissue engineering, but the fabrication of silicate bioceramic scaffolds with complex geometries is still challenging. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) porous β-Ca2 SiO4 scaffolds have been successfully fabricated from preceramic resin loaded with CaCO3 active filler by 3D printing. The fabricated β-Ca2 SiO4 scaffolds had uniform interconnected macropores (ca. 400 μm), high porosity (>78%), enhanced mechanical strength (ca. 5.2 MPa), and excellent apatite mineralization ability...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Nipa Debnath, Takahiko Kawaguchi, Harinarayan Das, Shogo Suzuki, Wataru Kumasaka, Naonori Sakamoto, Kazuo Shinozaki, Hisao Suzuki, Naoki Wakiya
In this study, we report about the occurrence of phase separation through spinodal decomposition (SD) in spinel manganese ferrite (Mn ferrite) thin films grown by Dynamic Aurora pulsed laser deposition. The driving force behind this SD in Mn ferrite films is considered to be an ion-impingement-enhanced diffusion that is induced by the application of magnetic field during film growth. The phase separation to Mn-rich and Fe-rich phases in Mn ferrite films is confirmed from the Bragg's peak splitting and the appearance of the patterned checkerboard-like domain in the surface...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Tatsumi Ishihara, Petros Sofronis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Seonwoo Kim, Kuniko Suzuki, Ai Sugie, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Masafumi Yoshida, Yuji Suzuki
Charge trap in amorphous perfluoro-polymer electret is studied, focusing on electron trap site and trap energy. Low-energy inverse photoelectron spectroscopy is adopted to measure solid-state electron affinity (EA) of cyclic transparent optical polymer (CYTOP). EA of CYTOP CTL-S is discovered by compensating the unwanted charge-up effect. Negatively-charged electret materials (polyethylene, ethylene-tetra-fluoro-ethylene, poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene, and CYTOP) are analyzed by quantum mechanical calculation...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Ivan Gutierrez-Urrutia, Cheng-Lin Li, Xin Ji, Satoshi Emura, Koichi Tsuchiya
We have performed quantitative analysis of {332}〈113〉 twinning in a β-Ti-15Mo (wt.%) alloy by in situ scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). Microstructure-twinning relations were evaluated by statistical analysis of the evolving twin structure upon deformation at room temperature. Our analysis reveals that at the early stages of deformation ( ε < 1.5 to 2.0%), primary twinning is mainly determined by the applied macroscopic stress resolved on the twin system. Most of the primary twins (~70-80% of the analyzed twins) follow Schmid's law with respect to the macroscopic stress, and most of the growth twins (~ 85% of the analyzed twins) correspond to the higher stressed variant...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Ester M Palmero, Javier Rial, Javier de Vicente, Julio Camarero, Björn Skårman, Hilmar Vidarsson, Per-Olof Larsson, Alberto Bollero
Searching for high-performance permanent magnets components with no limitation in shape and dimensions is highly desired to overcome the present design and manufacturing restrictions, which affect the efficiency of the final devices in energy, automotive and aerospace sectors. Advanced 3D-printing of composite materials and related technologies is an incipient route to achieve functional structures avoiding the limitations of traditional manufacturing. Gas-atomized MnAlC particles combined with polymer have been used in this work for fabricating scalable rare earth-free permanent magnet composites and extruded flexible filaments with continuous length exceeding 10 m...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Alfonso Sepúlveda, Jan Speulmanns, Philippe M Vereecken
The growing demand of flexible electronic devices is increasing the requirements of their power sources. The effect of bending in thin-film batteries is still not well understood. Here, we successfully developed a high active area flexible all-solid-state battery as a model system that consists of thin-film layers of Li4 Ti5 O12 , LiPON, and Lithium deposited on a novel flexible ceramic substrate. A systematic study on the bending state and performance of the battery is presented. The battery withstands bending radii of at least 14 mm achieving 70% of the theoretical capacity...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Tianzhuo Zhan, Ryo Yamato, Shuichiro Hashimoto, Motohiro Tomita, Shunsuke Oba, Yuya Himeda, Kohei Mesaki, Hiroki Takezawa, Ryo Yokogawa, Yibin Xu, Takashi Matsukawa, Atsushi Ogura, Yoshinari Kamakura, Takanobu Watanabe
For harvesting energy from waste heat, the power generation densities and fabrication costs of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are considered more important than their conversion efficiency because waste heat energy is essentially obtained free of charge. In this study, we propose a miniaturized planar Si-nanowire micro-thermoelectric generator (SiNW-μTEG) architecture, which could be simply fabricated using the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible process. Compared with the conventional nanowire μTEGs, this SiNW-μTEG features the use of an exuded thermal field for power generation...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Qi Zhang, Feng Hao, Jianbao Li, Yangying Zhou, Yaxuan Wei, Hong Lin
Perovskite solar cells have recently drawn significant attention for photovoltaic applications with a certified power conversion efficiency of more than 22%. Unfortunately, the toxicity of the dissolvable lead content in these materials presents a critical concern for future commercial development. This review outlines some criteria for the possible replacement of lead by less toxic elements, and highlights current research progress in the application of low-lead halide perovskites as optically active materials in solar cells...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
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