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Science and Technology of Advanced Materials

Lei Wang, Jing Wen, Cihui Yang, Bangshu Xiong
Electrical probe memory has received considerable attention during the last decade due to its prospective potential for the future mass storage device. However, the electrical probe device with conventional diamond-like carbon capping and bottom layers encounters with large interfacial contact resistance and difficulty to match the experimentally measured properties, while its analog with titanium nitride capping and bottom layers also faces serious heat dissipation through either probe and silicon substrate...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Ciarán Manus Maguire, Matthias Rösslein, Peter Wick, Adriele Prina-Mello
We present here a perspective detailing the current state-of-the-art technologies for the characterisation of nanoparticles (NPs) in liquid suspension. We detail the technologies involved and assess their applications in the determination of NP size and concentration. We also investigate the parameters that can influence the results and put forward a cause and effect analysis of the principle factors influencing the measurement of NP size and concentration by NP tracking analysis and dynamic light scattering, to identify areas where uncertainties in the measurement can arise...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Martina Lingg, Annina Spescha, Stefan G Haass, Romain Carron, Stephan Buecheler, Ayodhya N Tiwari
The performance improvement of conventional CdTe solar cells is mainly limited by doping concentration and minority carrier life time. Alloying CdTe with an isovalent element changes its properties, for example its band gap and behaviour of dopants, which has a significant impact on its performance as a solar cell absorber. In this work, the structural, optical, and electronic properties of CdTe1-x Sex films are examined for different Se concentrations. The band gap of this compound changes with composition with a minimum of 1...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Mohammed Makha, Philippe Schwaller, Karen Strassel, Surendra B Anantharaman, Frank Nüesch, Roland Hany, Jakob Heier
The efficiency of ternary organic solar cells relies on the spontaneous establishment of a nanostructured network of donor and acceptor phases during film formation. A fundamental understanding of phase composition and arrangement and correlations to photovoltaic device parameters is of utmost relevance for both science and technology. We demonstrate a general approach to understanding solar cell behavior from simple thermodynamic principles. For two ternary blend systems we construct and model phase diagrams...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Takuya Tsukamoto, Yohei Umino, Sachie Shiomi, Kou Yamada, Takaaki Suzuki
This paper proposes a bimorph piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH) with a flexible 3D meshed-core elastic layer for improving the output power while lowering the resonance frequency. Owing to the high void ratio of the 3D meshed-core structure, the bending stiffness of the cantilever can be lowered. Thus, the deflection of the harvester and the strain in the piezoelectric layer increase. According to vibration tests, the resonance frequency is 15.8% lower and the output power is 68% higher than in the conventional solid-core PVEH...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Takeshi Onishi, Takuya Kadohira, Ikumu Watanabe
In this study, we develop a computer-aided material design system to represent and extract knowledge related to material design from natural language texts. A machine learning model is trained on a text corpus weakly labeled by minimal annotated relationship data (~100 labeled relationships) to extract knowledge from scientific articles. The knowledge is represented by relationships between scientific concepts, such as { annealing, grain size, strength }. The extracted relationships are represented as a knowledge graph formatted according to design charts, inspired by the process-structure-property-performance (PSPP) reciprocity...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Gao Yang, Lihua Li, Wing Bun Lee, Man Cheung Ng
Monolayer graphene exhibits extraordinary properties owing to the unique, regular arrangement of atoms in it. However, graphene is usually modified for specific applications, which introduces disorder. This article presents details of graphene structure, including sp2 hybridization, critical parameters of the unit cell, formation of σ and π bonds, electronic band structure, edge orientations, and the number and stacking order of graphene layers. We also discuss topics related to the creation and configuration of disorders in graphene, such as corrugations, topological defects, vacancies, adatoms and sp3 -defects...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Peter J Holliman, Christopher Kershaw, Arthur Connell, Eurig W Jones, Robert Hobbs, Rosie Anthony, Leo Furnell, James McGettrick, Dawn Geatches, Sebastian Metz
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have been the subject of wide-ranging studies for many years because of their potential for large-scale manufacturing using roll-to-roll processing allied to their use of earth abundant raw materials. Two main challenges exist for DSC devices to achieve this goal; uplifting device efficiency from the 12 to 14% currently achieved for laboratory-scale 'hero' cells and replacement of the widely-used liquid electrolytes which can limit device lifetimes. To increase device efficiency requires optimized dye injection and regeneration, most likely from multiple dyes while replacement of liquid electrolytes requires solid charge transporters (most likely hole transport materials - HTMs)...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Ido Gardi, Yael G Mishael
A novel, stimuli-responsive composite, based on poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) brushes, end-grafted to montmorillonite clay (GPC), was designed as a regenerable sorbent for efficient removal of pollutants from water. We characterized the novel composite sorbent and its response to pH, employing Fourier transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis and zeta potential measurements. In comparison with conventional, electrostatically adsorbed PVP composites (APC), the GPC presented superior characteristics: higher polymer loading without polymer release, higher zeta potential and lower pH/charge dependency...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Yoshiyuki Nonoguchi, Ami Takata, Chigusa Goto, Takuya Kitano, Tsuyoshi Kawai
The effects of polymer structures on the thermoelectric properties of polymer-wrapped semiconducting carbon nanotubes have yet to be clarified for elucidating intrinsic transport properties. We systematically investigate thickness dependence of thermoelectric transport in thin films containing networks of conjugated polymer-wrapped semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Well-controlled doping experiments suggest that the doping homogeneity and then in-plane electrical conductivity significantly depend on film thickness and polymer species...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Meng Jin, Rao Fu, Changmei Sun, Rongjun Qu, Chunnuan Ji, Ying Zhang, Ying Wang
A series of bridged polysilsesquioxane (BPS) materials was synthesized by the sol-gel method from 3-chloropropyl trimethoxysilane, diethylenetriamine (DETA) or ethylenediamine. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and/or one of the two templates, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) or P123, were used in the co-condensation process to construct some of the porous adsorbents. The adsorption of Au(III) was the highest for samples without TEOS, especially for the DETA series with CTAB template. This study elucidates the synthesis and applications of BPS materials...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Andrei Ionut Mardare, Cezarina Cela Mardare, Jan Philipp Kollender, Silvia Huber, Achim Walter Hassel
A thin film combinatorial library deposited by co-sputtering of Hf, Nb and Ta was employed to characterise fundamental properties of the Hf-Nb-Ta system. Compositional mappings of microstructure and crystallography revealed similarities in alloy evolution. Distinct lattice distortion was observed upon addition of hexagonal Hf, leading to amorphisation of alloys containing more than 32 at.% Hf and less than 27 and 41 at.% Nb and Ta, respectively. Volta potential and open circuit potential mappings indicated minimal values for the highest Hf concentration...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Kiyoshi Kanie, Moe Sakaguchi, Fumiya Muto, Mami Horie, Masafumi Nakaya, Toshiyuki Yokoi, Atsushi Muramatsu
Substitution of Al atoms in a zeolite framework by catalytic metal atoms has attracted considerable attention because the catalytic behavior can be tuned by the substituted atoms. In the present study, Sn-substituted MFI-type silicates were synthesized using a hydrothermal reaction of an amorphous Si-O-Sn precursor prepared by mechanochemical grinding of SiO2 and Sn(OH)4 . The mechanochemical treatment was found to be a key technique for obtaining the amorphous Si-O-Sn precursor, where tetrahedral Sn4+ species were incorporated into the amorphous matrix...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Hiroyuki Akinaga, Hiroyuki Fujita, Masaki Mizuguchi, Takao Mori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Go Kawamura, Kazuhiro Ohara, Wai Kian Tan, Taichi Goto, Yuichi Nakamura, Mitsuteru Inoue, Hiroyuki Muto, Kazuhiro Yamaguchi, Aldo R Boccaccini, Atsunori Matsuda
We report a novel and inexpensive fabrication process of multiferroic nanocomposite via liquid phase using an anodic alumina template. The sol-gel spin-coating technique was used to coat the template with ferrimagnetic CoFe2 O4 . By dissolving the template with NaOH aqueous solution, a unique nanotube array structure of CoFe2 O4 was obtained. The CoFe2 O4 nanotube arrays were filled with, and sandwiched in, ferroelectric BaTiO3 layers by a sol-gel spin-coating method to obtain the composite. Its multiferroicity was confirmed by measuring the magnetic and dielectric hysteresis loops...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Alaa Fehaid, Akiyoshi Taniguchi
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely known to have anti-inflammatory properties, but the exact mechanism underlying this anti-inflammatory effect is not clearly understood. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is a major pro-inflammatory cytokine that is expressed in the early stage of cell inflammation and induces apoptosis by several known pathways. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of AgNPs on the response of lung epithelial cells to TNFα and the molecular mechanism of this response. Lung epithelial cell line NCI-H292 cells were exposed to AgNPs (5 µg/mL) and/or TNFα (20 ng/mL) for 24 h, then cellular uptake was analyzed using flow cytometry...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Norifusa Satoh, Masaji Otsuka, Tomoko Ohki, Akihiko Ohi, Yasuaki Sakurai, Yukihiko Yamashita, Takao Mori
To examine the potential of organic thermoelectrics (TEs) for energy harvesting, we fabricated an organic TE module to achieve 250 mV in the open-circuit voltage which is sufficient to drive a commercially available booster circuit designed for energy harvesting usage. We chose the π-type module structure to maintain the temperature differences in organic TE legs, and then optimized the p- and n-type TE materials' properties. After injecting the p- and n-type TE materials into photolithographic mold, we eventually achieved 250 mV in the open-circuit voltage by a method to form the upper electrodes...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Shengyang Fu, Wei Liu, Shiwei Liu, Shichang Zhao, Yufang Zhu
Silicate bioceramic scaffolds are of great interest in bone tissue engineering, but the fabrication of silicate bioceramic scaffolds with complex geometries is still challenging. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) porous β-Ca2 SiO4 scaffolds have been successfully fabricated from preceramic resin loaded with CaCO3 active filler by 3D printing. The fabricated β-Ca2 SiO4 scaffolds had uniform interconnected macropores (ca. 400 μm), high porosity (>78%), enhanced mechanical strength (ca. 5.2 MPa), and excellent apatite mineralization ability...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Nipa Debnath, Takahiko Kawaguchi, Harinarayan Das, Shogo Suzuki, Wataru Kumasaka, Naonori Sakamoto, Kazuo Shinozaki, Hisao Suzuki, Naoki Wakiya
In this study, we report about the occurrence of phase separation through spinodal decomposition (SD) in spinel manganese ferrite (Mn ferrite) thin films grown by Dynamic Aurora pulsed laser deposition. The driving force behind this SD in Mn ferrite films is considered to be an ion-impingement-enhanced diffusion that is induced by the application of magnetic field during film growth. The phase separation to Mn-rich and Fe-rich phases in Mn ferrite films is confirmed from the Bragg's peak splitting and the appearance of the patterned checkerboard-like domain in the surface...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Tatsumi Ishihara, Petros Sofronis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
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