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Chinese Clinical Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595424/animal-models-of-meningiomas
#1
Christian Mawrin
Meningiomas are frequent intracranial and intraspinal tumors. They are tumors of the elderly, and meningioma growth at certain localizations, as well as recurrent tumors or primary aggressive biology may pose a therapeutic challenge. To understand the growth characteristics of meningiomas, animal models can provide insights both from a biological and therapeutical point of view. Using genetically-engineered mouse models (GEMM), it has been proven that alterations of the neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) gene are key steps for benign meningioma development...
June 4, 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758410/current-and-emerging-principles-in-surgery-for-meningioma
#2
Wenya Linda Bi, Ian F Dunn
Surgery continues to be the preferred method to treat meningioma. Recent advancements in the understanding of meningioma biology, including a new appreciation for remarkable molecular heterogeneity in these tumors, has sharpened the drive for disease control, especially on initial diagnosis. Microsurgical and skull base techniques and principles dominate the surgical approaches for meningiomas. At the same time, biologic tools may improve the extent of surgical resection as well as provide novel adjuvant therapy options for challenging meningiomas...
July 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758409/the-role-of-radiotherapy-in-the-management-of-high-grade-meningiomas
#3
Katie L Hwang, William L Hwang, Marc R Bussière, Helen A Shih
Meningiomas account for approximately one-third of primary central nervous system tumors with a subset that are aggressive and carry significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment of these high-grade meningiomas, classified by the World Health Organization as grade II (atypical) and grade III (anaplastic) meningiomas, typically includes the combination of surgery and radiotherapy. However, current data guiding the timing, dosage, and modality of radiation treatment (RT) has been limited to case series and retrospective studies...
July 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758408/radiation-therapy-for-who-grade-i-meningioma
#4
Samuel E Day, Lia M Halasz
Maximal safe resection has long been the cornerstone of treatment for WHO grade I benign meningioma. However, as technology for both imaging and radiation delivery has advanced, radiation therapy has played an increasingly important role in the management of patients with WHO grade I meningioma. Radiation therapy, whether delivered as standard fractionated treatment over several weeks, stereotactic radiosurgery over 1 session, or multisession stereotactic radiation therapy, has been shown to provide excellent local control when used as an adjunct to surgery or as primary treatment...
July 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758407/radiation-for-skull-base-meningiomas-review-of-the-literature-on-the-approach-to-radiotherapy
#5
Fabio Y Moraes, Caroline Chung
Skull base meningiomas (SBM) pose unique challenges for radiotherapy as these tumors are often in close proximity to a number of critical structures and may not be surgically addressed in many cases, leaving the question about the tumor grade and expected biological behaviour. External beam radiotherapy and radiosurgery are longstanding treatments for meningioma that are typically used as upfront primary therapy, for recurrent tumors and as adjuvant therapy following surgical resection. There is controversy regarding the optimal timing and approach for radiation therapy in various clinical settings such as the role of adjuvant radiotherapy for completely resected grade 2 tumours...
July 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758406/meningioma-research-status-quo-and-quo-vadis
#6
Matthias Preusser, Priscilla Brastianos, Helen A Shih
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595423/classification-of-meningiomas-advances-and-controversies
#7
Patrick N Harter, Yannick Braun, Karl H Plate
Meningiomas are the most frequent primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Although approximately 80% of the tumors are slow growing and benign, some subtypes are associated with a less favorable outcome. An adequate classification system aims at providing a tool for estimating recurrence and overall survival of meningioma patients. The 2016 version of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for CNS tumors constitutes a hallmark for neuropathological tumor classification since genetic alterations and histopathology are combined for a final diagnosis...
July 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705010/isocitrate-dehydrogenase-mutation-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-gliomas
#8
Catherine H Han, Tracy T Batchelor
Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH) are important enzymes that catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), producing NADPH in the process. More than 80% of low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastoma (GBM) harbor an IDH mutation. IDH mutations involve the catalytic pocket of the enzyme and lead to a neomorphic ability to produce 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) while oxidizing NADPH to NADP+. 2HG is considered as an 'oncometabolite' which is thought to be responsible for many, if not all, biologic effects of IDH mutations...
June 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705009/palliative-care-and-advance-care-planning-for-pancreas-and-other-cancers
#9
Rajiv Agarwal, Andrew S Epstein
The principles of palliative care are fundamental to support and treat the physical, mental, and psychosocial health of patients living with pancreatic cancer. In addition to its proven advantages to help manage disease-related symptoms, improve accurate illness understanding, and enhance the quality of life and survival outcomes for patients with advanced disease, the inclusion of palliative care principles (whether by a specialist or by the primary oncology team) with standard oncologic care strengthens timely and quality advance care planning (ACP)...
June 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705008/rational-combinations-of-immunotherapy-for-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#10
Alex B Blair, Lei Zheng
The complex interaction between the immune system, the tumor and the microenvironment in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) leads to the resistance of PDA to immunotherapy. To overcome this resistance, combination immunotherapy is being proposed. However, rational combinations that target multiple aspects of the complex anti-tumor immune response are warranted. Novel clinical trials will investigate and optimize the combination immunotherapy for PDA.
June 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705007/pancreas-adenocarcinoma-novel-therapeutics
#11
Benjamin A Krantz, Kenneth H Yu, Eileen M O'Reilly
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third highest cause of cancer-related deaths in the US, and is projected to be second only to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by the 2020s. Current therapies have a modest impact on survival and median overall survival (mOS) across all stages of disease remains under a year. Over the last decade, however, great strides have been made in the understanding of PDAC pathobiology including the role of the tumor microenvironment (TME), DNA damage repair and mechanism of immunosuppression...
June 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705006/best-practices-for-the-treatment-of-metastatic-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-the-therapeutic-landscape-in-2017
#12
Pelin Cinar, Andrew H Ko
The vast majority of patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma have inoperable, most commonly metastatic, disease at the time of initial presentation, at which point systemic therapy becomes the mainstay of treatment. Although survival rates remain very poor in this clinical setting, patients currently have a greater number of therapeutic options available to them than ever before, and consequently individuals are more frequently able to be sequenced through multiple lines of treatment. In this review, we will provide an overview of the current treatment landscape for metastatic pancreatic cancer in 2017, focusing on best practices and the various factors that should be considered in selecting the most appropriate regimen for a given individual...
June 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705005/radiation-therapy-in-the-management-of-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-review-of-current-evidence-and-future-opportunities
#13
Tyler P Robin, Karyn A Goodman
The role of radiation therapy for pancreatic cancer is rapidly evolving in every stage of this disease. In resectable disease, there is conflicting evidence for adjuvant therapy, but an ongoing randomized cooperative group trial is attempting to define the role of adjuvant chemoradiation with modern systemic therapies and radiation techniques with an emphasis on radiation quality assurance. In borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC), there is an emerging body of literature demonstrating the success of neoadjuvant stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and a randomized cooperative group trial is actively accruing...
June 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705004/multimodality-management-of-borderline-resectable-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#14
Laura R Prakash, Matthew H G Katz
Patients with borderline resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma have primary tumors within the pancreas that involve the mesenteric vasculature to a limited degree. Their tumors are nonetheless at high-risk for a microscopically positive surgical resection margin and/or early treatment failure when pancreatectomy is performed de novo. The optimal treatment strategy for these patients has not been established; however, relatively favorable outcomes can be achieved with systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) prior to intended resection...
June 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705003/adjuvant-and-neoadjuvant-therapy-for-resectable-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#15
Davendra P S Sohal
Resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma presents the opportunity for cure of this highly lethal disease by allowing complete surgical removal. However, cure rates remain low. Adjuvant therapy following surgical resection is the standard of care. Most data support the use of gemcitabine or 5-fluorouracil in the adjuvant setting, and emerging data indicate gemcitabine plus capecitabine may improve outcomes. Use of adjuvant radiation remains controversial. Ongoing clinical studies will help better define the role of multi-agent regimens as well as radiation in the adjuvant setting...
June 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705002/preclinical-models-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#16
Benjamin D Krempley, Kenneth H Yu
Unlike many other cancers, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has seen only incremental improvement in mortality despite significant advances in our understanding of the underlying biology. A primary obstacle to progress has been our inability to properly model PDAC in a preclinical setting. PDAC is difficult to study because of its genetic heterogeneity, intricate stromal microenvironment, and complex interplay with our immune system. Finding a model that properly accounts for all these criteria remains difficult...
June 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705001/epidemiology-of-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#17
Priya K Simoes, Sara H Olson, Amethyst Saldia, Robert C Kurtz
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. The highest incidence rates her found are in North America and in Western Europe while lower rates in Asian Africa, with age standard incidence rates of 7.2 and 2.8 per 100,000 populations. Unfortunately the vast majority of individuals with pancreatic cancer present with symptoms, and once symptoms develop the chance for surgery is only about 20%. Additionally he incidence rate and mortality from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in the United States shows a very close association suggesting that her earlier detection and treatment does little to change the outcome from this disease...
June 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705000/preface-pancreas-adenocarcinoma
#18
Eileen M O'Reilly, Lei Zheng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482675/a-novel-diagnostic-biomarker-for-human-uterine-leiomyosarcoma-psmb9-%C3%AE-1i
#19
Takuma Hayashi, Miki Kawano, Kenji Sano, Tomoyuki Ichimura, Gal Gur, Pnina Yaish, Dorit Zharhary, Yae Kanai, Susumu Tonegawa, Tanri Shiozawa, Nobuo Yaegashi, Ikuo Konishi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482674/management-of-hepatocellular-in-the-united-states
#20
Ali A Mokdad, Caitlin A Hester, Amit G Singal, Adam C Yopp
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer burden globally. In the United States, the incidence of HCC is forecast to continue to rise for the next 15 years. Patients with HCC vary markedly owing to heterogeneous tumor characteristics and concomitant liver dysfunction. In the United States and Europe, HCC is staged and managed according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) system. For very early and early stage HCC, or BCLC 0/A, liver transplant is the optimal treatment option. Liver resection and radiofrequency or microwave ablation are alternative treatment options...
April 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
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