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Chinese Clinical Oncology

Vishnu Prasad Adhikari, Lin-Jie Lu, Ling-Quan Kong
Lifestyle and family history are two of the most important risk factors for breast cancer (BC). However, these risk factors cannot explain the differences in the incidence and early BC onset among Chinese females compared to their western counterparts. We propose in this hypothesis the potential mechanism of indirect oncogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in causing BC through its persistence as occult infection and continuous replication with long term subtle liver damage. Estrogen is mainly deactivated in the liver and long term necro-inflammatory damage to liver may result in persistent high level of estrogen, which is a dominant risk factor for BC...
September 12, 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Mark K Doherty, Jennifer J Knox
Surgical resection remains the most important treatment for patients with biliary tract cancer (BTC), but despite radical surgical techniques many patients ultimately develop recurrent disease. BTC encompasses several distinct disease entities-intrahepatic, perihilar and distal bile duct cholangiocarcinoma as well as gallbladder cancer. These tumors are histologically similar, but have different etiologies and recent information regarding their genomic footprint has questioned their biological similarity. Surgical approaches are also necessarily varied based on the site of the tumor...
September 5, 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Alpaslan Ozgun, Vernon K Sondak, Joseph Markowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Helen Seliman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Charles M Balch, Graeme J Poston, Daniel Coit, Riccardo Audisio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Curtis Bryant, Randal H Henderson, Bradford S Hoppe, William M Mendenhall, R Charles Nichols, Zhong Su, Zuofeng Li, Nancy P Mendenhall
Proton therapy (PT) for prostate cancer has been a subject of controversy over the past two decades. Because of its dosimetric advantages when compared to conventional radiation, PT has the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of prostate cancer by decreasing toxicity and improving disease control. Nevertheless, its higher costs and the current lack of level I evidence documenting improved clinical outcomes have led some to question its cost-effectiveness. A number of new PT centers have been built over the past decade, leading many stakeholders, including patients, physicians, and insurers, to demand comparative effectiveness data to support its current use...
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Steven H Lin, Christopher L Hallemeier, Michael Chuong
Radiation therapy (RT) has become an important component in the curative management of esophageal cancer (EC) worldwide. Since most of the ECs seen in the Western hemisphere (i.e., Europe and the United States) are located in the mid- to distal-esophageal locations, heart and lungs invariably receive significant radiation doses. Much of the normal tissue exposure could be reduced with the utilization of advanced radiation technologies, notably intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Proton beam therapy (PBT) provides the ability to even further reduce normal tissue exposure because of its lack of exit dose, which is expected to provide clinically meaningful benefit for at least some EC patients...
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
John J Cuaron1, Shannon M MacDonald, Oren Cahlon
This review will focus on the indications, clinical experience, and technical considerations of proton beam radiation therapy in the treatment of patients with breast cancer. For patients with early stage disease, proton therapy delivers less dose to non-target breast tissue for patients receiving partial breast irradiation (PBI) therapy, which may result in improved cosmesis but requires further investigation. For patients with locally advanced breast cancer requiring treatment to the regional lymph nodes, proton therapy allows for an improved dosimetric profile compared with conventional photon and electron techniques...
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Georges Noel, Vinai Gondi
Relative to conventional photon irradiation, proton therapy has distinct advantages in its ability to more precisely target tumor while shielding adjacent normal tissues. In the setting of skull base tumors, proton therapy plays a critical role in the dose-escalation required for optimal tumor control of chordomas, chondrosarcomas, and malignancies of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. For benign tumors such as craniopharyngiomas, pituitary adenomas and meningiomas, proton therapy can limit long-term adverse effects, such as secondary malignancies...
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Kavita K Mishra, Inder K Daftari
Proton beam radiotherapy of uveal melanoma and other malignant and benign ocular tumors has shown tremendous development and success over the past four decades. Proton beam is associated with the lowest overall risk of local tumor recurrence in uveal melanoma, compared with other eye-conserving forms of primary treatment. Proton beam is also utilized for other malignant and benign tumors as primary, salvage, or adjuvant treatment with combined modality therapy. The physical characteristics of proton therapy allows for uniform dose distribution, minimal scatter, and sharp dose fall off making it an ideal therapy for ocular tumors in which critical structures lay in close proximity to the tumor...
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Matthew R McKeever, Terence T Sio, G Brandon Gunn, Emma B Holliday, Pierre Blanchard, Merrill S Kies, Randal S Weber, Steven J Frank
Cancers in the head and neck area are usually close to several critical organ structures. Traditional external-beam photon radiation therapy unavoidably exposes these structures to significant doses of radiation, which can lead to serious acute and chronic toxicity. Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), however, has dosimetric advantages that allow it to deposit high doses within the target while largely sparing surrounding structures. Because of this advantage, IMPT has the potential to improve both tumor control and toxicity...
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Arpit Chhabra, Anita Mahajan
Radiation therapy plays an important role in the management of pediatric CNS malignancies. With the improving outcomes of these patients, the potential risk of late toxicities present with current radiation therapy techniques (i.e., 3D-CRT, IMRT, VMAT) has become apparent. Proton therapy (PRT), due to its unique physical characteristics, provides an advantage in reducing unintended dose to normal tissue structures, and the resultant acute and late side effects of this dose "bath". In this review we will highlight the current standards of care, and the benefits achieved with using PRT in treating common childhood CNS tumors...
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Vivek Verma, Chirag Shah, Jean-Claude M Rwigema, Timothy Solberg, Xiaofeng Zhu, Charles B Simone
Proton beam radiotherapy (PBT) offers great promise in the treatment of a wide variety of cancers owing to the sharp drop-off in radiation dose at a defined point, known as the Bragg peak, beyond which there is no appreciable dose. However, it is also well-understood that PBT is associated with large economic costs, including both capital investment and operating costs. From a medical as well as societal perspective, therefore, it is important to be aware of the economic implications of new technologies such as PBT, and to evaluate the cost effectiveness based on different clinical and treatment scenarios...
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Arpit Chhabra, Katja Langen, Minesh P Mehta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Jun Guo, Shukui Qin, Jun Liang, Tongyu Lin, Lu Si, Xiaohong Chen, Zhihong Chi, Chuanliang Cui, Nan Du, Yun Fan, Kangsheng Gu, Fang Li, Junling Li, Yongheng Li, Houjie Liang, Jiwei Liu, Man Lu, Aiping Lu, Kejun Nan, Xiaohui Niu, Hongming Pan, Guoxin Ren, Xiubao Ren, Yongqian Shu, Xin Song, Min Tao, Baocheng Wang, Wenbin Wei, Di Wu, Lingying Wu, Aiwen Wu, Xiaolin Xu, Junyi Zhang, Xiaoshi Zhang, Yiping Zhang, Huiyan Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Kouki Nio, Taro Yamashita, Shuichi Kaneko
The novel therapeutic strategy is required to prolong the survival in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. In our current study, we found that chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 4 (CHD4) plays a crucial role in chemoresistance and the maintenance of stemness in liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) and its targeting therapy suppresses the HCC growth. CHD4 is therefore a novel therapeutic target in liver CSCs.
July 27, 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Dirk Schadendorf, Bastian Schilling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Peter Kapitein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 17, 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Christopher Taylor Barry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Carla Cicchini, Cecilia Battistelli, Marco Tripodi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 3, 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
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