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Chinese Clinical Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917258/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-early-stage-lung-cancer-historical-developments-and-future-strategies
#1
Kevin L M Chua, Iris Sin, Kam W Fong, Melvin L K Chua, Hiroshi Onishi
The application of radiosurgery dose escalation extra-cranially in a moving target, surrounded by critical normal tissue, presents unique dosimetric and clinical challenges. Building on a strong foundation of robust technological advancements and well-planned clinical studies, lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has firmly established its place in the management of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nevertheless, favourable outcomes and long-term survival still evade a substantial proportion of patients, especially for central and larger peripheral lung tumours...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917257/exploiting-molecular-genomics-in-precision-radiation-oncology-a-marriage-of-biological-and-physical-precision
#2
Janice S H Tan, Xiaotian Lin, Kevin L M Chua, Paula Y Lam, Khee-Chee Soo, Melvin L K Chua
Achieving local tumour control is paramount for cure in head and neck and prostate cancers. With the transition to precision radiotherapy (RT) techniques, survival rates have improved in the majority of these cancers, but a substantial proportion of 30-40% still relapse following primary treatment. Recent large-scale molecular profiling studies have revealed unique biological events that could explain for tumour aggression and resistance to therapies, redefining the molecular taxonomy of head and neck and prostate cancers...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917256/postoperative-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-spinal-metastases
#3
Majed Alghamdi, Chia-Lin Tseng, Sten Myrehaug, Pejman Maralani, Chris Heyn, Hany Soliman, Young Lee, Mark Ruschin, Leodante Da Costa, Victor Yang, Mikki Campbell, Arjun Sahgal
Spine is a common site of metastases in cancer patients. Spine surgery is indicated for select patients, typically those with mechanical instability and/or malignant epidural spinal cord (or cauda equina) compression. Although post-operative conventional palliative external beam radiation therapy has been the standard of care, technical improvements in radiation planning and image-guided radiotherapy have allowed for the application of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to the spine. Spine SBRT is intended to ablate residual tumor and optimize local control by delivering several fold greater biologically effective doses...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917255/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-primary-renal-cell-carcinoma-and-adrenal-metastases
#4
Gargi Kothari, Alexander V Louie, David Pryor, Ian Vela, Simon S Lo, Bin S Teh, Shankar Siva
The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and metastatic adrenal lesions continues to rise and present evolving complexities in terms of management. Technical challenges in treatment delivery are compounded by the setting of an ageing patient population with multiple medical co-morbidities. While the standard of care treatment for both primary RCC and oligometastatic adrenal lesions has typically been surgery, a number of patients may be medically or surgically inoperable, and for whom alternative options require consideration...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917254/stereotactic-radiotherapy-in-oligometastatic-cancer
#5
Thomas A C Kennedy, Mark T Corkum, Alexander V Louie
Oligometastatic cancer describes a disease state somewhere between localized and metastatic cancer. Proposed definitions of oligometastatic disease have typically used a cut-off of five or fewer sites of disease. Treatment of oligometastatic disease should have the goal of long-term local control, and in selected cases, disease remission. While several retrospective cohorts argue for surgical excision of limited metastases (metastasectomy) as the preferred treatment option for several clinical indications, limited randomized data exists for treating oligometastases...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917253/re-irradiation-with-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-sbrt
#6
Morten Høyer
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a potential treatment option for patients who develop a relapse within or marginal to a previously irradiated volume, but it seems underused because of sparse knowledge on the efficacy and morbidity related to the treatment. Normal tissues often recover some of the damage caused by the primary radiotherapy with time, but the kinetics of recovery is not clearly described in the literature. There is a growing number of publications on SBRT reirradiation, but the literature consists mainly of retrospective cohort studies...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917252/stereotactic-radiosurgery-of-the-brain-a-review-of-common-indications
#7
Philip Gilbo, Isabella Zhang, Jonathan Knisely
Over the past half-century since Lars Leksell first utilized radiation to address deep and difficult to treat lesions of the central nervous system (CNS), intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has become an increasingly valued tool in the hands of neurosurgeons and radiation oncologists. Following developments in medical imaging and radiation technology, radiosurgery has evolved from its first application in movement disorders to widespread use for a varied range of malignant and benign conditions. SRS remains a powerful, minimally invasive instrument that offers additional options for intervention to a diverse patient population...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917251/advances-in-external-beam-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-principle-concerns-in-implementing-a-liver-radiation-program
#8
Stewart Gaede, Michael I Lock
Despite significant advances in diagnosis, surgery and medical oncology, patients with primary and secondary liver cancer have some of the worst prognoses in oncology. In addition, the incidence of liver cancer is expected to increase. For this reason, centres are seeking new treatments and establishing specialized multidisciplinary teams. This article will focus on the evidence and practical data to assist in setting up or improving current process pathways, to provide an efficient and safe radiotherapy program for liver...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917250/emerging-technologies-in-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#9
Lijun Ma, Lei Wang, Chia-Lin Tseng, Arjun Sahgal
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) stems from the initial developments of intra-cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Despite similarity in their names and clinical goals of delivering a sufficiently high tumoricidal dose, maximal sparing of the surrounding normal tissues and a short treatment course, SBRT technologies have transformed from the early days of body frame-based treatments with X-ray verification to primarily image-guided procedures with cone-beam CT or stereoscopic X-ray systems and non-rigid body immo-bilization...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917249/challenges-in-imaging-assessment-following-liver-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-pitfalls-to-avoid-in-clinical-practice
#10
Connie Yip, Gary J R Cook, Kasia Owczarczyk, Vicky Goh
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is increasingly used in the management of unresectable liver metastases and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as it allows delivery of high-dose conformal radiotherapy with limited toxicities. However, it may be difficult to differentiate viable tumour from radiotherapy-related changes after SBRT. The imaging changes observed after SBRT may also differ from those observed following conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. Hence, we aim to review the imaging changes that occur within the tumour and adjacent normal liver after SBRT which may help to identify local relapse in clinical practice...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917248/stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-for-prostate-cancer-a-review
#11
Waqar Haque, E Brian Butler, Bin S Teh
Prostate cancer can be managed with external beam radiation therapy, delivered with either protons or photons, brachytherapy, surgery, or active surveillance. Advances in imaging and radiation therapy delivery have allowed treatment of prostate cancer using ultra-hypofractionated radiation therapy with a high dose per fraction using a technique called stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). While no randomized trials have compared the efficacy of SBRT to conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (CFRT), numerous prospective trials and retrospective reviews have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of SBRT for localized prostate cancer, used either definitively or as a boost along with CFRT...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917247/the-optimism-surrounding-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-and-immunomodulation
#12
Hannah Tharmalingam, Peter J Hoskin
In recent years, rapidly evolving radiation techniques have enabled the precise delivery of very high doses of radiation to local targets with stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR). In addition to its direct cytotoxicity, radiation and in particular SABR has powerful immunomodulatory effects resulting in immunogenic cell death and potentiation of the anti-tumour immune response. However, due to the immunosuppressive nature of non-irradiated sites of metastases, radiotherapy alone is seldom sufficient to induce the systemic response required for distant tumour rejection...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917246/the-promise-of-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-next-phase-of-integration-into-oncological-practice
#13
Kevin L M Chua, David B H Tan, Melvin L K Chua, Simon S Lo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841805/low-grade-glioma-a-journey-towards-a-cure
#14
Ali K Choucair
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841804/advances-in-surgical-approaches-in-glioblastoma-gbm
#15
Ian Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841803/tumor-treating-fields-a-novel-and-effective-therapy-for-glioblastoma-mechanism-efficacy-safety-and-future-perspectives
#16
Ping Zhu, Jay-Jiguang Zhu
BACKGROUND: Tumor treating fields (TTF, Optune®), one of the low-intensity alternating electric fields, have been demonstrated to disrupt mitosis and inhibit tumor growth with antimitotic properties in a variety of tumor types. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States approved TTF for recurrent GBM and newly diagnosed GBM in 2011 and 2015, respectively. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted regarding the relevant studies published between January 1, 2000, and May 31, 2017 in PubMed database...
August 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841802/advanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-glioblastoma-a-review
#17
Gaurav Shukla, Gregory S Alexander, Spyridon Bakas, Rahul Nikam, Kiran Talekar, Joshua D Palmer, Wenyin Shi
Glioblastoma, the most common and most rapidly progressing primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system, continues to portend a dismal prognosis, despite improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies over the last 20 years. The standard of care radiographic characterization of glioblastoma is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is a widely utilized examination in the diagnosis and post-treatment management of patients with glioblastoma. Basic MRI modalities available from any clinical scanner, including native T1-weighted (T1w) and contrast-enhanced (T1CE), T2-weighted (T2w), and T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2-FLAIR) sequences, provide critical clinical information about various processes in the tumor environment...
August 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841801/glioblastoma-in-the-elderly-initial-management
#18
Fabio Ynoe de Moraes, Normand Laperriere
Glioblastoma is the most common primary CNS malignancy and it is becoming more frequently diagnosed in the elderly population. Glioblastoma is associated with a dismal prognosis and remains a huge challenge for the neuro-oncology community. Surgical resection/biopsy is well defined as an important first approach in the care of this disease, for tumor diagnosis, molecular analysis and maximum resection. MGMT promoter methylation status has proved to be a useful indicator of whether single modality (RT or TMZ alone) or combined modality treatment may achieve better outcomes...
August 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841800/current-management-of-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#19
Jon Glass
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare but treatable disease. The hallmark therapy is based on the use of high-dose intravenous methotrexate (HDMTX), with clinical trial data suggesting that a more aggressive and targeted chemoimmunotherapeutic approach, to include the use of targeted therapy with rituximab (RTX) and the addition of other chemotherapeutic agents, may improve prognosis and reduce or defer the need for radiation therapy. Understanding of the molecular basis of tumor growth and proliferation may allow for the use of new targeted agents...
August 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841799/updated-response-assessment-criteria-for-high-grade-glioma-beyond-the-macdonald-criteria
#20
Mayur Sharma, Rupa Gopalan Juthani, Michael A Vogelbaum
High-grade glioma continues to be a challenging disease with few effective treatment options and a poor prognosis, necessitating intensive research into alternate therapies. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) committee was formed to create a robust endpoint assessment criteria in Neuro-Oncology in order to streamline the assessment of new therapies in a uniform fashion. The aim of this committee is to create standardized guidelines to assess clinical and imaging response in the treatment of brain tumors, which can then be applied in clinical trials...
August 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
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