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Chinese Clinical Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701872/does-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-cause-breast-cancer
#1
Vishnu Prasad Adhikari, Lin-Jie Lu, Ling-Quan Kong
Lifestyle and family history are two of the most important risk factors for breast cancer (BC). However, these risk factors cannot explain the differences in the incidence and early BC onset among Chinese females compared to their western counterparts. We propose in this hypothesis the potential mechanism of indirect oncogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in causing BC through its persistence as occult infection and continuous replication with long term subtle liver damage. Estrogen is mainly deactivated in the liver and long term necro-inflammatory damage to liver may result in persistent high level of estrogen, which is a dominant risk factor for BC...
September 12, 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829284/professor-charles-e-geyer-neoadjuvant-therapy-is-becoming-standard-of-care-for-her2-breast-cancer
#2
Lucille L Ye
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829283/professor-william-j-gradishar-individualized-treatment-scheme-for-breast-cancer
#3
Celine Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829282/dan-sargent-cco-associate-editor-and-mayo-biostatistician-and-clinical-trialist-dies-unexpectedly-at-46
#4
Helen Seliman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829281/percutaneous-biliary-interventions-and-complications-in-malignant-bile-duct-obstruction
#5
Hooman Yarmohammadi, Anne M Covey
Malignant bile duct obstruction can be a challenging clinical problem for patients and physicians alike. Indications for intervention include pruritus, cholangitis, lowering bilirubin pre-operatively or to allow for administration of some chemotherapeutic agents, and to divert bile from a post-operative leak. Low biliary obstruction, obstruction below the common hepatic duct, is usually straightforward and is often treated endoscopically. High bile duct obstruction is more complicated because it often involves isolation of ductal segments...
October 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829280/gallbladder-cancer-south-american-experience
#6
Gerardo F Arroyo, Alberto Gentile, Luis A Parada
Large differences in terms of incidence and mortality due to gallbladder cancer (GBC) have been reported worldwide. Moreover, it seems that GBC has unique characteristics in South America. We surveyed the literature looking for information about the epidemiology, basic and translational research, and clinical trials performed in South America in order to critically analyze the magnitude of this health problem in the region. Compared to other geographic areas, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for GBC in women are very high, particularly in many western areas of South America...
October 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829279/combined-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
Louise C Connell, James J Harding, Jinru Shia, Ghassan K Abou-Alfa
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the fifth most common cancer globally and third leading cause of cancer-related mortality is a heterogeneous disease with a highly variable clinical course. The inherent biological diversity of hepatic carcinomas may hinder therapeutic decision making and prognostication for patients. One distinct, albeit rare, subtype of primary hepatic carcinoma is combined intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (cHCC-ICC), which carries an overall worse prognosis than either HCC or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) alone...
October 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829278/systemic-therapy-for-biliary-cancers
#8
Emmet Jordan, Ghassan K Abou-Alfa, Maeve A Lowery
Biliary tract cancers represent an uncommon, heterogenous malignant group of tumors that include gallbladder cancers (GBC) and cholangiocarcinomas that are frequently detected in the locally advanced or metastatic setting. The randomized phase III ABC-02 trial established the combination regimen of cisplatin plus gemcitabine as standard of care therapy. Nevertheless, despite prior and subsequent attempts utilizing a variety of treatment strategies clinical outcomes for these cancers remains disappointing, necessitating the innate call for improvements in treatment approaches...
October 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829277/surgical-management-of-biliary-tract-cancers
#9
Mark Fairweather, Vinod P Balachandran, Michael I D'Angelica
Biliary tract cancers (BTC) are aggressive gastrointestinal malignancies that are associated with a poor prognosis. This rare group of tumors includes cancers of the gallbladder, intrahepatic, and extrahepatic biliary tree. Chronic inflammatory processes such as cholelithiasis and chronic bacterial infection of the biliary system remain the most common underlying risk factor although most cases occur sporadically. The majority of patients present with advanced disease accompanied by nonspecific symptoms, making BTCs a therapeutic challenge for clinicians...
October 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829276/biliary-carcinomas-pathology-and-the-role-of-dna-mismatch-repair-deficiency
#10
Vitor Werneck Krauss Silva, Gokce Askan, Tanisha D Daniel, Maeve Lowery, David S Klimstra, Ghassan K Abou-Alfa, Jinru Shia
The pathology of biliary carcinomas is diverse with different gross and histological features in tumors arising in the different segments of the biliary system. Various epidemiological risk factors, varied genetic makeup, and tissue microenvironment are contributory factors. As biliary tumors have been shown to be a part of the Lynch syndrome tumor spectrum, it is plausible to speculate that DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency plays a role in biliary tumors. Literature data suggest that DNA MMR deficiency indeed occurs in these tumors, albeit infrequently with the reported frequencies (weighted for sample size) of high level microsatellite instability (MSI) being 5% each for gallbladder carcinoma and carcinoma of extra-hepatic bile ducts, and 10% each for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and ampullary carcinoma...
October 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829275/biliary-tract-cancers-epidemiology-molecular-pathogenesis-and-genetic-risk-associations
#11
Lorena Marcano-Bonilla, Essa A Mohamed, Taofic Mounajjed, Lewis R Roberts
Biliary tract cancers (BTC) are malignancies that arise from the epithelium of the biliary system and comprise the second most common type of hepatobiliary cancer worldwide. BTC are sub-classified as intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA), perhilar/hilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA), distal cholangiocarcinoma (dCCA), and gallbladder carcinoma. Due to the differences in their etiologic risk factors, pathogenesis, and molecular and genetic characteristics, each of these subtypes is considered a separate biological entity...
October 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829274/preface-special-issue-on-biliary-cancer
#12
Ghassan K Abou-Alfa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701873/adjuvant-therapy-for-resected-biliary-tract-cancer-a-review
#13
Mark K Doherty, Jennifer J Knox
Surgical resection remains the most important treatment for patients with biliary tract cancer (BTC), but despite radical surgical techniques many patients ultimately develop recurrent disease. BTC encompasses several distinct disease entities-intrahepatic, perihilar and distal bile duct cholangiocarcinoma as well as gallbladder cancer. These tumors are histologically similar, but have different etiologies and recent information regarding their genomic footprint has questioned their biological similarity. Surgical approaches are also necessarily varied based on the site of the tumor...
October 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701871/resistance-patterns-to-anti-pd-1-therapy-in-metastatic-melanoma
#14
Alpaslan Ozgun, Vernon K Sondak, Joseph Markowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558257/moving-forward-cco-is-indexed-in-emerging-sources-citation-index
#15
Helen Seliman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558256/training-a-new-generation-of-surgeons-worldwide-who-are-also-oncologists
#16
Charles M Balch, Graeme J Poston, Daniel Coit, Riccardo Audisio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558255/controversies-in-proton-therapy-for-prostate-cancer
#17
Curtis Bryant, Randal H Henderson, Bradford S Hoppe, William M Mendenhall, R Charles Nichols, Zhong Su, Zuofeng Li, Nancy P Mendenhall
Proton therapy (PT) for prostate cancer has been a subject of controversy over the past two decades. Because of its dosimetric advantages when compared to conventional radiation, PT has the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of prostate cancer by decreasing toxicity and improving disease control. Nevertheless, its higher costs and the current lack of level I evidence documenting improved clinical outcomes have led some to question its cost-effectiveness. A number of new PT centers have been built over the past decade, leading many stakeholders, including patients, physicians, and insurers, to demand comparative effectiveness data to support its current use...
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558254/proton-beam-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-esophageal-cancer
#18
Steven H Lin, Christopher L Hallemeier, Michael Chuong
Radiation therapy (RT) has become an important component in the curative management of esophageal cancer (EC) worldwide. Since most of the ECs seen in the Western hemisphere (i.e., Europe and the United States) are located in the mid- to distal-esophageal locations, heart and lungs invariably receive significant radiation doses. Much of the normal tissue exposure could be reduced with the utilization of advanced radiation technologies, notably intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Proton beam therapy (PBT) provides the ability to even further reduce normal tissue exposure because of its lack of exit dose, which is expected to provide clinically meaningful benefit for at least some EC patients...
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558253/novel-applications-of-proton-therapy-in-breast-carcinoma
#19
John J Cuaron1, Shannon M MacDonald, Oren Cahlon
This review will focus on the indications, clinical experience, and technical considerations of proton beam radiation therapy in the treatment of patients with breast cancer. For patients with early stage disease, proton therapy delivers less dose to non-target breast tissue for patients receiving partial breast irradiation (PBI) therapy, which may result in improved cosmesis but requires further investigation. For patients with locally advanced breast cancer requiring treatment to the regional lymph nodes, proton therapy allows for an improved dosimetric profile compared with conventional photon and electron techniques...
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558252/proton-therapy-for-tumors-of-the-base-of-the-skull
#20
Georges Noel, Vinai Gondi
Relative to conventional photon irradiation, proton therapy has distinct advantages in its ability to more precisely target tumor while shielding adjacent normal tissues. In the setting of skull base tumors, proton therapy plays a critical role in the dose-escalation required for optimal tumor control of chordomas, chondrosarcomas, and malignancies of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. For benign tumors such as craniopharyngiomas, pituitary adenomas and meningiomas, proton therapy can limit long-term adverse effects, such as secondary malignancies...
August 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
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