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Chinese Clinical Oncology

Daniel J Holzwanger, David C Madoff
The treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma requires a careful balance of adequate oncologic control and the preservation of both liver function and performance status. Over the last few decades, the emerging field of interventional oncology has introduced a variety of minimally invasive, safe and effective therapies, expanding the armament of available treatment options. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system is the most widely adopted treatment classification which aims to match patients with the therapies that will yield the best outcomes based on these factors...
August 7, 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Eileen Poon, Richard Quek
Sarcoma is an uncommon and heterogeneous group of malignancies linked by their mesenchymal origin. They are rare and account for 1% of adult cancers, and 10-20% of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers. While there is good published literature on the incidence and distribution of sarcoma subtypes in the western populations, there is a paucity of data from Asia, particularly on the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of STS in Asia. Formalized prospective national registries in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) are lacking and little is known about how sarcomas are treated and managed throughout the Asia-Pacific region...
August 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Mohammad Yahya Zaidi, Kenneth Cardona
Significant challenges exist in creating surveillance recommendations for soft tissue sarcomas (STS) given the vast heterogeneity of recurrence patterns between histologic subtypes. Using the most recent evidence on the natural history of STS, this review will propose surveillance strategies based on tumor location and histologic subtype.
August 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Stephen M Smith, O Hans Iwenofu
Sarcomas are heterogenous malignant mesenchymal neoplasms. These are often notoriously difficult to treat particularly in the metastatic setting. There is therefore an urgent need for development of better and more efficacious targeted therapies. Cancer testis antigens (CTAs) are a family of proteins in which aberrant gene-activation and subsequent high level mRNA expression, are restricted to testicular germ cells and are seen in certain malignancies. Importantly, the restriction of this class of antigens to testicular germ cells and malignancies and not somatic tissue, makes them an excellent choice for targeted immunotherapy...
August 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Cheuh-Chuan Yen, Tom Wei-Wu Chen
Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a heterogeneous disease with more than 50 subtypes. Once the disease reached locally advanced or metastatic status, the standard treatment remains to be chemotherapy. Current understanding of the underlying molecular and genomic mechanisms of different histology subtypes have led to encouraging development of new drugs in treating STS. Besides molecular targeted therapy, immunotherapy have also shown promising advancement in solid tumor treatments. This review will be in two parts...
August 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Wenshuai Liu, Quan Jiang, Yuhong Zhou
Soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) is a group of rare but highly heterogeneous neoplasms. Systemic treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted agents is one of the main therapeutic modalities in patients with unresectable or metastatic disease, while adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy for adult-type sarcomas remain controversial. Although an anthracycline (doxorubicin) and ifosfamide remain the cornerstone for chemotherapy, advances have been made recently to exceed its limited efficacy, other agents such as trabectedin, eribulin have been approved...
August 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Deanna Ng, Carol J Swallow
Curative treatment of RPS is predicated on complete macroscopic resection, but this is not appropriate in all cases, for a variety of tumour-, patient- and/or treatment-related reasons. Here we review the available literature to glean data that can guide patient selection for major extirpative surgery with its attendant risks or for palliative-intent management that emphasizes quality of life.
August 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Jennifer Wang, Valerie P Grignol, Alessandro Gronchi, Cheng-Hua Luo, Raphael E Pollock, William W Tseng
Retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS) are rare cancers that often reach massive size before detection. The mainstay of treatment for RPS is surgical resection, and complete resection is the only chance for potential cure. The management of RPS can be challenging and in individual cases, radiation and systemic therapy may be beneficial in both primary and recurrent disease. Further research through multi-institutional collaboration, ideally on a global level, is needed to better understand RPS and optimize management of this disease...
August 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Shane Y Morita
Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a heterogeneous entity comprising only 1% of all adult cancers that has received considerable attention since it was initially described after the 1st century as "fleshy" by Claudius Galenus. Nick-named the forgotten cancer, more than 100 histologic subtypes have been identified making treatment paradigms extremely complex. A key principle in the management of truncal STS is a defined multi-disciplinary team consisting of several providers. In most instances, surgery is the cornerstone of treatment...
August 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Makoto Endo, Patrick P Lin
Standard treatment of localized soft tissue sarcoma should include surgical resection, which can be performed alone or in combination with perioperative radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. The purpose of surgical intervention is to excise the tumor completely and to prevent disease relapse. Surgeons should remove the tumor with a sufficiently wide margin of the surrounding normal tissue; however, it is also necessary to pay attention to maximizing postoperative physical function. In order to balance the two competing goals, surgeons have been working to establish better methods for determining surgical margins and better guidelines for achieving adequate margins...
August 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Hannah L Tattersall, Dario Callegaro, Samuel J Ford, Alessandro Gronchi
Patient outcomes following surgical resection of retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPSs) are variable and therefore predicting prognosis is challenging. The risk of recurrence varies according to several patient- tumour- and treatment-related characteristics, including histological subtype and tumour grade. In an era of increased movement towards individualised patient care, the ability to predict prognosis following surgery for RPS is essential. The accurate prediction of an individual patient's outcome is important to allow adequate patient counselling and to ensure the optimal therapeutic strategy is selected...
August 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Dakshesh B Patel, George R Matcuk
Soft tissue sarcomas are rare and a heterogeneous group of neoplasms. Over the years imaging has played a crucial role in the initial staging, monitoring response to chemotherapy, and surveillance for recurrence. In the era of rapidly evolving individualized treatment due to evolving chemotherapies, increasing demand has been placed on the role of imaging in the management of this heterogeneous group. The rapidly evolving technologies in imaging are trying to keep up with the challenge, with development of newer strategies and hybrid imaging...
August 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
William W Tseng, Cheng-Hua Luo, Raphael E Pollock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Rick L Haas
This critical review aims to generate hypotheses when to adhere to guidelines and when it could be considered to individualize management of extremity soft tissue sarcomas.Based upon peer-reviewed publications using a PubMed search on the MeSH headings "soft tissue sarcoma" AND "preoperative radiotherapy", data were compiled. Titles and abstracts screened for data including "fraction size AND/OR total dose AND/OR overall treatment time", "chemotherapy", "targeted agents AND/OR tyrosine kinase inhibitors", were screened as well as their respective reference...
August 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Naoto Shikama
Primary cutaneous lymphoma is the second most common type of extranodal lymphoma. The clinical behavior of this lymphoma differs from that of other extranodal lymphomas and thus requires a particular pretreatment evaluation and treatment strategy. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) accounts for 80% of primary cutaneous lymphoma cases and includes several confirmed disease entities as well as provisional entities. Local radiation for CTCLs is applicable for both curative and palliative intents and is based on the involved-site radiotherapy (ISRT) concept...
July 19, 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Javier C Lendoire, Luis Gil, Oscar Imventarza
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary hepatic malignant tumor and its incidence is increasing over the world. At present times, radical liver resection is still the most effective treatment for ICC patients to achieve long term survival. Pathological lymph node metastases (LMN), found in 15% to 45% of the patients, have been recognized as an extremely poor prognostic risk factor, even if curative resection is performed. So, considering this issue, it acquires relevance to determine the validity of surgical resection for LNM cases that are diagnosed in the preoperative setting, or whether a routine lymphadenectomy should be performed systematically in all hepatectomies for ICC...
July 17, 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Andrew J Lee, Yun Shin Chun
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma accounts for 5% to 30% of all primary liver cancers, and its incidence has increased in the last 3 decades. Surgical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment but is associated with high tumor recurrence rates. The 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging Manual introduced a new staging system for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, which was previously staged the same as hepatocellular carcinoma. The recently published 8th edition has subdivided the T1 category to T1a and T1b based on a size cutoff of 5 cm, removed periductal invasion from the T4 category, and downstaged T4 tumors and regional lymph node metastasis from stage IV to IIIB...
July 12, 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Bixia Tang, Xinan Sheng, Yan Kong, Zhihong Chi, Lu Si, Chuanliang Cui, Xieqiao Yan, Lili Mao, Bin Lian, Siming Li, Xuan Wang, Jie Dai, Xue Bai, Li Zhou, Jun Guo
The mortality associated with unresectable or metastatic melanoma remains high despite of the emergence of new anti-tumor agents. In this case report, we present two metastatic melanoma patients with copy number variations (CNVs) of cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) pathway-related genes, who had failed in previous chemotherapy or immunotherapy, were treated with CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib and achieved tumor control for over 6 months. The copy number of CDK4, CCND1 and P16INK4a of one patient was 3.6, 3, 2 copies, and for the other patient, the copy number was 3, 2, 1 respectively...
July 12, 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Heriberto Medina-Franco, Lorelí Mejía-Fernández
Ovarian cancer, which is mostly diagnosed in advanced stages, is a disease with high mortality among women. Until now, no screening strategies have been accepted and are currently under study because although they help in the diagnosis at early stages, they do not increase survival. The gold standard treatment for advanced ovarian cancer is based on primary debulking surgery (PDS) follow by adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Recently, treatment alternatives have been proposed: neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with interval debulking surgery (IDS)...
June 29, 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Thomas Ohnleiter, Delphine Antoni, François Lefebvre, Pierre Truntzer, Philippe Schultz, Mickael Burgy, Christian Borel, Georges Noël
BACKGROUND: Patients with secondary/recurrent squamous cell head and neck cancer have poor prognoses. Re-irradiation is a treatment option. However, best technique to re-irradiate is not known. This study aims to evaluate the outcome of patients treated with curative-intent intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) re-irradiation (re-RT) for head and neck (H&N) cancers. METHODS: Fifty patients with recurrent H&N cancers underwent fractionated IMRT re-RT. The median time between the two courses of radiotherapy was 22 months...
June 27, 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
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