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Chinese Clinical Oncology

Masaya Hattori, Hiroji Iwata
Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) remains a largely incurable disease. The goals of treatment for MBC are still to maintain quality of life and prolong survival. However, some cases of MBC with a long-term relapse free survival occurs, implying that a small subset of MBC patients could become curable. Although it is a controversial issue of whether MBC can be cured, a more aggressive multidisciplinary approach to MBC with a curable intent may help improve MBC patient outcomes. The Earlier detection of metastatic disease by using modern imaging technologies may allow the detection of metastasis before cancer cells spread widely...
May 28, 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Rick L Haas
BACKGROUND: This critical review aims to generate hypotheses when to adhere to guidelines and when it could be considered to individualize management of extremity soft tissue sarcomas. METHODS: Based upon peer-reviewed publications using a PubMed search on the MeSH headings "soft tissue sarcoma" AND "preoperative radiotherapy", data were compiled. Titles and abstracts screened for data including "fraction size AND/OR total dose AND/OR overall treatment time", "chemotherapy", "targeted agents AND/OR tyrosine kinase inhibitors", were screened as well as their respective reference...
May 23, 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Junji Matsuoka, Toshiki Kunitomi, Masahiko Nishizaki, Takayuki Iwamoto, Hideki Katayama
End-of-life care requires improvement. For a good death, patients consider five factors important: managing physical symptoms, avoiding a useless prolongation of dying, having good self-esteem, relieving burdens on the family, and deepening ties with loved ones. Four out of those 5 are accomplished by the implementation of advance care planning (ACP). ACP is not simply a formal writing of a patient's preferences about end-of-life treatment, but it is a process of communication between a patient, their family and care providers...
June 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Yudai Saga, Masanori Enokido, Yusei Iwata, Asao Ogawa
Palliative care acknowledges the historical origin of the hospice developed in the UK during the 20th century. Palliative care initially focused primarily on end-of-life care provided at hospices, but then changed to at-home care, leading to the formation of a support system provided by the palliative care team. The palliative care team further coordinated with acute care hospitals and became involved in earlier stages of care as well, such as providing symptomatic relief in conjunction with cancer treatment...
June 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Ziping Wu, Jinsong Lu
Bone is the most commonly seen metastatic site in all the metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Treatment includes systemic treatment according to different molecular subtypes and specified treatment of the bone. Bisphosphonate and denosumab are the only two drugs approved to use in bone metastatic site. The optimal dosing schedule and duration of the drugs are still under research. New drugs and therapies including curcuminoids, sunitinib and nano particles are potentially available in the near future.
June 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Hideaki Takahashi, Mizuho Isogawa
Brain metastases are usual in breast cancer with poor prognosis and few available therapeutic options. The efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) against brain metastases from EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) showed promising antitumor activity, on the other hand, the main treatment of breast cancer brain metastases (BCBMs) is only local therapy such as surgery or radiotherapy. The goal of treatment includes stabilizing or improving neurological function and palliating neurological symptom...
June 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Yoichi Naito, Tetsuya Urasaki
Precision medicine is a strategy for disease treatment and prevention that considers individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle. Historically, breast cancer has been treated according to biomarkers such as estrogen receptor and HER2 status. Currently, multigene assays are widely used to predict the risk of relapse after surgery. Molecular targeted agents have been investigated extensively, and some of them are clinically available to date. This review focuses on precision medicine, especially, genome medicine, in breast cancer...
June 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Tomoharu Sugie
The development of immune-check inhibitors has resulted in a paradigm shift for immune oncology therapeutics in the past few decades. Blocking antibodies against programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) leads to robust local tumor control and a durable response in patients with various tumors that are refractory to standard treatments. Breast cancer was traditionally thought to be poorly immunogenic and yield a relatively lower mutation burden compared to 'inflamed' tumors, including melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma...
June 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Minya Yao, Peifen Fu
Though most patients with breast cancer are cured, there are still many patients progressed to metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and some are diagnosed as MBC. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is positive in about 20% all breast cancer patients and considered as a poor prognostic factor. The advent of ant-HER2 therapy has prominently prolonged the time of disease progression and survival for HER2-positive MBC patients. This review summarizes the advance in anti-HER2 therapy in HER2-positive MBC according to the phase III clinical trials, and briefly discusses some new agents and anti-HER2 therapy for HER2 low-or non-expression breast cancer patients...
June 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Hirofumi Mukai, Mayuko Ito
Metastatic breast cancer cannot be curable, but significant improvement in overall survival has been observed with the appearance of new agents. The purpose of treatment is to prolong survival and to improve quality of life by reducing cancer-related symptoms. To achieve these goals, individualized approach is required. Chemotherapy is used for patients with hormone receptor negative breast cancer or hormone receptor positive patients who have cancer-related symptoms. The choice of regimen (single-agent or a combination), selection of a specific therapy and the duration of treatment depend on multiple factors, including the tumor burden, general health status, prior treatments and toxicities, and patient preferences...
June 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Tomás Reinert, Bruno de Paula, Maryam Nemati Shafaee, Pedro Henrique Souza, Matthew J Ellis, José Bines
The estrogen receptor (ER) has been targeted for breast cancer treatment for over a century, but many challenges persist. ER-positivity identifies the largest breast cancer subgroup, and ER-directed therapies prolong survival and improve symptoms in the advanced setting with a very favorable side effect profile. Treatment strategies have included decreasing estrogen synthesis and modulating or degrading the ER. However, ER+ breast cancer once diagnosed in the advanced setting still represents an incurable condition...
June 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Qiancheng Hu, Xiaorong Zhong, Xu Liu, Yuxin Xie, Kejia Hu, Ping He, Donghao Lu, Hong Zheng
It is largely unclear that whether or not surgical resection of the primary tumors could confer survival benefit among patients with metastatic breast cancer at initial presentation. We thoroughly reviewed the up-to-date evidence on surgical resection of the primary lesion in metastatic breast cancer, including comparative studies (of particular interest in risk modifiers, the type, and timing of surgical procedures), Chinese and international guidelines, as well as the progress of clinical trials. Partial modified radical mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery are by far the most common choices for patients with metastatic breast cancer...
June 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Yutaka Yamamoto, Kazuo Tamura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Gilberto de Lima Lopes, George R Nahas
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells represent a medical and scientific breakthrough that may represent a paradigm for the future of personalized medicine in the age of cancer immunotherapy. As with many new cancer agents, such novel and incredible results come with a high price. At the time of the writing of this article, there are two CAR T cells available, Kymriah, produced by Novrtis with a price tag of US$475,000 and Yescarta produced by Gilead Pharmaceuticals with a price tag of US$373,000, neither price including the required hospital admission in order to administer the agent in addition to potential treatment of side effects...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Nattiya Hirankarn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Ayako Wakatsuki Pedersen, Katharina L Kopp, Mads Hald Andersen, Mai-Britt Zocca
Historically, the development of cancer vaccines has focused on the central role of tumor antigens in eliciting tumor-specific immune responses, with limited success. Recent advances with checkpoint blockade approaches have brought about a renewed appreciation of the importance of targeting immune suppression in cancer patients. Here we discuss a novel approach to cancer immunotherapy, namely to target recently described T cells that uniquely control cells with immune suppressive functions. Accumulating evidence support the existence of self-reactive T cells that are specific to antigens derived from immunoregulatory proteins ("immunoregulatory antigens"), such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and PD-L1...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Malcolm K Brenner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Shaheenah Dawood
Metastatic colorectal cancer still remains an essentially non curable disease. However, with advances in chemotherapeutic and personalizing therapeutic approaches with the incorporation of targeted therapy such as anti-EGFR and anti-VEGF agents survival associated with metastatic colorectal cancer has certainly improved over the last two decades. Patients who are not amenable to surgery median survival remain approximately 2 to 3 years. In an attempt to improve prognostic outcome over the last decade research has focused on therapeutic options geared towards harnessing the immune system with success observed with the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the realm of a number of solid tumors including lung and renal cancer...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Luke Russell, Kah-Whye Peng
This review discusses current clinical advancements in oncolytic viral therapy, with a focus on the viral platforms approved for clinical use and highlights the benefits each platform provides. Three oncolytic viruses (OVs), an echovirus, an adenovirus, and a herpes simplex-1 virus, have passed governmental regulatory approval in Latvia, China, and the USA and EU. Numerous other recombinant viruses from diverse families are in clinical testing in cancer patients and we highlight the design features of selected examples, including adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, measles virus, retrovirus, reovirus, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Eugenia L L Yeo, You Quan Li, Khee-Chee Soo, Joseph T S Wee, Melvin L K Chua
Immunotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) have each demonstrated clinical success in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) when utilized independently. Several characteristics of NPC make it particularly well suited for immunotherapeutic strategies, such as the association with viral infections like EBV and human papilloma virus (HPV), upregulation of PD-L1 expression, and the high number of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Immune checkpoint blockade is one such immunotherapeutic strategy that is gaining popularity rapidly...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
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