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World Journal of Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878105/spread-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-is-emerging-as-a-genuine-social-concern-and-affecting-the-general-populace-case-reports-from-eastern-india
#1
Aroni Chatterjee, Agniswar Sarkar, Sabbir Ansari, Sattik Siddhanta, Siwalik Banerjee, Rathindranath Sarkar, Nilanjan Chakraborty
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) has increased to a drastic proportion throughout India in the last couple of years due to a lack of productive identification and management framework. In apprehension of social disgrace these men attempt to live a normal hetero conjugal life and, in the process, act as a bridge in spreading the virus to their women partners. In this case report we have highlighted two cases which clearly distinguished the adequacy of HIV treatment among MSM when they are diagnosed during early or late phases of infection...
November 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878104/geographic-integration-of-hepatitis-c-virus-a-global-threat
#2
Mohamed A Daw, Abdallah A El-Bouzedi, Mohamed O Ahmed, Aghnyia A Dau, Mohamed M Agnan, Aisha M Drah
AIM: To assess hepatitis C virus (HCV) geographic integration, evaluate the spatial and temporal evolution of HCV worldwide and propose how to diminish its burden. METHODS: A literature search of published articles was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE and other related databases up to December 2015. A critical data assessment and analysis regarding the epidemiological integration of HCV was carried out using the meta-analysis method. RESULTS: The data indicated that HCV has been integrated immensely over time and through various geographical regions worldwide...
November 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878103/role-of-rna-secondary-structure-in-emergence-of-compartment-specific-hepatitis-b-virus-immune-escape-variants
#3
Sibnarayan Datta, Runu Chakravarty
AIM: To investigate the role of subgenotype specific RNA secondary structure in the compartment specific selection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immune escape mutations. METHODS: This study was based on the analysis of the specific observation of HBV subgenotype A1 in the serum/plasma, while subgenotype A2 with G145R mutation in the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). Genetic variability found among the two subgenotypes was used for prediction and comparison of the full length pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) secondary structure and base pairings...
November 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878102/antiretroviral-naive-and-treated-patients-discrepancies-of-b-cell-subsets-during-the-natural-course-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection
#4
Olga Tsachouridou, Lemonia Skoura, Pantelis Zebekakis, Apostolia Margariti, Adamantini Georgiou, Dimitrios Bougiouklis, Dimitrios Pilalas, Antonios Galanos, Michael Daniilidis, Symeon Metallidis
AIM: To evaluate alterations of memory B cell subpopulations during a 48-wk period in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) patients. METHODS: Forty-one antiretroviral naïve and 41 treated HIV-1 patients matched for age and duration of HIV infection were recruited. All clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data were recorded or measured. The different B cell subsets were characterized according to their surface markers: Total B cells (CD19(+)), memory B cells (CD19(+)CD27(+), BMCs), resting BMCs (CD19(+)CD27(+)CD21(high), RM), exhausted BMCs (CD19(+)CD21(low)CD27(-), EM), IgM memory B (CD19(+)CD27(+)IgM(high)), isotype-switched BMCs (CD19(+)CD27(+)IgM(-), ITS) and activated BMCs (CD19(+)CD21(low+)CD27(+), AM) at baseline on week 4 and week 48...
November 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878101/regulation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-by-herpesviruses
#5
REVIEW
Kevin J Zwezdaryk, Joseph A Combs, Cindy A Morris, Deborah E Sullivan
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is instrumental in successful differentiation and proliferation of mammalian cells. It is therefore not surprising that the herpesvirus family has developed mechanisms to interact with and manipulate this pathway. Successful coexistence with the host requires that herpesviruses establish a lifelong infection that includes periods of latency and reactivation or persistence. Many herpesviruses establish latency in progenitor cells and viral reactivation is linked to host-cell proliferation and differentiation status...
November 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878100/neurological-manifestations-of-zika-virus-infection
#6
REVIEW
Ana-Belén Blázquez, Juan-Carlos Saiz
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus (Flaviviridae family) transmitted mainly by Aedes mosquitoes. The virus was restricted to the African continent until its spread to south-east Asia in the 1980's, the Micronesia in 2007, the French Polynesia in 2013 and, more recently in the Americas in 2015, where, up to date, the World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated about 3-4 million total cases of ZIKV infection. During outbreaks in the French Polynesia and Brazil in 2013 and 2015, respectively, national health authorities reported potential neurological complications of ZIKV disease, chiefly an upsurge in Guillain-Barré syndrome, which coincided with ZIKV outbreaks...
November 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563538/genotyping-and-pathotyping-of-diversified-strains-of-infectious-bronchitis-viruses-circulating-in-egypt
#7
Ali Zanaty, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Naglaa Hagag, Magdy El-Kady
AIM: To characterize the circulating infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains in Egypt depending on the sequence of the spike-1 (S1) gene [hypervariable region-3 (HVR-3)] and to study the pathotypic features of these strains. METHODS: In this work, twenty flocks were sampled for IBV detection using RRT-PCR and isolation of IBV in specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks during the period from 2010 to 2015. Partial sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 400 bp representing the HVR-3 of the S1 gene was conducted...
August 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563537/microbiology-laboratory-and-the-management-of-mother-child-varicella-zoster-virus-infection
#8
REVIEW
Massimo De Paschale, Pierangelo Clerici
Varicella-zoster virus, which is responsible for varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles), is ubiquitous and causes an acute infection among children, especially those aged less than six years. As 90% of adults have had varicella in childhood, it is unusual to encounter an infected pregnant woman but, if the disease does appear, it can lead to complications for both the mother and fetus or newborn. The major maternal complications include pneumonia, which can lead to death if not treated. If the virus passes to the fetus, congenital varicella syndrome, neonatal varicella (particularly serious if maternal rash appears in the days immediately before or after childbirth) or herpes zoster in the early years of life may occur depending on the time of infection...
August 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563536/intrinsic-host-restriction-factors-of-human-cytomegalovirus-replication-and-mechanisms-of-viral-escape
#9
REVIEW
Santo Landolfo, Marco De Andrea, Valentina Dell'Oste, Francesca Gugliesi
Before a pathogen even enters a cell, intrinsic immune defenses are active. This first-line defense is mediated by a variety of constitutively expressed cell proteins collectively termed "restriction factors" (RFs), and they form a vital element of the immune response to virus infections. Over time, however, viruses have evolved in a variety ways so that they are able to overcome these RF defenses via mechanisms that are specific for each virus. This review provides a summary of the universal characteristics of RFs, and goes on to focus on the strategies employed by some of the most important RFs in their attempt to control human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection...
August 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175354/determination-of-50-endpoint-titer-using-a-simple-formula
#10
Muthannan Andavar Ramakrishnan
Two commonly used methods for calculating 50% endpoint using serial dilutions are Spearman-Karber method and Reed and Muench method. To understand/apply the above formulas, moderate statistical/mathematical skills are necessary. In this paper, a simple formula/method for calculating 50% endpoints has been proposed. The formula yields essentially similar results as those of the Spearman-Karber method. The formula has been rigorously evaluated with several samples.
May 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175353/viral-outbreaks-and-communicable-health-hazards-due-to-devastating-floods-in-pakistan
#11
Umar Saeed, Zahra Zahid Piracha
Pakistan is a developing country that has a population of 190 million people and faces a huge burden of viral diseases. Every year during monsoon season heavy rain fall and lack of disaster management skills potentially increase the transmission of waterborne diseases, vector borne diseases and viral outbreaks. Due to severe flooding, thousands of people lose their lives and millions are displaced each year. In most of the cases the children who lose their family members are forced into illegal professions of begging, child labor and prostitution which make them prone to sexually transmitted infections...
May 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175352/active-tracking-of-rejected-dried-blood-samples-in-a-large-program-in-nigeria
#12
Auchi Inalegwu, Sunny Phillips, Rawlings Datir, Christopher Chime, Petronilla Ozumba, Samuel Peters, Obinna Ogbanufe, Charles Mensah, Alash'Le Abimiku, Patrick Dakum, Nicaise Ndembi
AIM: To study the impact of rejection at different levels of health care by retrospectively reviewing records of dried blood spot samples received at the molecular laboratory for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) early infant diagnosis (EID) between January 2008 and December 2012. METHODS: The specimen rejection rate, reasons for rejection and the impact of rejection at different levels of health care was examined. The extracted data were cleaned and checked for consistency and then de-duplicated using the unique patient and clinic identifiers...
May 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175351/hepatitis-c-virus-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-1-2-co-infection-regional-burden-and-virological-outcomes-in-people-who-inject-drugs
#13
REVIEW
Erika Castro, Elena Roger
This review analyses current data concerning co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1/2 in people who inject drugs (PWID), with a particular focus on disease burden and global implications for virological outcome. In addition, the available treatment options for HTLV-1/2 are summarized and the ongoing and likely future research challenges are discussed. The data in this review was obtained from 34 articles on HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infection in PWID retrieved from the PubMed literature database and published between 1997 and 2015...
May 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175350/twenty-years-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-care-at-the-mayo-clinic-past-present-and-future
#14
REVIEW
Nathan W Cummins, Andrew D Badley, Mary J Kasten, Rahul Sampath, Zelalem Temesgen, Jennifer A Whitaker, John W Wilson, Joseph D Yao, John Zeuli, Stacey A Rizza
The Mayo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Clinic has been providing patient centered care for persons living with HIV in Minnesota and beyond for the past 20 years. Through multidisciplinary engagement, vital clinical outcomes such as retention in care, initiation of antiretroviral therapy and virologic suppression are maximized. In this commentary, we describe the history of the Mayo HIV Clinic and its best practices, providing a "Mayo Model" of HIV care that exceeds national outcomes and may be applicable in other settings...
May 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175349/inflammatory-and-oxidative-stress-in-rotavirus-infection
#15
REVIEW
Carlos A Guerrero, Orlando Acosta
Rotaviruses are the single leading cause of life-threatening diarrhea affecting children under 5 years of age. Rotavirus entry into the host cell seems to occur by sequential interactions between virion proteins and various cell surface molecules. The entry mechanisms seem to involve the contribution of cellular molecules having binding, chaperoning and oxido-reducing activities. It appears to be that the receptor usage and tropism of rotaviruses is determined by the species, cell line and rotavirus strain...
May 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26870672/neuropathology-of-jc-virus-infection-in-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-remission
#16
Karen S SantaCruz, Gulmohor Roy, James Spigel, Elaine L Bearer
AIM: To investigate the neuropathology of the brain in a rare case of remission following diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). METHODS: Consent from the family for an autopsy was obtained, clinical records and radiograms were retrieved. A complete autopsy was performed, with brain examination after fixation and coronal sectioning at 1 cm intervals. Fourteen regions were collected for paraffin embedding and staining for microscopic analysis...
February 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26870671/pathogenicity-of-a-currently-circulating-chinese-variant-pseudorabies-virus-in-pigs
#17
Qing-Yuan Yang, Zhe Sun, Fei-Fei Tan, Ling-Hua Guo, Yu-Zhou Wang, Juan Wang, Zhi-Yan Wang, Li-Lin Wang, Xiang-Dong Li, Yan Xiao, Ke-Gong Tian
AIM: To test the pathogenicity of pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant HN1201 and compare its pathogenicity with a classical PRV Fa strain. METHODS: The pathogenicity of the newly-emerging PRV variant HN1201 was evaluated by different inoculating routes, virus loads, and ages of pigs. The classical PRV Fa strain was then used to compare with HN1201 to determine pathogenicity. Clinical symptoms after virus infection were recorded daily and average daily body weight was used to measure the growth performance of pigs...
February 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26870670/modelling-the-prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-amongst-blood-donors-in-libya-an-investigation-of-providing-a-preventive-strategy
#18
Mohamed A Daw, Amira Shabash, Abdallah El-Bouzedi, Aghnya A Dau, Moktar Habas
AIM: To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence among the Libyan population using blood donors and applying the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to predict future trends and formulate plans to minimize the burden of HCV infection. METHODS: HCV positive cases were collected from 1008214 healthy blood donors over a 6-year period from 2008 to 2013. Data were used to construct the ARIMA model to forecast HCV seroprevalence among blood donors...
February 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26870669/infected-cell-protein-0-functional-domains-and-their-coordination-in-herpes-simplex-virus-replication
#19
REVIEW
Haidong Gu
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen that establishes latent infection in ganglia neurons. Its unique life cycle requires a balanced "conquer and compromise" strategy to deal with the host anti-viral defenses. One of HSV-1 α (immediate early) gene products, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), is a multifunctional protein that interacts with and modulates a wide range of cellular defensive pathways. These pathways may locate in different cell compartments, which then migrate or exchange factors upon stimulation, for the purpose of a concerted and effective defense...
February 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26568919/prevalence-of-adenovirus-and-rotavirus-infection-in-immunocompromised-patients-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-portugal
#20
Joana Ribeiro, Delfim Ferreira, Célia Arrabalde, Sandra Almeida, Inês Baldaque, Hugo Sousa
AIM: To characterize the prevalence of rotavirus (RV) and adenovirus (AdV) infections in immunocompromised patients with acute gastroenteritis. METHODS: The presence of RV and AdV (serotypes 40 and 41) was evaluated in 509 stool samples obtained between January 2009 and December 2010 from 200 immunocompromised patients (83 females and 117 males; median age 21 years old, range 0-72. The diagnosis of infection was performed as a routine procedure and the presence of RV and AdV (serotypes 40 and 41) was determined by immunochromatography using the RIDA(®) Quick Rota-Adeno-Kombi kit (r-Biopharm, Darmstadt, Germany)...
November 12, 2015: World Journal of Virology
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