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Biomarker Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439416/burden-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-among-hispanics-in-south-texas-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
John Ha, Aysha Chaudhri, Abhishek Avirineni, Jen-Jung Pan
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the fastest rising causes of cancer-related mortality in the United States (U.S.). Despite improved HCC screening and surveillance guidelines, significant race/ethnicity-specific disparities in hepatocellular carcinoma remain, disproportionately affecting at risk racial minorities in the U.S. The current review aims to provide an updated analysis on race/ethnicity-specific disparities in HCC epidemiology with a focus on predisposing risk factors...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405337/autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-associated-with-babesiosis
#2
Roshni Narurkar, Aleksandra Mamorska-Dyga, John C Nelson, Delong Liu
BACKGROUND: Babesiosis is endemic in selected areas in North America. Babesia infection is commonly associated with anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia and elevated liver enzymes. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is known to be caused by parasitic and viral infections but has not been well characterized. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe two cases diagnosed with babesiosis triggering severe AIHA. One case had history of splenectomy, and the other was an elderly patient...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344803/length-of-hospitalization-is-associated-with-selected-biomarkers-albumin-and-lymphocytes-and-with-co-morbidities-study-on-4000-patients
#3
Antonio E Pontiroli, Lara Loreggian, Marco P L Rovati, Elena De Patto, Laura Folini, Federico Raveglia, Matilde De Simone, Alessandro Baisi, Ugo Cioffi
BACKGROUND: Low albumin levels and low lymphocyte counts are intra hospital conditions that exert a negative influence on prognosis, healing and length of hospitalization. The study aimed to analyze the correlation between low blood levels of albumin, low lymphocytes, and length of stay. The secondary aim was to identify other co-morbidities associated with prolonged hospital stay. METHODS: Retrospective pilot study was conducted by analyzing anamnestic and biochemical data, related to 4038 patients admitted to ten wards of Hospital San Paolo (Milan), collected from July 1(st) 2012 to December 31(st) 2012...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331612/utility-of-pd-l1-immunohistochemistry-assays-for-predicting-pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitor-response
#4
REVIEW
Laurence P Diggs, Eddy C Hsueh
We have seen a notable increase in the application of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors for the treatment of several solid and hematogenous malignancies including metastatic melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer and lymphoma to name a few. The need for biomarkers for identification of a suitable patient population for this type of therapy is now pressing. While specific biomarker assays have been developed for these checkpoint inhibitors based on their respective epitopes, the available studies suggested the clinical utility of these biomarker assays is for response stratification and not patient selection...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293426/identification-of-potential-serum-biomarkers-for-breast-cancer-using-a-functional-proteomics-technology
#5
David L Wang, Chuanguang Xiao, Guofeng Fu, Xing Wang, Liang Li
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a genetic disease; its development and metastasis depend on the function of many proteins. Human serum contains thousands of proteins; it is a window for the homeostasis of individual's health. Many of the proteins found in the human serum could be potential biomarkers for cancer early detection and drug efficacy evaluation. METHODS: In this study, a functional proteomics technology was used to systematically monitor metabolic enzyme and protease activities from resolved serum proteins produced by a modified 2-D gel separation and subsequent Protein Elution Plate, a method collectively called PEP...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293425/podocalyxin-like-and-rna-binding-motif-protein-3-are-prognostic-biomarkers-in-urothelial-bladder-cancer-a-validatory-study
#6
Karolina Boman, Gustav Andersson, Christoffer Wennersten, Björn Nodin, Göran Ahlgren, Karin Jirström
BACKGROUND: Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is a disease that often is discovered when the tumour is non-muscle invasive, i.e. in Ta or T1 stage. Some patients will progress into muscle-invasive disease, a potentially deadly condition. Although there are some prognostic models, the need for prognostic and predictive biomarkers is considerate and urgent. Membranous expression of podocalyxin-like protein 1 (PODXL) and low expression of the RNA-binding motif 3 (RBM3) has previously been shown to be associated with an aggressive tumour phenotype and poor prognosis in several forms of cancer, including UBC...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293424/application-of-penalized-linear-regression-methods-to-the-selection-of-environmental-enteropathy-biomarkers
#7
Miao Lu, Jianhui Zhou, Caitlin Naylor, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Rashidul Haque, William A Petri, Jennie Z Ma
BACKGROUND: Environmental Enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical condition caused by constant fecal-oral contamination and resulting in blunting of intestinal villi and intestinal inflammation. Of primary interest in the clinical research is to evaluate the association between non-invasive EE biomarkers and malnutrition in a cohort of Bangladeshi children. The challenges are that the number of biomarkers/covariates is relatively large, and some of them are highly correlated. METHODS: Many variable selection methods are available in the literature, but which are most appropriate for EE biomarker selection remains unclear...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239461/tissue-microrna-profiles-as-diagnostic-and-prognostic-biomarkers-in-patients-with-resectable-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-and-periampullary-cancers
#8
Dan Calatayud, Christian Dehlendorff, Mogens K Boisen, Jane Preuss Hasselby, Nicolai Aagaard Schultz, Jens Werner, Heike Immervoll, Anders Molven, Carsten Palnæs Hansen, Julia S Johansen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to validate previously described diagnostic and prognostic microRNA expression profiles in tissue samples from patients with pancreatic cancer and other periampullary cancers. METHODS: Expression of 46 selected microRNAs was studied in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n = 165), ampullary cancer (n=59), duodenal cancer (n = 6), distal common bile duct cancer (n = 21), and gastric cancer (n = 20); chronic pancreatitis (n = 39); and normal pancreas (n = 35)...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194276/a-case-report-of-concurrent-embryonal-rhabdomyosarcoma-and-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-an-adult-without-identifiable-cancer-predisposition
#9
M D Mathias, M V Ortiz, H Magnan, S R Ambati, E K Slotkin, A J Chou, M F Walsh, K Offit, C Moskowitz, A Kentsis, L H Wexler
BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Rhabdomyosarcoma, the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood. makes up less than 1% of solid malignancies in adults with around 400 new cases each year in the United States. They have not previously been reported concurrently. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37 year old woman presented with painful enlarging leg mass. Biopsy of the mass was consistent with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194275/inappropriate-costimulation-and-aberrant-dna-methylation-as-therapeutic-targets-in-angioimmunoblastic-t-cell-lymphoma
#10
EDITORIAL
Mathijs Willemsen, Harry C Schouten
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is one of the most common subtypes of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Advances in understanding the mutational landscape of AITL have not resulted in improved prognosis nor consensus regarding optimal first-line and second-line treatment. The recently proposed multistep tumorigenesis model for AITL provides a theoretical framework of AITL oncogenesis. In this model, early mutations in epigenetic modifiers interact with late cooperative mutations to enable malignant transformation...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191314/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cd20-negative-b-cell-lymphomas
#11
REVIEW
Tasleem Katchi, Delong Liu
CD20 negative B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is rare and accounts for approximately 1-2% of B cell lymphomas. CD20- negative NHL is frequently associated with extranodal involvement, atypical morphology, aggressive clinical behaviour, resistance to standard chemotherapy and poor prognosis. The most common types of these include plasmablastic lymphoma, primary effusion lymphoma, large B-cell lymphoma arising from HHV8-associated multicentric Castleman's disease, and ALK+ large B cell lymphoma. This review provides an overview of the diagnostic and treatment modalities for CD20 negative B cell NHL...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191313/metastatic-biomarkers-in-synovial-sarcoma
#12
REVIEW
Rosalia de Necochea-Campion, Lee M Zuckerman, Hamid R Mirshahidi, Shahrzad Khosrowpour, Chien-Shing Chen, Saied Mirshahidi
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma (STS) that typically occurs in the extremities near a joint. Metastatic disease is common and usually occurs in the lungs and lymph nodes. Surgical management is the mainstay of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation typically used as adjuvant treatment. Although chemotherapy has a positive impact on survival, the prognosis is poor if metastatic disease occurs. The biology of sarcoma invasion and metastasis remain poorly understood. Chromosomal translocation with fusion of the SYT and SSX genes has been described and is currently used as a diagnostic marker, although the full impact of the fusion is unknown...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127430/nos1-nos3-pik3ca-and-mapk-pathways-in-skin-following-radiation-therapy
#13
Steffen Koerdt, Nadine Tanner, Niklas Rommel, Nils H Rohleder, Gesche Frohwitter, Oliver Ristow, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Marco R Kesting
BACKGROUND: Essential molecular pathways such as the MAPK pathway, NO system, or the influence of PIK3CA as an oncogene are known to regulate fundamental signalling networks. However, few knowledge about their role in the occurrence of wound healing disorders (WHD) following radiation therapy (RT) exists. This study aims to evaluate the expression profiles of specific molecular pathway marker genes. METHODS: Expression profiles of the genes encoding MAPK, NOS1, NOS3, and PIK3CA were analyzed, by RT-PCR, in specimens from patients with and without a history of RT to the head and neck...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127429/machine-learning-and-systems-genomics-approaches-for-multi-omics-data
#14
REVIEW
Eugene Lin, Hsien-Yuan Lane
In light of recent advances in biomedical computing, big data science, and precision medicine, there is a mammoth demand for establishing algorithms in machine learning and systems genomics (MLSG), together with multi-omics data, to weigh probable phenotype-genotype relationships. Software frameworks in MLSG are extensively employed to analyze hundreds of thousands of multi-omics data by high-throughput technologies. In this study, we reviewed the MLSG software frameworks and future directions with respect to multi-omics data analysis and integration...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127428/dna-methyltransferases-and-their-roles-in-tumorigenesis
#15
REVIEW
Wu Zhang, Jie Xu
DNA methylation plays an important role in gene expression, chromatin stability, and genetic imprinting. In mammals, DNA methylation patterns are written and regulated by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), including DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B. Recent emerging evidence shows that defects in DNMTs are involved in tumor transformation and progression, thus indicating that epigenetic disruptions caused by DNMT abnormalities are associated with tumorigenesis. Herein, we review the latest findings related to DNMT alterations in cancer cells and discuss the contributions of these effects to oncogenic phenotypes...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018598/cd34-and-cd38-are-prognostic-biomarkers-for-acute-b-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#16
REVIEW
Zhiwu Jiang, Di Wu, Shouheng Lin, Peng Li
CD34 and CD38 proteins are usually used as surface markers to identify HSCs and Leukemic stem cells. However, there have been cases that lacked CD34 or CD38 protein but still had leukemia initiating capacity in B-ALL suggesting the restrictive of these two markers. CD34 and CD38 expression were detected in most B-ALL and can serve as a specific biomarker for the prognosis of this subset of leukemia. Lack of CD34 or high CD38 expression is associated with favorable prognosis.
2016: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999674/development-and-validation-of-a-novel-bioassay-to-determine-glucocorticoid-sensitivity
#17
Emily L Williams, Madeleine L Stimpson, Peter L Collins, Doyo G Enki, Ashish Sinha, Richard W Lee, Ashwin D Dhanda
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids (GCs) remain the first line treatment for almost all non-infectious inflammatory diseases, ranging from acute asthma to rheumatoid arthritis. However, across all conditions, patients have a variable response to GCs with approximately 30% being non-responders. This group of GC resistant patients is typically exposed to high-dose GCs and their side-effects before more appropriate immunotherapy is instituted. Hence, there is a pressing clinical need for a predictive biomarker of GC responsiveness...
2016: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999673/application-of-multi-target-phytotherapeutic-concept-in-malaria-drug-discovery-a-systems-biology-approach-in-biomarker-identification
#18
REVIEW
Protus Arrey Tarkang, Regina Appiah-Opong, Michael F Ofori, Lawrence S Ayong, Alexander K Nyarko
There is an urgent need for new anti-malaria drugs with broad therapeutic potential and novel mode of action, for effective treatment and to overcome emerging drug resistance. Plant-derived anti-malarials remain a significant source of bioactive molecules in this regard. The multicomponent formulation forms the basis of phytotherapy. Mechanistic reasons for the poly-pharmacological effects of plants constitute increased bioavailability, interference with cellular transport processes, activation of pro-drugs/deactivation of active compounds to inactive metabolites and action of synergistic partners at different points of the same signaling cascade...
2016: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999672/dental-implant-bioactive-surface-modifications-and-their-effects-on-osseointegration-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Hsiu-Wan Meng, Esther Yun Chien, Hua-Hong Chien
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this article is to review and update the current developments of biologically active dental implant surfaces and their effect on osseointegration. METHODS: PubMed was searched for entries from January 2006 to January 2016. Only in-vivo studies that evaluated the effects of biomolecular coatings on titanium dental implants inserted into the bone of animals or humans were included. RESULTS: Thirty four non-review studies provided data and observations were included in this review...
2016: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999671/plasma-microrna-biomarker-detection-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-using-differential-correlation-analysis
#20
Mitsunori Kayano, Sayuri Higaki, Jun-Ichi Satoh, Kenji Matsumoto, Etsuro Matsubara, Osamu Takikawa, Shumpei Niida
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate state between normal aging and dementia including Alzheimer's disease. Early detection of dementia, and MCI, is a crucial issue in terms of secondary prevention. Blood biomarker detection is a possible way for early detection of MCI. Although disease biomarkers are detected by, in general, using single molecular analysis such as t-test, another possible approach is based on interaction between molecules. RESULTS: Differential correlation analysis, which detects difference on correlation of two variables in case/control study, was carried out to plasma microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of 30 age- and race-matched controls and 23 Japanese MCI patients...
2016: Biomarker Research
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