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Biomarker Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065837/investigation-of-hnf-1b-as-a-diagnostic-biomarker-for-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#1
Michelle X Yang, Ryan F Coates, Abiy Ambaye, Juli-Anne Gardner, Richard Zubarick, Yuan Gao, Joan Skelly, James G Liu, Mari Mino-Kenudson
Background: Diagnosing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in the setting of metastasis with an unknown primary remains very challenging due to the lack of specific biomarkers. HNF-1B has been characterized as an important transcription factor for pancreatic development and was reported as a biomarker for clear cell subtype of PDAC. Methods: To investigate the diagnostic role of HNF-1B for PDAC, we used tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to characterize HNF-1B expression in a large cohort of carcinomas, including 127 primary PDACs, 47 biliary adenocarcinomas, 17 metastatic PDACs, and 231 non-pancreaticobiliary carcinomas...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034808/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-%C3%AE-pi3k-%C3%AE-is-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma
#2
Hiroo Katsuya, Lucy B M Cook, Aileen G Rowan, Yorifumi Satou, Graham P Taylor, Charles R M Bangham
The prognosis of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) remains very poor, and there is an urgent clinical need to investigate novel therapies for ATL. The expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-δ (PI3k-δ) is normally restricted to hematopoietic cells and is known as a key determinant of cell survival in certain cancers. The inhibitor of PI3k-δ, idelalisib, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Here, we report the expression of PI3k-δ and the ability of idelalisib to promote apoptosis in ex vivo ATL samples...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009029/fibronectin-protein-expression-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-in-correlation-with-clinical-stage-of-tumour
#3
Sandeep Kondisetty, Krishnakumar N Menon, Ginil Kumar Pooleri
Background: Carcinogenesis is a multistep process which involves interplay between the tumour cells and the matrix proteins. This occurs by adherence between the tumour cells and proteins in the extracellular matrix. VHL mutation affects through the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and causes changes in various tissue proteins like VEGF, PDGF, TGF, Fibronectin and others. As not much literature is available, we aim to quantify the changes of fibronectin protein in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tissue...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29946469/kinomic-profiling-of-glioblastoma-cells-reveals-plcg1-as-a-target-in-restricted-glucose
#4
Kiera Walker, Nathaniel H Boyd, Joshua C Anderson, Christopher D Willey, Anita B Hjelmeland
Background: For glioblastoma (GBM) treatments to be effective in vivo, understanding the effects of the tumor microenvironment is imperative. In traditional cell culture conditions, glucose concentrations do not model physiologic levels, nor the diminished concentrations found in tumor niches. We therefore sought to profile the differences in kinase activity in GBM cells cultured in restricted glucose to identify pathways that could be targeted with small molecule inhibitors. Methods: Using the PamStation12 platform, we examined the ability of GBM lysates from cells cultured in standard or low glucose conditions to phosphorylate 144 tyrosine and 144 serine/threonine peptides that correspond to known protein phosphorylation sites...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29946468/chemerin-is-elevated-in-multiple-myeloma-patients-and-is-expressed-by-stromal-cells-and-pre-adipocytes
#5
Marita Westhrin, Siv Helen Moen, Ida Bruun Kristensen, Glenn Buene, Anne Kærsgaard Mylin, Ingemar Turesson, Niels Abildgaard, Anders Waage, Therese Standal
Chemerin is a recently discovered adipokine shown to be involved in both inflammatory and metabolic processes. Here, we demonstrate that chemerin serum levels are elevated in patients with multiple myeloma and that it increases with disease progression. We found that chemerin is expressed by stromal cells and preadipocytes, whereas its receptor CCRL2 is expressed by primary myeloma cells, suggesting a paracrine signaling loop between bone marrow stromal cells/adipocytes and myeloma cells. This is the first study exploring chemerin and its receptors in multiple myeloma...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29946467/serum-levels-of-vegf-and-mcsf-in-her2-her2-breast-cancer-patients-with-metronomic-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#6
Roberto J Arai, Vanessa Petry, Paulo M Hoff, Max S Mano
Metronomic therapy has been gaining importance in the neoadjuvant setting of breast cancer treatment. Its clinical benefits may involve antiangiogenic machinery. Cancer cells induce angiogenesis to support tumor growth by secreting factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In breast cancer, Trastuzumab (TZM) based treatment is of key importance and is believed to reduce diameter and volume of blood vessels as well as vascular permeability. Here in we investigated serum levels of angiogenic factors VEGF and MCSF in patients receiving metronomic neoadjuvant therapy with or without TZM...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942514/microrna-based-prognostic-biomarkers-in-pancreatic-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Shixiang Guo, Andrew Fesler, Huaizhi Wang, Jingfang Ju
Despite tremendous research efforts focused on diagnosis and treatment, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, with a 5-year overall survival rate of less than 5%. Although resistance is rather complex, emerging evidence has demonstrated that epigenetic alterations (e.g. miRNA) have important roles in PDAC progression as well as resistance to therapy. Certain miRNAs have been identified as potential prognostic biomarkers in PDAC. In this review, we summarize the recent developments in miRNA research related to PDAC therapeutic resistance mechanisms and the potential of miRNAs as prognostic biomarkers for future clinical management of PDAC...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942513/associations-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-with-mucinous-colorectal-cancer-genome-wide-common-variant-and-gene-based-rare-variant-analyses
#8
Michelle E Penney, Patrick S Parfrey, Sevtap Savas, Yildiz E Yilmaz
Background: Colorectal cancer has significant impact on individuals and healthcare systems. Many genes have been identified to influence its pathogenesis. However, the genetic basis of mucinous tumor histology, an aggressive subtype of colorectal cancer, is currently not well-known. This study aimed to identify common and rare genetic variations that are associated with the mucinous tumor phenotype. Methods: Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data was investigated in a colorectal cancer patient cohort ( n  = 505)...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928505/absence-of-calretinin-protein-expression-in-malignant-mesotheliomas-from-asbestos-exposed-nf2-mice-and-mouse-mesothelioma-cell-lines-from-various-mouse-strains
#9
Walter Blum, Thomas Henzi, Hugues-Etienne Châtel-Soulet, Laszlo Pecze, Janine Wörthmüller Rodriguez, Bart Vrugt, Beat Schwaller
Background: Calretinin is the most widespread positive marker for the immunohistochemical identification of malignant mesothelioma (MM) and was proposed to serve as a blood-based biomarker. Functionally, evidence has accumulated that calretinin might be implicated in MM tumorigenesis. We aimed to identify calretinin (CR; Calb2 ) in murine MM and reactive mesothelial cells in granuloma from asbestos-exposed NF2+/- mice, a line heterozygous for the tumor suppressor merlin (NF2), used as a mouse MM model...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780592/preleukemic-and-second-hit-mutational-events-in-an-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patient-with-a-novel-germline-runx1-mutation
#10
Isaac Ks Ng, Joanne Lee, Christopher Ng, Bustamin Kosmo, Lily Chiu, Elaine Seah, Michelle Meng Huang Mok, Karen Tan, Motomi Osato, Wee-Joo Chng, Benedict Yan, Lip Kun Tan
Background: Germline mutations in the RUNX1 transcription factor give rise to a rare autosomal dominant genetic condition classified under the entity: Familial Platelet Disorders with predisposition to Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (FPD/AML). While several studies have identified a myriad of germline RUNX1 mutations implicated in this disorder, second-hit mutational events are necessary for patients with hereditary thrombocytopenia to develop full-blown AML. The molecular picture behind this process remains unclear...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713473/nkx2-2-pdx-1-and-cdx-2-as-potential-biomarkers-to-differentiate-well-differentiated-neuroendocrine-tumors
#11
Michelle X Yang, Ryan F Coates, Abiy Ambaye, Valerie Cortright, Jeannette M Mitchell, Alexa M Buskey, Richard Zubarik, James G Liu, Steven Ades, Maura M Barry
Background: Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NET) most frequently arise from the gastrointestinal tract (GI), pancreas, and lung. Patients often present as metastasis with an unknown primary, and the clinical management and outcome depend on multiple factors, including the accurate diagnosis with the tumor primary site. Determining the site of the NET with unknown primary remains challenging. Many biomarkers have been investigated in primary NETs and metastatic NETs, with heterogeneous sensitivity and specificity observed...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651336/pi3k-p38-and-jak-stat-signalling-in-bronchial-tissue-from-patients-with-asthma-following-allergen-challenge
#12
Thomas Southworth, Sarah Mason, Alan Bell, Isabel Ramis, Marta Calbet, Anna Domenech, Neus Prats, Montserrat Miralpeix, Dave Singh
Background: Inhaled allergen challenges are often used to evaluate novel asthma treatments in early phase clinical trials. Current novel therapeutic targets in asthma include phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) delta and gamma, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and Janus kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling pathways. The activation of these pathways following allergen exposure in atopic asthma patients it is not known. Methods: We collected bronchial biopsies from 11 atopic asthma patients at baseline and after allergen challenge to investigate biomarkers of PI3K, p38 MAPK and JAK/STAT activation by immunohistochemistry...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588856/diagnosis-of-gata2-haplo-insufficiency-in-a-young-woman-prompted-by-pancytopenia-with-deficiencies-of-b-cell-and-dendritic-cell-development
#13
Allen Sanyi, David L Jaye, Cecilia B Rosand, Amanda Box, Chandrakasan Shanmuganathan, Edmund K Waller
Background: GATA2 deficiency presents with a spectrum of phenotypes including increased susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections, multi-lineage cytopenias, aplastic anemia, leukemic transformation and lymphedema. Allogeneic transplantation is only curative therapy for GATA2 deficiency, but is associated with significant treatment related morbidity and mortality. Given the spectrum of clinical presentation, accurate diagnosis of GATA2 deficiency is necessary to identify patients early in their disease course when allogeneic bone marrow transplantation may be of clinical benefit...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568526/erythrocyte-fatty-acid-profiles-in-children-are-not-predictive-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-status-a-case-control-study
#14
Daniel P Howsmon, James B Adams, Uwe Kruger, Elizabeth Geis, Eva Gehn, Juergen Hahn
Biomarkers promise biomolecular explanations as well as reliable diagnostics, stratification, and treatment strategies that have the potential to help mitigate the effects of disorders. While no reliable biomarker has yet been found for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), fatty acids have been investigated as potential biomarkers because of their association with brain development and neural functions. However, the ability of fatty acids to classify individuals with ASD from age/gender-matched neurotypical (NEU) peers has largely been ignored in favor of investigating population-level differences...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564133/suitability-of-yin-yang-1-transcript-and-protein-levels-for-biomarker-studies-in-b-cell-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#15
Jéssica Arribas Arranz, Dalia Nilufar Winter, Hans Günter Drexler, Sonja Eberth
Background: Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a transcription factor that plays an important role during all stages of B cell differentiation. Several studies reported upregulation of YY1 in B cell derived lymphoma, indicating that it might act as an oncogene. Furthermore, aberrant YY1 expression has been associated with survival in some entities of B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), suggesting that YY1 could be a valuable biomarker in B-NHL. However, studies are controversial and methodologically disparate, partially because some studies are based on transcript levels while others rely on YY1 protein data...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556394/epigenetic-regulation-of-cancer-progression-by-ezh2-from-biological-insights-to-therapeutic-potential
#16
REVIEW
Lu Gan, Yanan Yang, Qian Li, Yi Feng, Tianshu Liu, Weijian Guo
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone methyltransferase and a catalytic component of PRC2, catalyzes tri-methylation of histone H3 at Lys 27 (H3K27me3) to regulate gene expression through epigenetic machinery. EZH2 also functions both as a transcriptional suppressor and a transcriptional co-activator, depending on H3K27me3 or not and on the different cellular contexts. Unsurprisingly, numerous studies have highlighted the role of EZH2 in cancer development and progression. Through modulating critical gene expression, EZH2 promotes cell survival, proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal, invasion, and drug resistance of cancer cells...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541473/correction-to-circulating-tumor-cell-clusters-associated-gene-plakoglobin-is-a-significant-prognostic-predictor-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#17
W Goto, S Kashiwagi, Y Asano, K Takada, K Takahashi, T Hatano, T Takashima, S Tomita, H Motomura, M Ohsawa, K Hirakawa, M Ohira
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s40364-017-0099-2.].
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456860/protein-kinase-inhibitors-for-acute-leukemia
#18
REVIEW
Yuan Ling, Qing Xie, Zikang Zhang, Hua Zhang
Conventional treatments for acute leukemia include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and intensive combined treatments (including bone marrow transplant or stem cell transplants). Novel treatment approaches are in active development. Recently, protein kinase inhibitors are on clinical trials and offer hope as new drugs for acute leukemia treatment. This review will provide a brief summary of the protein kinase inhibitors in clinical applications for acute leukemia treatment.
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456859/acute-myeloid-leukemia-in-a-father-and-son-with-a-germline-mutation-of-asxl1
#19
Karen Seiter, Kyaw Htun, Paul Baskind, Zach Liu
Background: Myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia usually occur sporadically in older adults. More recently cases of familial acute myeloid leukemia and/or myelodysplastic syndrome have been reported. Case presentation: Currently we report a father and son who both developed myelodysplastic syndrome that progressed to acute myeloid leukemia. Both patients were found to have the identical mutation of ASXL1 on nextgen sequencing of both hematologic and nonhematologic tissues...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441205/sphingosine-kinase-2-supports-the-development-of-bcr-abl-independent-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-mice
#20
Vicki Xie, Daochen Tong, Craig T Wallington-Beddoe, Ken F Bradstock, Linda J Bendall
Background: Sphingosine kinase (SphK) 2 has been implicated in the development of a range of cancers and inhibitors of this enzyme are currently in clinical trial. We have previously demonstrated a role for SphK2 in the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methods: In this and our previous study we use mouse models: in the previous study the disease was driven by the proto-oncogene BCR/ABL1, while in this study cancer risk was elevated by deletion of the tumor suppressor ARF...
2018: Biomarker Research
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