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Biomarker Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616237/higher-serum-concentrations-of-vimentin-and-dakp1-are-associated-with-aggressive-breast-tumour-phenotypes-in-ghanaian-women
#1
Benjamin Arko-Boham, Justice Tanihu Lomotey, Emmanuel Nomo Tetteh, Emmanuel Ayitey Tagoe, Nii Ayite Aryee, Ewurama Ampadu Owusu, Isaac Okai, Richard Michael Blay, Joe-Nat Clegg-Lamptey
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women and leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, exhibits aggressive behavior in indigenous African women evidenced by high histologic grade tumours with low hormone receptor positivity. Aggressive breast cancers grow quickly, easily metastasize and recur and often have unfavourable outcomes. The current study investigated candidate genes that may regulate tumour aggression in Ghanaian women. We hypothesize that increased expression and function of certain genes other than the widely-held view attributing breast cancer aggression in African populations to their younger population age may be responsible for the aggressive nature of tumours...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593047/integration-of-a-bacterial-gene-sequence-into-a-chronic-eosinophilic-leukemia-patient-s-genome-as-part-of-a-fusion-gene-linker
#2
Saveen Sidhoo, Jesusa L Rosales, Ki-Young Lee
Analysis of databases from the human genome project (HGP), the 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP), and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed bacterial DNA integration into the human somatic genome, particularly in tumor tissues. Fusion genes have also been associated with tumorigenesis and 34 PDGFR fusion genes are linked to hematological malignancies. Here, we determined that a 17-bp homologous sequence in Marinobacter sp. Hb8, Rhodococcus fascians D188, Rhodococcus sp. PBTS2, Micrococcus luteus strain trpE16 and M...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529755/bone-biomarker-for-the-clinical-assessment-of-osteoporosis-recent-developments-and-future-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Tsung-Rong Kuo, Chih-Hwa Chen
Bone biomarkers included formation, resorption and regulator are released during the bone remodeling processes. These bone biomarkers have attracted much attention in the clinical assessment of osteoporosis treatment in the past decade. Combination with the measurement of bone mineral density, the clinical applications of bone biomarkers have provided comprehensive information for diagnosis of osteoporosis. However, the analytical approaches of the bone biomarkers are still the challenge for further clinical trials...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507762/circulating-tumor-cell-clusters-associated-gene-plakoglobin-is-a-significant-prognostic-predictor-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#4
Wataru Goto, Shinichiro Kashiwagi, Yuka Asano, Koji Takada, Katsuyuki Takahashi, Takaharu Hatano, Tsutomu Takashima, Shuhei Tomita, Hisashi Motomura, Masahiko Ohsawa, Kosei Hirakawa, Masaichi Ohira
BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are linked to metastatic relapse and are regarded as a prognostic marker for human cancer. High expression of plakoglobin, a cell adhesion protein, within the primary tumor is positively associated with CTC clusters in breast cancer. In this study, we investigated the correlation between plakoglobin expression and survival of breast cancer. METHODS: We evaluated 121 breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503307/clinical-significance-of-intronic-variants-in-braf-inhibitor-resistant-melanomas-with-altered-braf-transcript-splicing
#5
Gulietta M Pupo, Suzanah C Boyd, Carina Fung, Matteo S Carlino, Alexander M Menzies, Bernadette Pedersen, Peter Johansson, Nicholas K Hayward, Richard F Kefford, Richard A Scolyer, Georgina V Long, Helen Rizos
Alternate BRAF splicing is the most common mechanism of acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitor treatment in melanoma. Recently, alternate BRAF exon 4-8 splicing was shown to involve an intronic mutation, located 51 nucleotides upstream of BRAF exon 9 within a predicted splicing branch point. This intronic mutation was identified in a single cell line but has not been examined in vivo. Herein we demonstrate that in three melanomas biopsied from patients with acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors, alternate BRAF exon 4-8 splicing is not associated with this intronic branch point mutation...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503306/the-drive-to-generate-multiple-forms-of-oncogenic-cyclin-d1-transcripts-in-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#6
EDITORIAL
Chioniso Patience Masamha
Alternative polyadenylation is a rapidly emerging form of gene regulation, which in its simplest form, enables the generation of mRNA transcripts that code for the same protein but have 3'UTRs of different lengths and regulatory content. For oncogenes, shorter 3'UTRs would be preferred as a mechanism to evade miRNA regulation. The shortening of the 3'UTR of cyclin D1 in mantle cell lymphoma offers provocative insights into this process. Patient samples have revealed that 3'UTR shortening may occur due to mutations, or translocations that result in the generation of a chimeric 3'UTR...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439416/burden-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-among-hispanics-in-south-texas-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
John Ha, Aysha Chaudhri, Abhishek Avirineni, Jen-Jung Pan
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the fastest rising causes of cancer-related mortality in the United States (U.S.). Despite improved HCC screening and surveillance guidelines, significant race/ethnicity-specific disparities in hepatocellular carcinoma remain, disproportionately affecting at risk racial minorities in the U.S. The current review aims to provide an updated analysis on race/ethnicity-specific disparities in HCC epidemiology with a focus on predisposing risk factors...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405337/autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-associated-with-babesiosis
#8
Roshni Narurkar, Aleksandra Mamorska-Dyga, John C Nelson, Delong Liu
BACKGROUND: Babesiosis is endemic in selected areas in North America. Babesia infection is commonly associated with anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia and elevated liver enzymes. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is known to be caused by parasitic and viral infections but has not been well characterized. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe two cases diagnosed with babesiosis triggering severe AIHA. One case had history of splenectomy, and the other was an elderly patient...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344803/length-of-hospitalization-is-associated-with-selected-biomarkers-albumin-and-lymphocytes-and-with-co-morbidities-study-on-4000-patients
#9
Antonio E Pontiroli, Lara Loreggian, Marco P L Rovati, Elena De Patto, Laura Folini, Federico Raveglia, Matilde De Simone, Alessandro Baisi, Ugo Cioffi
BACKGROUND: Low albumin levels and low lymphocyte counts are intra hospital conditions that exert a negative influence on prognosis, healing and length of hospitalization. The study aimed to analyze the correlation between low blood levels of albumin, low lymphocytes, and length of stay. The secondary aim was to identify other co-morbidities associated with prolonged hospital stay. METHODS: Retrospective pilot study was conducted by analyzing anamnestic and biochemical data, related to 4038 patients admitted to ten wards of Hospital San Paolo (Milan), collected from July 1(st) 2012 to December 31(st) 2012...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331612/utility-of-pd-l1-immunohistochemistry-assays-for-predicting-pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitor-response
#10
REVIEW
Laurence P Diggs, Eddy C Hsueh
We have seen a notable increase in the application of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors for the treatment of several solid and hematogenous malignancies including metastatic melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer and lymphoma to name a few. The need for biomarkers for identification of a suitable patient population for this type of therapy is now pressing. While specific biomarker assays have been developed for these checkpoint inhibitors based on their respective epitopes, the available studies suggested the clinical utility of these biomarker assays is for response stratification and not patient selection...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293426/identification-of-potential-serum-biomarkers-for-breast-cancer-using-a-functional-proteomics-technology
#11
David L Wang, Chuanguang Xiao, Guofeng Fu, Xing Wang, Liang Li
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a genetic disease; its development and metastasis depend on the function of many proteins. Human serum contains thousands of proteins; it is a window for the homeostasis of individual's health. Many of the proteins found in the human serum could be potential biomarkers for cancer early detection and drug efficacy evaluation. METHODS: In this study, a functional proteomics technology was used to systematically monitor metabolic enzyme and protease activities from resolved serum proteins produced by a modified 2-D gel separation and subsequent Protein Elution Plate, a method collectively called PEP...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293425/podocalyxin-like-and-rna-binding-motif-protein-3-are-prognostic-biomarkers-in-urothelial-bladder-cancer-a-validatory-study
#12
Karolina Boman, Gustav Andersson, Christoffer Wennersten, Björn Nodin, Göran Ahlgren, Karin Jirström
BACKGROUND: Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is a disease that often is discovered when the tumour is non-muscle invasive, i.e. in Ta or T1 stage. Some patients will progress into muscle-invasive disease, a potentially deadly condition. Although there are some prognostic models, the need for prognostic and predictive biomarkers is considerate and urgent. Membranous expression of podocalyxin-like protein 1 (PODXL) and low expression of the RNA-binding motif 3 (RBM3) has previously been shown to be associated with an aggressive tumour phenotype and poor prognosis in several forms of cancer, including UBC...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293424/application-of-penalized-linear-regression-methods-to-the-selection-of-environmental-enteropathy-biomarkers
#13
Miao Lu, Jianhui Zhou, Caitlin Naylor, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Rashidul Haque, William A Petri, Jennie Z Ma
BACKGROUND: Environmental Enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical condition caused by constant fecal-oral contamination and resulting in blunting of intestinal villi and intestinal inflammation. Of primary interest in the clinical research is to evaluate the association between non-invasive EE biomarkers and malnutrition in a cohort of Bangladeshi children. The challenges are that the number of biomarkers/covariates is relatively large, and some of them are highly correlated. METHODS: Many variable selection methods are available in the literature, but which are most appropriate for EE biomarker selection remains unclear...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239461/tissue-microrna-profiles-as-diagnostic-and-prognostic-biomarkers-in-patients-with-resectable-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-and-periampullary-cancers
#14
Dan Calatayud, Christian Dehlendorff, Mogens K Boisen, Jane Preuss Hasselby, Nicolai Aagaard Schultz, Jens Werner, Heike Immervoll, Anders Molven, Carsten Palnæs Hansen, Julia S Johansen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to validate previously described diagnostic and prognostic microRNA expression profiles in tissue samples from patients with pancreatic cancer and other periampullary cancers. METHODS: Expression of 46 selected microRNAs was studied in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n = 165), ampullary cancer (n=59), duodenal cancer (n = 6), distal common bile duct cancer (n = 21), and gastric cancer (n = 20); chronic pancreatitis (n = 39); and normal pancreas (n = 35)...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194276/a-case-report-of-concurrent-embryonal-rhabdomyosarcoma-and-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-an-adult-without-identifiable-cancer-predisposition
#15
M D Mathias, M V Ortiz, H Magnan, S R Ambati, E K Slotkin, A J Chou, M F Walsh, K Offit, C Moskowitz, A Kentsis, L H Wexler
BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Rhabdomyosarcoma, the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood. makes up less than 1% of solid malignancies in adults with around 400 new cases each year in the United States. They have not previously been reported concurrently. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37 year old woman presented with painful enlarging leg mass. Biopsy of the mass was consistent with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194275/inappropriate-costimulation-and-aberrant-dna-methylation-as-therapeutic-targets-in-angioimmunoblastic-t-cell-lymphoma
#16
EDITORIAL
Mathijs Willemsen, Harry C Schouten
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is one of the most common subtypes of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Advances in understanding the mutational landscape of AITL have not resulted in improved prognosis nor consensus regarding optimal first-line and second-line treatment. The recently proposed multistep tumorigenesis model for AITL provides a theoretical framework of AITL oncogenesis. In this model, early mutations in epigenetic modifiers interact with late cooperative mutations to enable malignant transformation...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191314/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cd20-negative-b-cell-lymphomas
#17
REVIEW
Tasleem Katchi, Delong Liu
CD20 negative B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is rare and accounts for approximately 1-2% of B cell lymphomas. CD20- negative NHL is frequently associated with extranodal involvement, atypical morphology, aggressive clinical behaviour, resistance to standard chemotherapy and poor prognosis. The most common types of these include plasmablastic lymphoma, primary effusion lymphoma, large B-cell lymphoma arising from HHV8-associated multicentric Castleman's disease, and ALK+ large B cell lymphoma. This review provides an overview of the diagnostic and treatment modalities for CD20 negative B cell NHL...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191313/metastatic-biomarkers-in-synovial-sarcoma
#18
REVIEW
Rosalia de Necochea-Campion, Lee M Zuckerman, Hamid R Mirshahidi, Shahrzad Khosrowpour, Chien-Shing Chen, Saied Mirshahidi
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma (STS) that typically occurs in the extremities near a joint. Metastatic disease is common and usually occurs in the lungs and lymph nodes. Surgical management is the mainstay of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation typically used as adjuvant treatment. Although chemotherapy has a positive impact on survival, the prognosis is poor if metastatic disease occurs. The biology of sarcoma invasion and metastasis remain poorly understood. Chromosomal translocation with fusion of the SYT and SSX genes has been described and is currently used as a diagnostic marker, although the full impact of the fusion is unknown...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127430/nos1-nos3-pik3ca-and-mapk-pathways-in-skin-following-radiation-therapy
#19
Steffen Koerdt, Nadine Tanner, Niklas Rommel, Nils H Rohleder, Gesche Frohwitter, Oliver Ristow, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Marco R Kesting
BACKGROUND: Essential molecular pathways such as the MAPK pathway, NO system, or the influence of PIK3CA as an oncogene are known to regulate fundamental signalling networks. However, few knowledge about their role in the occurrence of wound healing disorders (WHD) following radiation therapy (RT) exists. This study aims to evaluate the expression profiles of specific molecular pathway marker genes. METHODS: Expression profiles of the genes encoding MAPK, NOS1, NOS3, and PIK3CA were analyzed, by RT-PCR, in specimens from patients with and without a history of RT to the head and neck...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127429/machine-learning-and-systems-genomics-approaches-for-multi-omics-data
#20
REVIEW
Eugene Lin, Hsien-Yuan Lane
In light of recent advances in biomedical computing, big data science, and precision medicine, there is a mammoth demand for establishing algorithms in machine learning and systems genomics (MLSG), together with multi-omics data, to weigh probable phenotype-genotype relationships. Software frameworks in MLSG are extensively employed to analyze hundreds of thousands of multi-omics data by high-throughput technologies. In this study, we reviewed the MLSG software frameworks and future directions with respect to multi-omics data analysis and integration...
2017: Biomarker Research
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