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Tissue Barriers

Triet M Bui, Lorraine A Mascarenhas, Ronen Sumagin
Tightly controlled communication among the various resident and recruited cells in the intestinal tissue is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis, re-establishment of the barrier function and healing responses following injury. Emerging evidence convincingly implicates extracellular vesicles (EVs) in facilitating this important cell-to-cell crosstalk by transporting bioactive effectors and genetic information in healthy tissue and disease. While many aspects of EV biology, including release mechanisms, cargo packaging, and uptake by target cells are still not completely understood, EVs contribution to cellular signaling and function is apparent...
February 2, 2018: Tissue Barriers
MaryPeace McRae, Lindsay M LaFratta, Benjamin M Nguyen, Jason J Paris, Kurt F Hauser, Daniel E Conway
A principal function of endothelial cells is the formation of a barrier between the blood and tissues.  This barrier arises from the physical connections at cell-cell junctions, which includes cytoskeletal tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Methods that alter barrier function must therefore affect these cell-cell connections. The blood brain barrier (BBB) represents perhaps the most selective endothelial barrier, which arises from endothelial cell interactions with astrocytes and pericytes. Even in non-central nervous system (CNS) endothelial cells, barrier properties can be enhanced, mimicking the BBB, through induction of intercellular junctions, by either direct co-culture with astrocytes, supplementation with astrocyte conditioned medium (ACM) and/or pharmacologic enhancement of cAMP...
February 1, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Siddhartha S Ghosh, Hongliang He, Jing Wang, Todd W Gehr, Shobha Ghosh
Curcumin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties established largely by in vitro studies. Accordingly, oral administration of curcumin beneficially modulates many diseases including diabetes, fatty-liver disease, atherosclerosis, arthritis, cancer and neurological disorders such as depression, Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. However, limited bioavailability and inability to detect curcumin in circulation or target tissues has hindered the validation of a causal role. We established curcumin-mediated decrease in the release of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into circulation by maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier function as the mechanism underlying the attenuation of metabolic diseases (diabetes, atherosclerosis, kidney disease) by curcumin supplementation precluding the need for curcumin absorption...
January 8, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Lorenza González-Mariscal, Arturo Raya-Sandino, Laura González-González, Christian Hernández-Guzmán
Tight junctions (TJs) are sites of cell-cell adhesion, constituted by a cytoplasmic plaque of molecules linked to integral proteins that form a network of strands around epithelial and endothelial cells at the uppermost portion of the lateral membrane. TJs maintain plasma membrane polarity and form channels and barriers that regulate the transit of ions and molecules through the paracellular pathway. This structure that regulates traffic between the external milieu and the organism is affected in numerous pathological conditions and constitutes an important target for therapeutic intervention...
December 11, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Emily I Bartle, Tejeshwar C Rao, Tara M Urner, Alexa L Mattheyses
Cell junctions are critical for cell adhesion and communication in epithelial tissues. It is evident that the cellular distribution, size, and architecture of cell junctions play a vital role in regulating function. These details of junction architecture have been challenging to elucidate in part due to the complexity and size of cell junctions. A major challenge in understanding these features is attaining high resolution spatial information with molecular specificity. Fluorescence microscopy allows localization of specific proteins to junctions, but with a resolution on the same scale as junction size, rendering internal protein organization unobtainable...
November 28, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Camila Zanluca, Lucia de Noronha, Claudia Nunes Duarte Dos Santos
In this review, we give an overview of aspects related to the congenital transmission of the Zika virus (ZIKV). Although we acknowledge that important advances in research on ZIKV pathogenesis have come from studies using animal models, particularly non-human primates, this review emphasizes studies using ex-vivo human cells and tissues as well as natural infections in pregnant women. The possible routes used by ZIKV to cross or breach the placental barrier and infect the fetal central nervous system are presented...
November 6, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Christina M Van Itallie, James M Anderson
Phosphorylation is a dynamic post-translational modification that can alter protein structure, localization, protein-protein interactions and stability. All of the identified tight junction transmembrane proteins can be multiply phosphorylated, but only in a few cases are the consequences of phosphorylation at specific sites well characterized. The goal of this review is to highlight some of the best understood examples of phosphorylation changes in the integral membrane tight junction proteins in the context of more general overview of the effects of phosphorylation throughout the proteome...
October 11, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Kursad Turksen
Formation of tissue barriers starts in early development where it is critical for normal cell fate selection, differentiation and organogenesis. Barrier maintenance is critical to the ongoing function of organs during adulthood and aging. Dysfunctional tissue barrier formation and function at any stage of the organismal life cycle underlies many disease states.
October 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Pratap Karki, Konstantin G Birukov
Lipid mediators play a critical role in the development and resolution of vascular endothelial barrier dysfunction caused by various pathologic interventions. The accumulation of excess lipids directly impairs endothelial cell (EC) barrier function that is known to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes as well as chronic inflammation in the vascular endothelium. Certain products of phospholipid oxidation (OxPL) such as fragmented phospholipids generated during oxidative and nitrosative stress show pro-inflammatory potential and cause endothelial barrier dysfunction...
October 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Tatiana Takiishi, Camila Ideli Morales Fenero, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is considered the largest immunological organ in the body having a central role in regulating immune homeostasis. Contrary to earlier belief, the intestinal epithelial barrier is not a static physical barrier but rather strongly interacts with the gut microbiome and cells of the immune system. This intense communication between epithelial cells, immune cells and microbiome will shape specific immune responses to antigens, balancing tolerance and effector immune functions. Recent studies indicate that composition of the gut microbiome affects immune system development and modulates immune mediators, which in turn affect the intestinal barrier...
September 6, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Conor Delaney, Matthew Campbell
The blood brain barrier is a necessity for cerebral homeostasis and response to environmental insult, thus loss in functionality with age creates opportunities for disease to arise in the aged brain. Understanding how the barrier is developed and maintained throughout the earlier years of adult life can identify key processes that may have beneficial applications in the restoration of the aged brain. With an unprecedented increasing global aged population, the prevention and treatment of age-associated disorders has become a rising healthcare priority demanding novel approaches for the development of therapeutic strategies...
September 6, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Hasan Yuksel, Ahmet Turkeli
The lungs are in direct contact with the environment through the tubular structure that constitutes the airway. Starting from the nasal orifice, the airway is exposed to foreign particles including infectious agents, allergens, and other substances that can damage the airways. Therefore, the airway must have a functional epithelial barrier both in the upper and lower airways to protect against these threats. As with the skin, it is likely that the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases is a consequence of epithelial barrier defects in these airways...
August 16, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Amanda I Baumholtz, Indra R Gupta, Aimee K Ryan
The claudin family of tetraspan transmembrane proteins is essential for tight junction formation and regulation of paracellular transport between epithelial cells. Claudins also play a role in apical-basal cell polarity, cell adhesion and link the tight junction to the actin cytoskeleton to exert effects on cell shape. The function of claudins in paracellular transport has been extensively studied through loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies in cell lines and in animal models, however, their role in morphogenesis has been less appreciated...
August 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Tiaosi Xing, Rolando Camacho Salazar, Yan-Hua Chen
The intestinal epithelial cells line the luminal surface of the entire gastrointestinal tract which is crucial for the absorption of nutrients and prevention of pathogens entering from the external environment. The epithelial barrier plays an important role in organ development, disease pathogenesis, and aging. The major component of an epithelial barrier is the single columnar epithelium and tight junctions. Tight junctions are located at the most apical region of the junctional complex and contain many integral membrane proteins, such as occludin, the claudin family, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs)...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Barriers
E Michael Danielsen, Gert H Hansen
Intestinal permeation enhancers (PEs) are agents aimed to improve oral delivery of therapeutic drugs with poor bioavailability. The main permeability barrier for oral delivery is the intestinal epithelium, and PEs act to increase the paracellular and/or transcellular passage of drugs. Transcellular passage can be achieved by cell membrane permeabilization and/or by endocytic uptake and subsequent transcytosis. One broad class of PEs is surfactants which act by inserting into the cell membrane, thereby perturbing its integrity, but little is known about how the dynamics of the membrane are affected...
July 3, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Natalya A Gloushankova, Svetlana N Rubtsova, Irina Y Zhitnyak
Adherens junctions (AJs) are molecular complexes that mediate cell-cell adhesive interactions and play pivotal roles in maintenance of tissue organization in adult organisms and at various stages of development. AJs consist of cadherin adhesion receptors, providing homophilic ligation with cadherins on adjacent cells, and members of the catenin protein family: p120, β- and α-catenin. α-catenin's linkage with the actin cytoskeleton defines the linear or punctate organization of AJs in different cell types...
July 3, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Kathryn L Pothoven, Robert P Schleimer
Mucosal epithelium maintains tissue homeostasis through many processes, including epithelial barrier function, which separates the environment from the tissue. The barrier hypothesis of type 2 inflammatory disease postulates that epithelial and epidermal barrier dysfunction, which cause inappropriate exposure to the environment, can result in allergic sensitization and development of type 2 inflammatory disease. The restoration of barrier dysfunction once it's lost, or the prevention of barrier dysfunction, have the potential to be exciting new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of type 2 inflammatory disease...
July 3, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Reitaro Tokumasu, Atsushi Tamura, Sachiko Tsukita
There are many types of biologic compartments in the body. Tight junctions (TJs) function to create a dynamic paracellular barrier to separate these compartments and maintain homeostasis. The TJ component claudin-1 is the major transmembrane protein responsible for forming the paracellular barrier in the epidermis; other claudins in the epidermis include claudin-3, -4, -12, -23 and -25. Accumulating evidence points to a relationship between claudin-1 and skin diseases; for example, a decrease in claudin-1 is reported in human atopic dermatitis...
July 3, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Carla J Ramos, David A Antonetti
Maintenance and regulation of the vascular endothelial cell junctional complex is critical for proper barrier function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the highly related blood-retinal barrier (BRB) that help maintain proper neuronal environment. Recent research has demonstrated that the junctional complex is actively maintained and can be dynamically regulated. Studies focusing on the mechanisms of barrier formation, maintenance, and barrier disruption have been of interest to understanding development of the BBB and BRB and identifying a means for therapeutic intervention for diseases ranging from brain tumors and dementia to blinding eye diseases...
July 3, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Kinga Duszyc, Guillermo A Gomez, Kate Schroder, Matthew J Sweet, Alpha S Yap
Apoptosis is a ubiquitous mode of programmed cell death that is found in healthy organs and can be stimulated by many toxic stresses. When it occurs in epithelia, apoptosis presents major challenges to tissue integrity. Apoptotic corpses can promote inflammatory and autoimmune responses if they are retained, and the cellular fragmentation that accompanies apoptosis can potentially compromise the epithelial barrier. Here we discuss 2 homeostatic mechanisms that allow epithelia to circumvent these potential risks: clearance of apoptotic corpses by professional and non-professional phagocytes and physical expulsion of apoptotic cells by apical extrusion...
June 28, 2017: Tissue Barriers
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