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Tissue Barriers

Carla J Ramos, David A Antonetti
Maintenance and regulation of the vascular endothelial cell junctional complex is critical for proper barrier function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the highly related blood-retinal barrier (BRB) that help maintain proper neuronal environment. Recent research has demonstrated that the junctional complex is actively maintained and can be dynamically regulated. Studies focusing on the mechanisms of barrier formation, maintenance, and barrier disruption have been of interest to understanding development of the BBB and BRB and identifying a means for therapeutic intervention for diseases ranging from brain tumors and dementia to blinding eye diseases...
June 9, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Ming-Fang Wu, Chen-Yi Liao, Ling-Yi Wang, Jinghua Tsai Chang
The role of Slit/Robo signaling has extended from initial axon repulsion in the developing nervous system to organ morphogenesis, cancer development and angiogenesis. Slit/Robo signaling regulates similar pathways within these processes. Slit/Robo ensures the homeostasis of the dynamic interaction between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The dysregulation of Slit/Robo signaling damages the tissue barrier, resulting in developmental abnormalities or disease. Here, we summarize how Slit/Robo controls kidney morphogenesis and describe the dual roles of Slit/Robo signaling in the regulation of tumorigenesis and angiogenesis...
June 8, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Susan J Hagen
Tight junctions form a barrier to the diffusion of apical and basolateral membrane proteins thus regulating membrane polarity. They also regulate the paracellular movement of ions and water across epithelial and endothelial cells so that functionally they constitute an important permselective barrier. Permselectivity at tight junctions is regulated by claudins, which confer anion or cation permeability, and tightness or leakiness, by forming several highly regulated pores within the apical tight junction complex...
May 19, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Evan W Weber, William A Muller
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a ubiquitously expressed multi-family group of cation channels that are critical to signaling events in many tissues. Their roles have been documented in many physiologic and pathologic conditions. Nevertheless, direct studies of their roles in maintain barrier function in endothelial and epithelia are relatively infrequent. This seems somewhat surprising considering that calcium ion concentrations are known to regulate barrier function. This short review provides an introduction to TRP channels and reviews some of the work in which investigators directly studied the role of TRP channels in endothelial permeability to electric current, solute, or leukocytes during the inflammatory response...
May 17, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Alan S L Yu
Paracellular transport of solutes and water accompanies transcellular transport across epithelial barriers and together they serve to maintain internal body composition. However, whether paracellular transport is necessary and why it evolved is unknown. In this commentary I discuss our recent studies to address this question in the proximal tubule of the kidney. Paracellular reabsorption of sodium occurs in the proximal tubule and is mediated by claudin-2. However, deletion of claudin-2 in mice does not affect whole kidney sodium excretion because it can be completely compensated by downtream transcellular transport mechanisms...
March 3, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Agnes Weth, Carsten Dippl, Yasmin Striedner, Irene Tiemann-Boege, Yana Vereshchaga, Nikola Golenhofen, Britta Bartelt-Kirbach, Werner Baumgartner
In the intestine water has to be reabsorbed from the chymus across the intestinal epithelium. The osmolarity within the lumen is subjected to high variations meaning that water transport often has to take place against osmotic gradients. It has been hypothesized that LI-cadherin is important in this process by keeping the intercellular cleft narrow facilitating the buildup of an osmotic gradient allowing water reabsorption. LI-cadherin is exceptional among the cadherin superfamily with respect to its localization along the lateral plasma membrane of epithelial cells being excluded from adherens junction...
January 24, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Derek M McKay, Adam Shute, Fernando Lopes
Approximately one-sixth of the worlds' population is infected with helminths and this class of parasite takes a major toll on domestic livestock. The majority of species of parasitic helminth that infect mammals live in the gut (the only niche for tapeworms) where they contact the hosts' epithelial cells. Here, the helminth-intestinal epithelial interface is reviewed in terms of the impact on, and regulation of epithelial barrier function, both intrinsic (epithelial permeability) and extrinsic (mucin, bacterial peptides, commensal bacteria) elements of the barrier...
January 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Thibault Allain, Christina B Amat, Jean-Paul Motta, Anna Manko, André G Buret
Understanding how intestinal enteropathogens cause acute and chronic alterations has direct animal and human health perspectives. Significant advances have been made on this field by studies focusing on the dynamic crosstalk between the intestinal protozoan parasite model Giardia duodenalis and the host intestinal mucosa. The concept of intestinal barrier function is of the highest importance in the context of many gastrointestinal diseases such as infectious enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and post-infectious gastrointestinal disorders...
January 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Mark R Gillrie, May Ho
Plasmodial species are protozoan parasites that infect erythrocytes. As such, they are in close contact with microvascular endothelium for most of the life cycle in the mammalian host. The host-parasite interactions of this stage of the infection are responsible for the clinical manifestations of the disease that range from a mild febrile illness to severe and frequently fatal syndromes such as cerebral malaria and multi-organ failure. Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most severe form of malaria, is particularly predisposed to modulating endothelial function through either direct adhesion to endothelial receptor molecules, or by releasing potent host and parasite products that can stimulate endothelial activation and/or disrupt barrier function...
January 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Emily J Jones, Tamas Korcsmaros, Simon R Carding
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous parasite and a prevalent food-borne parasitic pathogen. Infection of the host occurs principally through oral consumption of contaminated food and water with the gastrointestinal tract being the primary route for entry into the host. To promote infection, T. gondii has evolved highly specialized strategies for rapid traversal of the single cell thick intestinal epithelial barrier. Parasite transmigration via the paracellular pathway between adjacent cells enables parasite dissemination to secondary sites of infection where chronic infection of muscle and brain tissue is established...
January 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Steve Cornick, Kris Chadee
Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) is the protozoan parasite responsible for intestinal amebiasis and interacts dynamically with the host intestinal epithelium during disease pathogenesis. A multifaceted pathogenesis profile accounts for why 90% of individuals infected with Eh are largely asymptomatic. For 100 millions individuals that are infected each year, key interactions within the intestinal mucosa dictate disease susceptibility. The ability for Eh to induce amebic colitis and disseminate into extraintestinal organs depends on the parasite competing with indigenous bacteria and overcoming the mucus barrier, binding to host cells inducing their cell death, invasion through the mucosa and outsmarting the immune system...
January 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Loukia N Lili, Attila E Farkas, Christian Gerner-Smidt, Christian E Overgaard, Carlos S Moreno, Charles A Parkos, Christopher T Capaldo, Asma Nusrat
Colonic enterocytes form a rapidly renewing epithelium and barrier to luminal antigens. During renewal, coordinated expression of the claudin family of genes is vital to maintain the epithelial barrier. Disruption of this process contributes to barrier compromise and mucosal inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about the regulation of this critical aspect of epithelial cell differentiation. In order to identify claudin regulatory factors we utilized high-throughput gene microarrays and correlation analyses...
July 2016: Tissue Barriers
Valentina Volynets, Andreas Rings, Gyöngyi Bárdos, Maureen J Ostaff, Jan Wehkamp, Stephan C Bischoff
The intestinal barrier is gaining increasing attention because it is related to intestinal homeostasis and disease. Different parameters have been used in the past to assess intestinal barrier functions in experimental studies; however most of them are poorly defined in healthy mice. Here, we compared a number of barrier markers in healthy mice, established normal values and correlations. In 48 mice (24 C57BL/6J, 24 BALB/cJ background), we measured mucus thickness, and expression of mucin-2, α-defensin-1 and -4, zonula occludens-1, occludin, junctional adhesion molecule-A, claudin-1, 2 and -5...
July 2016: Tissue Barriers
Alison R Hill, Jessica E Donaldson, Cornelia Blume, Natalie Smithers, Liku Tezera, Kamran Tariq, Patrick Dennison, Hitasha Rupani, Matthew J Edwards, Peter H Howarth, Christopher Grainge, Donna E Davies, Emily J Swindle
The bronchial epithelium and underlying fibroblasts form an epithelial mesenchymal trophic unit (EMTU) which controls the airway microenvironment. We hypothesized that cell-cell communication within the EMTU propagates and amplifies the innate immune response to respiratory viral infections. EMTU co-culture models incorporating polarized (16HBE14o-) or differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and fibroblasts were challenged with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or rhinovirus. In the polarized EMTU model, dsRNA affected ionic but not macromolecular permeability or cell viability...
July 2016: Tissue Barriers
Hillary J Haws, Melissa A McNeil, Marc D H Hansen
Epithelial tissues use adherens junctions to maintain tight interactions and coordinate cellular activities. Adherens junctions are remodeled during epithelial morphogenesis, including instances of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, or EMT, wherein individual cells detach from the tissue and migrate as individual cells. EMT has been recapitulated by growth factor induction of epithelial scattering in cell culture. In culture systems, cells undergo a highly reproducible series of cell morphology changes, most notably cell spreading followed by cellular compaction and cell migration...
July 2016: Tissue Barriers
Meghali Thakre-Nighot, Anthony T Blikslager
Tight Junctions (TJ) create a paracellular barrier that is compromised when nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) injure the gastric epithelium, leading to increased permeability. However, the mechanism of NSAID-induced gastric injury is unclear. Here, we examined the effect of indomethacin on barrier function and TJ in gastric MKN-28 cells. In concentration response studies, 500 µm indomethacin induced a significant decrease in transepithelial resistance (TER; 380 vs. 220 Ω·cm(2) for control and indomethacin-treated cells respectively, p < 0...
July 2016: Tissue Barriers
Pedro J Salas, Radia Forteza, Anastasia Mashukova
As multicellular organisms evolved a family of cytoskeletal proteins, the keratins (types I and II) expressed in epithelial cells diversified in more than 20 genes in vertebrates. There is no question that keratin filaments confer mechanical stiffness to cells. However, such a number of genes can hardly be explained by evolutionary advantages in mechanical features. The use of transgenic mouse models has revealed unexpected functional relationships between keratin intermediate filaments and intracellular signaling...
July 2016: Tissue Barriers
Prashant Nighot, Thomas Ma
Autophagy is a cell survival mechanism by which bulk cytoplasmic material, including soluble macromolecules and organelles, is targeted for lysosomal degradation. The role of autophagy in diverse cellular processes such as metabolic stress, neurodegeneration, cancer, aging, immunity, and inflammatory diseases is being increasingly recognized. Epithelial cell junctions play an integral role in the cell homeostasis via physical binding, regulating paracellular pathways, integrating extracellular cues into intracellular signaling, and cell-cell communication...
July 2016: Tissue Barriers
Olga J Baker
Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen...
July 2016: Tissue Barriers
Sharof Tugizov
Oral, intestinal and genital mucosal epithelia have a barrier function to prevent paracellular penetration by viral, bacterial and other pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV can overcome these barriers by disrupting the tight and adherens junctions of mucosal epithelia. HIV-associated disruption of epithelial junctions may also facilitate paracellular penetration and dissemination of other viral pathogens. This review focuses on possible molecular mechanisms of HIV-associated disruption of mucosal epithelial junctions and its role in HIV transmission and pathogenesis of HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)...
July 2016: Tissue Barriers
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