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Tissue Barriers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913111/glial-derived-neurotrophic-factor-is-essential-for-blood-nerve-barrier-functional-recovery-in-an-experimental-murine-model-of-traumatic-peripheral-neuropathy
#1
Chaoling Dong, E Scott Helton, Ping Zhou, Xuan Ouyang, Xavier d'Anglemont de Tassigny, Alberto Pascual, José López-Barneo, Eroboghene E Ubogu
There is emerging evidence that glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent inducer of restrictive barrier function in tight junction-forming microvascular endothelium and epithelium, including the human blood-nerve barrier (BNB) in vitro. We sought to determine the role of GDNF in restoring BNB function in vivo by evaluating sciatic nerve horseradish peroxidase (HRP) permeability in tamoxifen-inducible GDNF conditional knockout (CKO) adult mice following non-transecting crush injury via electron microscopy, with appropriate wildtype (WT) and heterozygous (HET) littermate controls...
June 18, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913106/gpr40-receptor-activation-promotes-tight-junction-assembly-in-airway-epithelial-cells-via-ampk-dependent-mechanisms
#2
Aekkacha Moonwiriyakit, Panisara Wattanaphichet, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Chatchai Muanprasat
Tight junctions play key roles in the regulation of airway epithelial barrier function and promotion of tight junction integrity is beneficial to lung health. G-protein coupled receptor (GPR) 40 has been identified as a receptor of polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study aimed to investigate the function of GPR40 in regulating tight junction assembly in human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3 cells) using GW9508, a GPR40 agonist. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses showed that Calu-3 cells expressed both types of polyunsaturated fatty acid receptors including GPR40 and GPR120...
June 18, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746206/%C3%AE-t-catenin-a-developmentally-dispensable-disease-linked-member-of-the-%C3%AE-catenin-family
#3
Sergio E Chiarella, Erik E Rabin, Lorena A Ostilla, Annette S Flozak, Cara J Gottardi
α-Catenins are actin-filament binding proteins and critical subunits of the cadherin-catenin cell-cell adhesive complex. They are found in nominally-defined epithelial (E), neural (N), and testis (T) forms transcribed from three distinct genes. While most of α-catenin research has focused on the developmentally essential founding member, αE-catenin, this review discusses recent studies on αT-catenin (CTNNA3), a developmentally dispensable isoform that is emerging as relevant to cardiac, allergic and neurological diseases...
May 10, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737913/pathophysiology-of-ibd-associated-diarrhea
#4
Arivarasu N Anbazhagan, Shubha Priyamvada, Waddah A Alrefai, Pradeep K Dudeja
Inflammatory bowel diseases broadly categorized into Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract with increasing prevalence worldwide. The etiology of the disease is complex and involves a combination of genetic, environmental, immunological and gut microbial factors. Recurring and bloody diarrhea is the most prevalent and debilitating symptom in IBD. The pathogenesis of IBD-associated diarrhea is multifactorial and is essentially an outcome of mucosal damage caused by persistent inflammation resulting in dysregulated intestinal ion transport, impaired epithelial barrier function and increased accessibility of the pathogens to the intestinal mucosa...
May 8, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424657/extracellular-vesicles-regulate-immune-responses-and-cellular-function-in-intestinal-inflammation-and-repair
#5
Triet M Bui, Lorraine A Mascarenhas, Ronen Sumagin
Tightly controlled communication among the various resident and recruited cells in the intestinal tissue is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis, re-establishment of the barrier function and healing responses following injury. Emerging evidence convincingly implicates extracellular vesicles (EVs) in facilitating this important cell-to-cell crosstalk by transporting bioactive effectors and genetic information in healthy tissue and disease. While many aspects of EV biology, including release mechanisms, cargo packaging, and uptake by target cells are still not completely understood, EVs contribution to cellular signaling and function is apparent...
February 2, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420166/curcumin-mediated-regulation-of-intestinal-barrier-function-the-mechanism-underlying-its-beneficial-effects
#6
Siddhartha S Ghosh, Hongliang He, Jing Wang, Todd W Gehr, Shobha Ghosh
Curcumin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties established largely by in vitro studies. Accordingly, oral administration of curcumin beneficially modulates many diseases including diabetes, fatty-liver disease, atherosclerosis, arthritis, cancer and neurological disorders such as depression, Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. However, limited bioavailability and inability to detect curcumin in circulation or target tissues has hindered the validation of a causal role. We established curcumin-mediated decrease in the release of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into circulation by maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier function as the mechanism underlying the attenuation of metabolic diseases (diabetes, atherosclerosis, kidney disease) by curcumin supplementation precluding the need for curcumin absorption...
January 2, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420165/relationship-between-g-proteins-coupled-receptors-and-tight-junctions
#7
Lorenza González-Mariscal, Arturo Raya-Sandino, Laura González-González, Christian Hernández-Guzmán
Tight junctions (TJs) are sites of cell-cell adhesion, constituted by a cytoplasmic plaque of molecules linked to integral proteins that form a network of strands around epithelial and endothelial cells at the uppermost portion of the lateral membrane. TJs maintain plasma membrane polarity and form channels and barriers that regulate the transit of ions and molecules through the paracellular pathway. This structure that regulates traffic between the external milieu and the organism is affected in numerous pathological conditions and constitutes an important target for therapeutic intervention...
January 2, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420122/bridging-the-gap-super-resolution-microscopy-of-epithelial-cell-junctions
#8
Emily I Bartle, Tejeshwar C Rao, Tara M Urner, Alexa L Mattheyses
Cell junctions are critical for cell adhesion and communication in epithelial tissues. It is evident that the cellular distribution, size, and architecture of cell junctions play a vital role in regulating function. These details of junction architecture have been challenging to elucidate in part due to the complexity and size of cell junctions. A major challenge in understanding these features is attaining high resolution spatial information with molecular specificity. Fluorescence microscopy allows localization of specific proteins to junctions, but with a resolution on the same scale as junction size, rendering internal protein organization unobtainable...
January 2, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388870/characterization-of-cell-cell-junction-changes-associated-with-the-formation-of-a-strong-endothelial-barrier
#9
MaryPeace McRae, Lindsay M LaFratta, Benjamin M Nguyen, Jason J Paris, Kurt F Hauser, Daniel E Conway
A principal function of endothelial cells is the formation of a barrier between the blood and tissues.  This barrier arises from the physical connections at cell-cell junctions, which includes cytoskeletal tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Methods that alter barrier function must therefore affect these cell-cell connections. The blood brain barrier (BBB) represents perhaps the most selective endothelial barrier, which arises from endothelial cell interactions with astrocytes and pericytes. Even in non-central nervous system (CNS) endothelial cells, barrier properties can be enhanced, mimicking the BBB, through induction of intercellular junctions, by either direct co-culture with astrocytes, supplementation with astrocyte conditioned medium (ACM) and/or pharmacologic enhancement of cAMP...
January 2, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370577/maternal-fetal-transmission-of-the-zika-virus-an-intriguing-interplay
#10
Camila Zanluca, Lucia de Noronha, Claudia Nunes Duarte Dos Santos
In this review, we give an overview of aspects related to the congenital transmission of the Zika virus (ZIKV). Although we acknowledge that important advances in research on ZIKV pathogenesis have come from studies using animal models, particularly non-human primates, this review emphasizes studies using ex-vivo human cells and tissues as well as natural infections in pregnant women. The possible routes used by ZIKV to cross or breach the placental barrier and infect the fetal central nervous system are presented...
January 2, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083949/lipid-mediators-in-the-regulation-of-endothelial-barriers
#11
Pratap Karki, Konstantin G Birukov
Lipid mediators play a critical role in the development and resolution of vascular endothelial barrier dysfunction caused by various pathologic interventions. The accumulation of excess lipids directly impairs endothelial cell (EC) barrier function that is known to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes as well as chronic inflammation in the vascular endothelium. Certain products of phospholipid oxidation (OxPL) such as fragmented phospholipids generated during oxidative and nitrosative stress show pro-inflammatory potential and cause endothelial barrier dysfunction...
January 2, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083946/phosphorylation-of-tight-junction-transmembrane-proteins-many-sites-much-to-do
#12
Christina M Van Itallie, James M Anderson
Phosphorylation is a dynamic post-translational modification that can alter protein structure, localization, protein-protein interactions and stability. All of the identified tight junction transmembrane proteins can be multiply phosphorylated, but only in a few cases are the consequences of phosphorylation at specific sites well characterized. The goal of this review is to highlight some of the best understood examples of phosphorylation changes in the integral membrane tight junction proteins in the context of more general overview of the effects of phosphorylation throughout the proteome...
January 2, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272190/building-barriers
#13
Kursad Turksen
Formation of tissue barriers starts in early development where it is critical for normal cell fate selection, differentiation and organogenesis. Barrier maintenance is critical to the ongoing function of organs during adulthood and aging. Dysfunctional tissue barrier formation and function at any stage of the organismal life cycle underlies many disease states.
October 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956703/intestinal-barrier-and-gut-microbiota-shaping-our-immune-responses-throughout-life
#14
Tatiana Takiishi, Camila Ideli Morales Fenero, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is considered the largest immunological organ in the body having a central role in regulating immune homeostasis. Contrary to earlier belief, the intestinal epithelial barrier is not a static physical barrier but rather strongly interacts with the gut microbiome and cells of the immune system. This intense communication between epithelial cells, immune cells and microbiome will shape specific immune responses to antigens, balancing tolerance and effector immune functions. Recent studies indicate that composition of the gut microbiome affects immune system development and modulates immune mediators, which in turn affect the intestinal barrier...
October 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956691/the-blood-brain-barrier-insights-from-development-and-ageing
#15
Conor Delaney, Matthew Campbell
The blood brain barrier is a necessity for cerebral homeostasis and response to environmental insult, thus loss in functionality with age creates opportunities for disease to arise in the aged brain. Understanding how the barrier is developed and maintained throughout the earlier years of adult life can identify key processes that may have beneficial applications in the restoration of the aged brain. With an unprecedented increasing global aged population, the prevention and treatment of age-associated disorders has become a rising healthcare priority demanding novel approaches for the development of therapeutic strategies...
October 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886270/airway-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-the-pathogenesis-and-prognosis-of-respiratory-tract-diseases-in-childhood-and-adulthood
#16
Hasan Yuksel, Ahmet Turkeli
The lungs are in direct contact with the environment through the tubular structure that constitutes the airway. Starting from the nasal orifice, the airway is exposed to foreign particles including infectious agents, allergens, and other substances that can damage the airways. Therefore, the airway must have a functional epithelial barrier both in the upper and lower airways to protect against these threats. As with the skin, it is likely that the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases is a consequence of epithelial barrier defects in these airways...
October 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837393/claudins-in-morphogenesis-forming-an-epithelial-tube
#17
Amanda I Baumholtz, Indra R Gupta, Aimee K Ryan
The claudin family of tetraspan transmembrane proteins is essential for tight junction formation and regulation of paracellular transport between epithelial cells. Claudins also play a role in apical-basal cell polarity, cell adhesion and link the tight junction to the actin cytoskeleton to exert effects on cell shape. The function of claudins in paracellular transport has been extensively studied through loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies in cell lines and in animal models, however, their role in morphogenesis has been less appreciated...
October 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795875/animal-models-for-studying-epithelial-barriers-in-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-colorectal-cancer
#18
Tiaosi Xing, Rolando Camacho Salazar, Yan-Hua Chen
The intestinal epithelial cells line the luminal surface of the entire gastrointestinal tract which is crucial for the absorption of nutrients and prevention of pathogens entering from the external environment. The epithelial barrier plays an important role in organ development, disease pathogenesis, and aging. The major component of an epithelial barrier is the single columnar epithelium and tight junctions. Tight junctions are located at the most apical region of the junctional complex and contain many integral membrane proteins, such as occludin, the claudin family, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs)...
October 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686526/in-life-there-is-death-how-epithelial-tissue-barriers-are-preserved-despite-the-challenge-of-apoptosis
#19
Kinga Duszyc, Guillermo A Gomez, Kate Schroder, Matthew J Sweet, Alpha S Yap
Apoptosis is a ubiquitous mode of programmed cell death that is found in healthy organs and can be stimulated by many toxic stresses. When it occurs in epithelia, apoptosis presents major challenges to tissue integrity. Apoptotic corpses can promote inflammatory and autoimmune responses if they are retained, and the cellular fragmentation that accompanies apoptosis can potentially compromise the epithelial barrier. Here we discuss 2 homeostatic mechanisms that allow epithelia to circumvent these potential risks: clearance of apoptotic corpses by professional and non-professional phagocytes and physical expulsion of apoptotic cells by apical extrusion...
October 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686506/the-impact-of-aging-on-epithelial-barriers
#20
Alan R Parrish
The epithelium has many critical roles in homeostasis, including an essential responsibility in establishing tissue barriers. In addition to the fundamental role in separating internal from external environment, epithelial barriers maintain nutrient, fluid, electrolyte and metabolic waste balance in multiple organs. While, by definition, barrier function is conserved, the structure of the epithelium varies across organs. For example, the skin barrier is a squamous layer of cells with distinct structural features, while the lung barrier is composed of a very thin single cell to minimize diffusion space...
October 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
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