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JRSM Cardiovascular Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321294/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-altered-in-resistant-hypertension-in-sub-saharan-african-diabetes-patients-without-evidence-of-primary-hyperaldosteronism
#1
Bertille Elodie Edinga-Melenge, Vicky J Ama Moor, Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Romance Nguetse Djoumessi, Michel K Mengnjo, Jean-Claude Katte, Jean Jacques N Noubiap, Eugene Sobngwi
BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may be altered in patients with resistant hypertension. This study aimed to evaluate the relation between renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity and resistant hypertension in Cameroonian diabetes patients with resistant hypertension. METHODS: We carried out a case-control study including 19 diabetes patients with resistant hypertension and 19 diabetes patients with controlled hypertension matched to cases according to age, sex and duration of hypertension since diagnosis...
January 2017: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286646/primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-a-review-of-contemporary-guidance-and-literature
#2
REVIEW
Jack Stewart, Gavin Manmathan, Peter Wilkinson
Cardiovascular disease is a significant and ever-growing problem in the United Kingdom, accounting for nearly one-third of all deaths and leading to significant morbidity. It is also of particular and pressing interest as developing countries experience a change in lifestyle which introduces novel risk factors for cardiovascular disease, leading to a boom in cardiovascular disease risk throughout the developing world. The burden of cardiovascular disease can be ameliorated by careful risk reduction and, as such, primary prevention is an important priority for all developers of health policy...
January 2017: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228942/effects-of-renal-denervation-on-vascular-remodelling-in-patients-with-heart-failure-and-preserved-ejection-fraction-a-randomised-control-trial
#3
Hitesh C Patel, Carl Hayward, Jennifer Keegan, Peter D Gatehouse, Ronak Rajani, Rajdeep S Khattar, Raad H Mohiaddin, Stuart D Rosen, Alexander R Lyon, Carlo di Mario
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of renal denervation (RDT) on micro- and macro-vascular function in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). DESIGN: A prospective, randomised, open-controlled trial with blinded end-point analysis. SETTING: A single-centre London teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five patients with HFpEF who were recruited into the RDT-PEF trial. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Macro-vascular: 24-h ambulatory pulse pressure, aorta distensibilty (from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), aorta pulse wave velocity (CMR), augmentation index (peripheral tonometry) and renal artery blood flow indices (renal MR)...
January 2017: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228941/renal-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-mice-cardiac-morphological-and-morphometric-characterization
#4
Rogério Cirino-Silva, Fernanda V Kmit, Mayra Trentin-Sonoda, Karina K Nakama, Karine Panico, Juliana M Alvim, Thiago R Dreyer, Herculano Martinho-Silva, Marcela S Carneiro-Ramos
BACKGROUND: Tissue remodeling is usually dependent on the deposition of extracellular matrix that may result in tissue stiffness and impaired myocardium contraction. OBJECTIVES: We had previously demonstrated that renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is able to induce development of cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Therefore, we aimed to characterize renal I/R-induced cardiac hypertrophy. DESIGN: C57BL/6 J mice were subjected to 60 minutes' unilateral renal pedicle occlusion, followed by reperfusion (I/R) for 5, 8, 12 or 15 days...
January 2017: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228940/beneficial-effects-of-nonpharmacological-interventions-in-the-management-of-essential-hypertension
#5
REVIEW
Anastasios Vamvakis, Eugenia Gkaliagkousi, Areti Triantafyllou, Eleni Gavriilaki, Stella Douma
Essential hypertension is a major health problem causing excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Management of essential hypertension consists of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. In order to prevent and/or treat hypertension, parameters like nutrition, body weight, and physical exercise should be evaluated and taken under consideration for improvement. A large body of evidence clearly support that the role of salt, alcohol, fruits, and vegetables is important for high blood pressure...
January 2017: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210489/arterial-ventricular-coupling-and-parameters-of-vascular-stiffness-in-hypertensive-patients-role-of-gender
#6
Luca Faconti, Rosa Maria Bruno, Simona Buralli, Marta Barzacchi, Elisa Dal Canto, Lorenzo Ghiadoni, Stefano Taddei
OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive estimation of arterial-ventricular coupling has been extensively used for the evaluation of cardiovascular performance, however, a relative small amount of data is available regarding arterial-ventricular coupling and its components in hypertension. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between left ventricular elastance, arterial elastance, parameters of vascular stiffness and the influence of gender in a population of hypertensive individuals...
January 2017: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228939/cardiotoxicity-of-tricyclic-antidepressant-treated-by-2650-meq-sodium-bicarbonate-a-case-report
#7
Hassan Amiri, Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Shahin Shadnia
Poisoning with tricyclic antidepressants is an important cause of drug-related self-poisoning in the developed world and a very common cause of poisoning and mortality in developing countries. Electrocardiographic manifestations of most tricyclic antidepressant-poisoned patients resolve by the administration of 1-2 mEq/kg of sodium bicarbonate. Some rare cases have been reported who have been resistant to the long-term or high doses of bicarbonate administration. We present a case of acute tricyclic antidepressant toxicity referring with status epilepticus, hypotension, and refractory QRS complex widening that resolved after the intravenous administration of 2650 mEq sodium bicarbonate...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994851/prediction-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-calcification-by-means-of-variation-of-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein
#8
Emirena Garrafa, Alessio Giacomelli, Marco Ravanelli, Patrizia Dell'Era, Michele Peroni, Camilla Zanotti, Luigi Caimi, Stefano Bonardelli
OBJECTIVE: Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a major cause of death in developed countries, and thrombus and calcification of the aneurysm have been linked to increased complications. This study was conducted in order to identify the biochemical marker associated to the presence of intraluminal thrombus or calcification progression of the aneurysm. DESIGN: Several clinical laboratory parameters were measured in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms, in particular those already demonstrated to be related to the pathology, such as lipoprotein (a), white blood cell count, fibrinogen and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867500/neurological-complications-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
REVIEW
Ria Arnold, Tushar Issar, Arun V Krishnan, Bruce A Pussell
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are frequently afflicted with neurological complications. These complications can potentially affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Common neurological complications in CKD include stroke, cognitive dysfunction, encephalopathy, peripheral and autonomic neuropathies. These conditions have significant impact not only on patient morbidity but also on mortality risk through a variety of mechanisms. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of these conditions can provide insights into effective management strategies for neurological complications...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721975/association-of-glutathione-s-transferase-gstm1-and-gstt1-deletion-polymorphisms-with-obesity-and-their-relationship-with-body-mass-index-lipoprotein-and-hypertension-among-young-age-saudis
#10
Hamoud A Almoshabek, Md Mustafa, Mohammed M Al-Asmari, Tahani K Alajmi, Abdulrahman K Al-Asmari
OBJECTIVES: Persistent oxidative stress is one of the several risk factors that may be associated with the etiology of obesity. The present study is aimed to investigate association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms with obesity and their relationship with plasma lipoproteins, body mass index (BMI) and hypertension. DESIGN: The GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms were analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The lipoproteins were measured in plasma using commercially available kit and the weight, height, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures by standard procedure of measurements...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570619/the-association-between-prolongation-in-qrs-duration-and-presence-of-coronary-collateral-circulation-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#11
Zülküf Karahan, Bernas Altıntaş, Murat Uğurlu, İlyas Kaya, Berzal Uçaman, Ali Veysel Uluğ, Rojhat Altındağ, Yakup Altaş, Mehmet Şahin Adıyaman, Önder Öztürk
BACKGROUND: It is known that QRS duration is related to prognosis in acute myocardial infarction. The relation between QRS duration and coronary collateral circulation is uncertain. In the present study, we aimed to determine the relation between QRS duration and coronary collateral circulation in patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: The present study was composed of 109 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction. All patients had total occlusion in the left anterior descending coronary artery...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540482/do-arterial-stiffness-and-wave-reflection-underlie-cardiovascular-risk-in-ethnic-minorities
#12
REVIEW
Luca Faconti, Elisa Nanino, Charlotte E Mills, Kennedy J Cruickshank
Increasing evidence indicates that remarkable differences in cardiovascular risk between ethnic groups cannot be fully explained by traditional risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes or dislipidemia measured in midlife. Therefore, the underlying pathophysiology leading to this "excess risk" in ethnic minority groups is still poorly understood, and one way to address this issue is to shift the focus from "risk" to examine target organs, particularly blood vessels and their arterial properties more directly...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540481/the-effect-of-green-leafy-and-cruciferous-vegetable-intake-on-the-incidence-of-cardiovascular-disease-a-meta-analysis
#13
Richard Lee Pollock
Does the consumption of green leafy vegetables including cruciferous vegetables significantly reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease? This research question was answered via employing the statistical methods of meta-analysis by synthesizing relevant worldwide studies that address the association between the consumption of green leafy vegetables and risk of incidence of said diseases. All meta-analysis calculations included determination of effect sizes of relative risk, and their respective 95% confidence intervals, heterogeneity of the studies, relative weights for each study, and significance (p) for each study...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540480/adjunctive-intra-coronary-imaging-for-the-assessment-of-coronary-artery-disease
#14
Nikunj Shah, Bassey Ussen, Michael Mahmoudi
Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease remains a leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Invasive angiography currently remains the gold standard method of diagnosing and treating coronary disease; however, more sophisticated adjunctive interventional technologies have been developed to combat the inter and intra-observer variability frequently encountered in the assessment of lesion severity. Intravascular imaging now plays a key role in optimising percutaneous coronary interventions and provides invaluable information as part of the interventional cardiologist's diagnostic arsenal...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478589/demographic-and-socio-economic-influences-on-community-based-care-and-caregivers-of-people-with-dementia-in-china
#15
Ruoling Chen, Linda Lang, Angela Clifford, Yang Chen, Zhi Hu, Thang S Han
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a major public health challenge and China has the largest population with dementia in the world. However, dementia care and caregivers for Chinese are less investigated. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: To evaluate demographic and socio-economic influences on dementia care, management patterns and caregiver burden in a household community-dwelling-based survey, using participants' care receipts and Zarit scale. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Rural and urban communities across six provinces of China comprising 4837 residents aged ≥60 years, in whom 398 had dementia and 1312 non-dementia diseases...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298725/state-of-the-art-oral-antiplatelet-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Paul A Gurbel, Aung Myat, Jacek Kubica, Udaya S Tantry
Platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation are central to the propagation of coronary thrombosis following rupture, fissure, or erosion of an atherosclerotic plaque. This chain of deleterious events underlies the pathophysiological process leading to an acute coronary syndrome. Therefore, oral antiplatelet therapy has become the cornerstone of therapy for the management of acute coronary syndrome and the prevention of ischemic complications associated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Landmark trials have established aspirin, and the addition of clopidogrel to aspirin, as key therapeutic agents in the context of acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary intervention...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170842/a-systematic-review-of-image-segmentation-methodology-used-in-the-additive-manufacture-of-patient-specific-3d-printed-models-of-the-cardiovascular-system
#17
N Byrne, M Velasco Forte, A Tandon, I Valverde, T Hussain
BACKGROUND: Shortcomings in existing methods of image segmentation preclude the widespread adoption of patient-specific 3D printing as a routine decision-making tool in the care of those with congenital heart disease. We sought to determine the range of cardiovascular segmentation methods and how long each of these methods takes. METHODS: A systematic review of literature was undertaken. Medical imaging modality, segmentation methods, segmentation time, segmentation descriptive quality (SDQ) and segmentation software were recorded...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158481/association-of-statin-use-and-stress-induced-hyperglycemia-in-patients-with-acute-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#18
Chen Yan, Ma Qin, Yang S Juan, Li Y Tao, Gao M Dong, Zeng Zechun, Yang X Chun, Cong H Liang, Liu Yin, Meng Kang
BACKGROUND: Only a few information is available on the risk of stress hyperglycemia following acute myocardial infarction after statin use. We investigate the association of stress-induced hyperglycemia following statin use in patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: An observational analysis of 476 consecutive patients who suffered acute myocardial infarction was carried out. All selected patients were divided into diabetes mellitus and non-diabetes based on the presence or absence of diabetes...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27123238/atrial-fibrillation-and-flutter-following-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-a-retrospective-study-and-review
#19
Shyamal Premaratne, Ishani D Premaratne, Naomi D Fernando, Lashira Williams, Nahidh W Hasaniya
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Its incidence can range from 10 to 60% of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. This rhythm can result in shorter or longer intervals between beats. METHODS: Medical records of 143 patients from the Queen's Medical Center, Kuakini Medical Center, Saint Francis Medical Center, and Straub Hospital and Clinic, all of which are located in Honolulu, Hawaii were reviewed...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081484/p-wave-dispersion-what-we-know-till-now
#20
Sercan Okutucu, Kudret Aytemir, Ali Oto
P-wave dispersion is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration recorded from multiple different-surface ECG leads. It has been known that increased P-wave duration and P-wave dispersion reflect prolongation of intraatrial and interatrial conduction time and the inhomogeneous propagation of sinus impulses, which are well-known electrophysiologic characteristics in patients with atrial arrhythmias and especially paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Extensive clinical evaluation of P-wave dispersion has been performed in the assessment of the risk for atrial fibrillation in patients without apparent heart disease, in hypertensives, in patients with coronary artery disease, in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, in patients with congenital heart diseases, as well as in other groups of patients suffering from various cardiac or non-cardiac diseases...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
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