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JRSM Cardiovascular Disease

Hamoud A Almoshabek, Md Mustafa, Mohammed M Al-Asmari, Tahani K Alajmi, Abdulrahman K Al-Asmari
OBJECTIVES: Persistent oxidative stress is one of the several risk factors that may be associated with the etiology of obesity. The present study is aimed to investigate association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms with obesity and their relationship with plasma lipoproteins, body mass index (BMI) and hypertension. DESIGN: The GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms were analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The lipoproteins were measured in plasma using commercially available kit and the weight, height, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures by standard procedure of measurements...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Zülküf Karahan, Bernas Altıntaş, Murat Uğurlu, İlyas Kaya, Berzal Uçaman, Ali Veysel Uluğ, Rojhat Altındağ, Yakup Altaş, Mehmet Şahin Adıyaman, Önder Öztürk
BACKGROUND: It is known that QRS duration is related to prognosis in acute myocardial infarction. The relation between QRS duration and coronary collateral circulation is uncertain. In the present study, we aimed to determine the relation between QRS duration and coronary collateral circulation in patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: The present study was composed of 109 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction. All patients had total occlusion in the left anterior descending coronary artery...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Luca Faconti, Elisa Nanino, Charlotte E Mills, Kennedy J Cruickshank
Increasing evidence indicates that remarkable differences in cardiovascular risk between ethnic groups cannot be fully explained by traditional risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes or dislipidemia measured in midlife. Therefore, the underlying pathophysiology leading to this "excess risk" in ethnic minority groups is still poorly understood, and one way to address this issue is to shift the focus from "risk" to examine target organs, particularly blood vessels and their arterial properties more directly...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Richard Lee Pollock
Does the consumption of green leafy vegetables including cruciferous vegetables significantly reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease? This research question was answered via employing the statistical methods of meta-analysis by synthesizing relevant worldwide studies that address the association between the consumption of green leafy vegetables and risk of incidence of said diseases. All meta-analysis calculations included determination of effect sizes of relative risk, and their respective 95% confidence intervals, heterogeneity of the studies, relative weights for each study, and significance (p) for each study...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Nikunj Shah, Bassey Ussen, Michael Mahmoudi
Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease remains a leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Invasive angiography currently remains the gold standard method of diagnosing and treating coronary disease; however, more sophisticated adjunctive interventional technologies have been developed to combat the inter and intra-observer variability frequently encountered in the assessment of lesion severity. Intravascular imaging now plays a key role in optimising percutaneous coronary interventions and provides invaluable information as part of the interventional cardiologist's diagnostic arsenal...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Ruoling Chen, Linda Lang, Angela Clifford, Yang Chen, Zhi Hu, Thang S Han
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a major public health challenge and China has the largest population with dementia in the world. However, dementia care and caregivers for Chinese are less investigated. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: To evaluate demographic and socio-economic influences on dementia care, management patterns and caregiver burden in a household community-dwelling-based survey, using participants' care receipts and Zarit scale. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Rural and urban communities across six provinces of China comprising 4837 residents aged ≥60 years, in whom 398 had dementia and 1312 non-dementia diseases...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Paul A Gurbel, Aung Myat, Jacek Kubica, Udaya S Tantry
Platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation are central to the propagation of coronary thrombosis following rupture, fissure, or erosion of an atherosclerotic plaque. This chain of deleterious events underlies the pathophysiological process leading to an acute coronary syndrome. Therefore, oral antiplatelet therapy has become the cornerstone of therapy for the management of acute coronary syndrome and the prevention of ischemic complications associated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Landmark trials have established aspirin, and the addition of clopidogrel to aspirin, as key therapeutic agents in the context of acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary intervention...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
N Byrne, M Velasco Forte, A Tandon, I Valverde, T Hussain
BACKGROUND: Shortcomings in existing methods of image segmentation preclude the widespread adoption of patient-specific 3D printing as a routine decision-making tool in the care of those with congenital heart disease. We sought to determine the range of cardiovascular segmentation methods and how long each of these methods takes. METHODS: A systematic review of literature was undertaken. Medical imaging modality, segmentation methods, segmentation time, segmentation descriptive quality (SDQ) and segmentation software were recorded...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Chen Yan, Ma Qin, Yang S Juan, Li Y Tao, Gao M Dong, Zeng Zechun, Yang X Chun, Cong H Liang, Liu Yin, Meng Kang
BACKGROUND: Only a few information is available on the risk of stress hyperglycemia following acute myocardial infarction after statin use. We investigate the association of stress-induced hyperglycemia following statin use in patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: An observational analysis of 476 consecutive patients who suffered acute myocardial infarction was carried out. All selected patients were divided into diabetes mellitus and non-diabetes based on the presence or absence of diabetes...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Shyamal Premaratne, Ishani D Premaratne, Naomi D Fernando, Lashira Williams, Nahidh W Hasaniya
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Its incidence can range from 10 to 60% of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. This rhythm can result in shorter or longer intervals between beats. METHODS: Medical records of 143 patients from the Queen's Medical Center, Kuakini Medical Center, Saint Francis Medical Center, and Straub Hospital and Clinic, all of which are located in Honolulu, Hawaii were reviewed...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Sercan Okutucu, Kudret Aytemir, Ali Oto
P-wave dispersion is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration recorded from multiple different-surface ECG leads. It has been known that increased P-wave duration and P-wave dispersion reflect prolongation of intraatrial and interatrial conduction time and the inhomogeneous propagation of sinus impulses, which are well-known electrophysiologic characteristics in patients with atrial arrhythmias and especially paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Extensive clinical evaluation of P-wave dispersion has been performed in the assessment of the risk for atrial fibrillation in patients without apparent heart disease, in hypertensives, in patients with coronary artery disease, in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, in patients with congenital heart diseases, as well as in other groups of patients suffering from various cardiac or non-cardiac diseases...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Sercan Okutucu, Kudret Aytemir, Ali Oto
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is defined as myocardial hypertrophy in the absence of another cardiac or systemic disease capable of producing the magnitude of present hypertrophy. In about 70% of patients with HCM, there is left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction (LVOTO) and this is known as obstructive type of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM). Cases refractory to medical treatment have had two options either surgical septal myectomy or alcohol septal ablation (ASA) to alleviate LVOT gradient...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Thang S Han, Mike Ej Lean
The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Christopher N Floyd, Albert Ferro, Timothy D Warner
BACKGROUND: The platelet fibrinogen receptor represents the final common pathway of platelet activation, and is formed from two glycoprotein (GP) subunits (GPIIb/IIIa). Carriage of the mutant PlA2 allele of GPIIIa has been shown to confer an increased risk of cardiovascular events, but published studies have disagreed as to the mechanism for this association. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether carriage of the PlA2 allele conforms to Mendelian patterns of expression and to identify whether carriage of the mutant allele modulates platelet function...
January 2015: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Henry Fok, Benyu Jiang, Phil Chowienczyk, Brian Clapp
OBJECTIVES: Exposure to intravascular microbubbles after diving and during medical procedures alters endothelial function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a patent foramen ovale altered forearm endothelial function by facilitating microbubbles transfer. DESIGN: Patients attended on two separate visits, at least seven days apart receiving agitated saline or no active intervention in random order. On both days, flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery was measured using vascular ultrasound...
January 2015: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Umar Y Raja, Alison E Eastaugh, Mohammed S Younas, Wasim Hanif
Glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) analogues are a relatively novel medication developed primarily for the treatment of type 2 diabetes since 2005. Although GLP-1 analogues have been shown to be more effective in the first few years of diagnosis in type 2 diabetes, we report a case of a patient with longstanding insulin-dependent diabetes started on a GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide, who now has controlled blood sugars without the need of insulin.
January 2015: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Vibeke Brogaard Hansen, Helle Terkildsen Maindal
OBJECTIVES: In Denmark, the local and regional health authorities share responsibility for cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The objective was to assess effectiveness of CR across sectors coordinated by a nurse case manager (NCM). DESIGN: A one-year follow-up study. SETTING: A CR programme (GoHeart) was evaluated in a cohort at Lillebaelt Hospital Vejle, DK from 2010 to 2011. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients admitted to CR were included...
January 2014: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Jenny Berg, Peter Lindgren, Thomas Kahan, Owe Schill, Hans Persson, Magnus Edner, Märit Mejhert
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life has been shown to impact prognosis in chronic heart failure, however with limited long-term follow-up. We analysed data spanning 8-12 years to assess the impact of health-related quality of life using the Nottingham Health Profile on first hospitalisation and mortality, for cardiovascular and all causes. METHODS: We included 208 patients aged ≥60 years with New York Heart Association class II-IV and left ventricular systolic dysfunction hospitalised in Stockholm during 1996-99...
January 2014: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Samir Bipin Pancholy, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash Shantha, Nimesh Kirit Patel, Pranjal Boruah, Sukrut Nanavaty, Sindu Chandran, Arjinder Sethi, Jignesh Sheth
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we have developed an electrocardiogram-based scoring system to predict secondary pulmonary hypertension. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Single tertiary-care hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred and fifty-two consecutive patients undergoing right heart catheterization between 2006 and 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Surface electrocardiogram was assessed for R-wave in lead V1 ≥ 6mm, R-wave in V6 ≤ 3mm, S-wave in V6 ≥ 3mm, right atrial enlargement, right axis deviation and left atrial enlargement...
January 2014: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Corey R Fehnel, Alison M Ayres, Natalia S Rost
Previous studies of cocaine use and stroke have focused on acute effects of cocaine in perceived high-risk populations. We characterized mechanisms and risk factors for cocaine use among ischemic stroke patients from a broad range of socioeconomic backgrounds to inform medical management decisions and prevention efforts. We studied consecutive adults admitted with acute ischemic stroke to our institution between January 2007 and December 2010 with a history or laboratory confirmation of cocaine use. Age, sex, and race-matched cocaine-negative controls were derived from the same study population...
January 2014: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
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