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PsyCh Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718341/developmental-trajectory-of-time-perspective-from-children-to-older-adults
#1
Tao Chen, Lu-Lu Liu, Ji-Fang Cui, Xing-Jie Chen, Ya Wang
Time perspective is a fundamental dimension of the psychological time construct, with a pervasive and powerful influence on human behavior. However, the developmental trajectory of time perspective across a human lifespan remains unclear. The current study aimed to portray the developmental trajectory of all dimensions of time perspectives from children to older adults in a large sample. A total of 1,901 individuals (aged 9-84 years) completed measures of time perspective. They were then divided into five age groups: children, teenagers, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults...
October 8, 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718340/a-trend-toward-smaller-optical-angles-and-medial-ocular-distance-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-but-not-in-bipolar-and-major-depressive-disorders
#2
Yi Wang, Yi Deng, Zhi Li, Xu Li, Chen-Yuan Zhang, Zhen Jin, Ming-Xia Fan, Michael T Compton, Eric F C Cheung, Kelvin O Lim, Raymond C K Chan
Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) are subtle signs of fetal developmental abnormalities that have been considered to be among the most replicated risk markers for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. However, quantitative approaches are needed to measure craniofacial MPAs. The present study adopted an imaging-based quantitative approach to examine craniofacial MPAs across the spectrum of schizophrenia and affective disorders, to address their sensitivity and specificity. We sampled 31 patients with schizophrenia, 30 of their unaffected relatives, and 30 individuals with schizotypal personality traits, as well as 37 non-schizotypal controls...
October 8, 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667317/validation-of-the-chinese-version-of-the-anticipatory-and-consummatory-interpersonal-pleasure-scale
#3
Raymond C K Chan, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Zhi Li, Dong-Jie Xie, Diane C Gooding
Social anhedonia, the reduced capacity for social and interpersonal pleasure, often accompanies several forms of psychopathology. The goal of the present study was to validate the Chinese translation of the Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS), a promising new tool for the assessment of individual differences in social pleasure. The Chinese versions of the ACIPS, the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) were administered to 389 nonclinical adults...
September 25, 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642716/structural-neural-correlates-of-multitasking-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#4
Rui-Ting Zhang, Tian-Xiao Yang, Yi Wang, Yuxiu Sui, Jingjing Yao, Chen-Yuan Zhang, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
Multitasking refers to the ability to organize assorted tasks efficiently in a short period of time, which plays an important role in daily life. However, the structural neural correlates of multitasking performance remain unclear. The present study aimed at exploring the brain regions associated with multitasking performance using global correlation analysis. Twenty-six healthy participants first underwent structural brain scans and then performed the modified Six Element Test, which required participants to attempt six subtasks in 10 min while obeying a specific rule...
September 19, 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678483/donders-revisited-discrete-or-continuous-temporal-processing-underlying-reaction-time-distributions
#5
Yan Bao, Taoxi Yang, Xiaoxiong Lin, Ernst Pöppel
Differences of reaction times to specific stimulus configurations are used as indicators of cognitive processing stages. In this classical experimental paradigm, continuous temporal processing is implicitly assumed. Multimodal response distributions indicate, however, discrete time sampling, which is often masked by experimental conditions. Differences in reaction times reflect discrete temporal mechanisms that are pre-semantically implemented and suggested to be based on entrained neural oscillations.
September 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678482/scanning-the-world-in-three-seconds-mismatch-negativity-as-an-indicator-of-temporal-segmentation
#6
Lingyan Wang, Yan Bao, Jiyuan Zhang, Xiaoxiong Lin, Lang Yang, Ernst Pöppel, Bin Zhou
It has been shown recently that a temporal window of approximately 3 s has a modulatory effect on mismatch negativity (MMN). This special temporal window has been interpreted as representing the "subjective present," and reflecting a temporal segmentation in behavioral and cognitive functions. A more detailed look into the temporal structure of the MMN appeared to be reasonable as group data might shadow the underlying mechanisms because of too-high response variance. In this study, we tested one subject on 11 successive days at the same circadian phase using a passive auditory oddball paradigm with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) ranging from 1 s to 6 s...
September 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678481/linking-neuroimaging-signals-to-behavioral-responses-in-single-cases-challenges-and-opportunities
#7
Tilmann H Sander, Bin Zhou
Despite rapid progress both in psychology and neuroimaging, there is still a convergence gap between the results of these two scientific disciplines. This is particularly unsatisfactory, as the variability between single subjects needs to be understood both for basic science and for patient diagnostics in, for example, the field of age-related cognitive changes. Active and passive behaviors are the observables in psychology and can be studied alone or in combination with the neuroimaging approach. Various physical signatures of brain activity are the observables in neuroimaging and can be measured concurrent with behaviors...
September 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678480/seeing-without-knowing-operational-principles-along-the-early-visual-pathway
#8
Bin Zhou, Ernst Pöppel, Lingyan Wang, Taoxi Yang, Yuliya Zaytseva, Yan Bao
UNLABELLED: Single cases may lead to unexpected hypotheses in psychology. We retrospectively analyzed single case studies that suggested organizational principles along the early visual pathway, which have remained unanswered until now. FIRST CASE: In spite of the inhomogeneity of sensitivity, paradoxically the visual field on the subjective level appears to be homogeneous; constancy of brightness of supra-threshold stimuli throughout the visual field is claimed to be responsible for homogeneity; specific summation properties of retinal ganglion cells are hypothesized to guarantee this effect...
September 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329012/acute-stress-disorder-as-a-predictor-of-posttraumatic-stress-a-longitudinal-study-of-chinese-children-exposed-to-the-lushan-earthquake
#9
Peiling Zhou, Yuqing Zhang, Chuguang Wei, Zhengkui Liu, Walter Hannak
This study examined the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children who experienced the Lushan earthquake in Sichuan, China, and assessed the ability of ASD to predict PTSD. The Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS) was used to assess acute stress reaction within weeks of the trauma. The University of California at Los Angeles Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA-PTSD) for children was administered at intervals of 2, 6, and 12 months after the earthquake to 197 students who experienced the Lushan earthquake at the Longxing Middle School...
September 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293083/striatal-hypoactivation-and-cognitive-slowing-in-patients-with-partially-remitted-and-remitted-major-depression
#10
Åsa Hammar, Emanuel Neto, Leila Clemo, Gunnhild J Hjetland, Kenneth Hugdahl, Rebecca Elliott
The present pilot study investigated neuronal correlates of executive functioning in patients previously diagnosed with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the study was to examine a partially remitted and remitted MDD patient group with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a cognitive activation paradigm in order to probe aspects of response inhibition, attention shift, and working memory. Twenty MDD patients and 19 healthy controls, matched for age and sex, participated in the study...
September 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257750/the-roles-of-gender-and-personality-factors-in-vandalism-and-scrawl-graffiti-among-swedish-adolescents
#11
Anki Nordmarker, Fredrik Hjärthag, Renée Perrin-Wallqvist, Trevor Archer
A total of 360 upper secondary school students in Sweden were divided into three grouping variables: gender (male, female), vandalism (involved, not involved), and scrawl-graffiti (involved, not involved). Relevant to the discussion of whether or not scrawl-graffiti may be construed as vandalism or art, the aim of the study was to explore whether or not personality factors known to be linked to vandalism in general (such as impulsivity, affectivity, emotional disability, and optimism) are related also to involvement in scrawl-graffiti, and, furthermore, how the gender factor relates to vandalism and scrawl-graffiti, respectively...
September 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256203/applicability-of-the-international-affective-picture-system-in-chinese-older-adults-a-validation-study
#12
Xianmin Gong, Dahua Wang
The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a standardized tool widely used to induce emotions in psychological studies. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the IAPS in Chinese older adults. A sample consisting of 126 Chinese older adults (86 females; aged 67.3 ± 4.96 years; 13.2 ± 2.75 years of education) was recruited to rate valence and arousal for 942 IAPS pictures. The results showed a satisfactory reliability and validity of the IAPS among these participants. The reliability was supported by high internal consistency and low inter-individual variance of participants' ratings; the validity was supported by high similarities (in rating scores and in the distribution of the pictures in the valence-arousal affective space) and small differences (in mean ratings) between Chinese and German older adults...
June 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27168227/measuring-social-desirability-across-language-and-sex-a-comparison-of-marlowe-crowne-social-desirability-scale-factor-structures-in-english-and-mandarin-chinese-in-malaysia
#13
A Solomon Kurz, Christopher F Drescher, Eu Gene Chin, Laura R Johnson
Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country in which multiple languages are prominently spoken, including English and Mandarin Chinese. As psychological science continues to develop within Malaysia, there is a need for psychometrically sound instruments that measure psychological phenomena in multiple languages. For example, assessment tools for measuring social desirability could be a useful addition in psychological assessments and research studies in a Malaysian context. This study examined the psychometric performance of the English and Mandarin Chinese versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale when used in Malaysia...
June 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144924/the-revising-of-the-tangney-self-control-scale-for-chinese-students
#14
Alexander Unger, Chongzeng Bi, Ying-Ying Xiao, Oscar Ybarra
Recent studies have characterized self-control as a vital psychological variable that helps explain various problems. Tangney's Self-Control Scale (SCS) is a self-report measurement to assess individual differences in traits of self-control. It has gained popularity in social and psychological science research. In China, there are a few Chinese-version scales measuring general self-control, which can be applied to college students. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate: (a) the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Tangney's SCS using confirmatory factor analysis, and (b) whether higher scores on the scale correlated with positive outcomes in China...
June 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27113246/positive-affect-and-mortality-risk-in-older-adults-a-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Yujing Zhang, Buxin Han
We performed a meta-analysis on the relationship between positive affect (PA) and mortality risk in older adults (55 years and older) and reviewed evidence on the Main Effect Model and the Stress-buffering Model of PA. Four databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, APA PsycNET, PubMed, and Embase) were used to identify potential studies. Three types of effect sizes (ESs), odds ratio, relative risk, and hazard ratio (OR, RR, and HR), were calculated and analyzed within a random effects model. The analysis of the studies in which the effects of other variables were not controlled indicated that older adults with higher levels of positive affect had lower mortality risk (75%, HR = 0...
June 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26774437/gender-differences-in-trusting-strangers-role-of-the-target-s-gender
#16
Na Zhao, Jianxin Zhang
Previous findings on gender differences in the behaviors of individuals, including trusting behaviors, are inconsistent. A criticism is that these studies neglect contextual factors. The present study aims to examine how the target's gender, as a primary context factor, influences the trusting behavior of individuals in one survey and two experimental situations. Results indicate that people tend to trust strangers of the opposite gender more than those of the same gender in mixed-gender situations. Furthermore, females trust females much more than males trust males...
June 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27061642/a-fight-for-life-and-dignity-a-case-of-massive-traumatic-brain-injury-and-the-paths-for-treatment-and-neurorehabilitation
#17
Viktor M Shklovsky, Lybov I Zotova, Natalia G Malyukova, Elena D Mamicheva, Alexey G Petrushevsky, Larisa A Mayorova, Bela A Syrnikova
We present a clinical case of treatment and neurorehabilitation of a patient with severe neurological deficit due to extensive traumatic lesion of the left hemisphere of the brain. Until recently, such cases were considered incurable and remained marginalized throughout their lives. This clinical case illustrates the compensatory brain possibilities under long-term integrated multidisciplinary treatment and neurorehabilitation with mandatory application of medical, medico-psychological, medico-pedagogical, and medico-social methods, the importance and intensity of which vary at different stages of the disease...
March 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27061641/cognitive-bias-salience-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-in-relation-to-social-functioning-a-four-case-observation-study
#18
Isaac Ya Gurovich, Oleg O Papsuev, Alexander B Shmukler, Larisa G Movina, Yanina A Storozhakova, Elena M Kiryanova
Neurocognition and social cognition are the core deficits influencing social outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. These deficits are present in the prodromal phase, throughout the illness and in first-degree relatives. They are considered in the framework of neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative models as well as candidates for endophenotypes of schizophrenia. Four clinical cases with patients reflecting different cognitive profiles were chosen to demonstrate heterogeneity of cognitive biases and their influence on social function in vivo...
March 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27061640/outlining-the-psychopathology-behind-a-case-of-conversion-syndrome-is-a-holistic-approach-beneficial
#19
Francesca Falzon Aquilina, Daniel Vella Fondacaro
Conversion disorder refers to a set of symptoms where no relevant organic cause is found. These include sensory/motor disturbances, and other neurological symptoms, such as pseudoseizures. Patients with this condition may, by having it, achieve a primary or secondary gain. The condition should be diagnosed when all the relevant investigations are inconclusive. In this case, we use the bio-psycho-social model for the interpretation and guidance of treatment. We also demonstrate how a holistic approach is beneficial when it comes to a multi-dimensional interpretation of such a case...
March 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27061639/variability-of-writing-disorders-in-wernicke-s-aphasia-underperforming-different-writing-tasks-a-single-case-study
#20
Elena Kozintseva, Anatoliy Skvortsov
The aim of our study was to evolve views on writing disorders in Wernicke's agraphia by comparing group data and analysis of a single patient. We showed how a single-case study can be useful in obtaining essential results that can be hidden by averaging group data. Analysis of a single patient proved to be important for resolving contradictions of the "holistic" and "elementaristic" paradigms of psychology and for the development of theoretical knowledge with the example of a writing disorder. The implementation of a holistic approach was undertaken by presenting the tasks differing in functions in which writing had been performed since its appearance in human culture (communicative, mnestic, and regulatory)...
March 2016: PsyCh Journal
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