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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333264/how-anthropogenic-shifts-in-plant-community-composition-alter-soil-food-webs
#1
REVIEW
Paul Kardol, Jonathan R De Long
There are great concerns about the impacts of soil biodiversity loss on ecosystem functions and services such as nutrient cycling, food production, and carbon storage. A diverse community of soil organisms that together comprise a complex food web mediates such ecosystem functions and services. Recent advances have shed light on the key drivers of soil food web structure, but a conceptual integration is lacking. Here, we explore how human-induced changes in plant community composition influence soil food webs...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333263/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-infection-in-the-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipient-an-overview-of-epidemiology-management-and-prevention
#2
REVIEW
Esther Benamu, Stanley Deresinski
Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) is now one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections in the United States. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients are at increased risk of VRE colonization and infection. VRE has emerged as a major cause of bacteremia in this population, raising important clinical questions regarding the role and impact of VRE colonization and infection in HSCT outcomes as well as the optimal means of prevention and treatment. We review here the published literature and scientific advances addressing these thorny issues and provide a rational framework for their approach...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333262/recent-advances-in-the-biology-and-therapy-of-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma
#3
REVIEW
Barry Nelkin
Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a relatively uncommon yet prognostically significant thyroid cancer. Several recent advances in the biology and current or potential treatment of MTC are notable. These include a new understanding of the developmental biology of the thyroid C cell, which heretofore was thought to develop from the neural crest. RET, encoded by the most common driver gene in MTC, has been shown to be a dual function kinase, thus expanding its potential substrate repertoire. Promising new therapeutic developments are occurring; many have recently progressed to clinical development...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333261/sleep-apnea-and-its-role-in-transportation-safety
#4
REVIEW
Maria Bonsignore
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a main cause of excessive daytime sleepiness and increases the risk for driving accidents, which can be normalized by treatment with continuous positive airway pressure ventilation. Since it is estimated that OSA is not diagnosed in about 80% of cases, recognition of patients at risk for driving accidents is a problem from both medical and societal points of view. Strategies to screen and identify subjects at high risk for driving accidents are under study in order to improve safety on the road, especially for commercial drivers, who show a high prevalence of OSA...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333260/use-of-electroanalgesia-and-laser-therapies-as-alternatives-to-opioids-for-acute-and-chronic-pain-management
#5
REVIEW
Paul F White, Ofelia Loani Elvir Lazo, Lidia Galeas, Xuezhao Cao
The use of opioid analgesics for postoperative pain management has contributed to the global opioid epidemic. It was recently reported that prescription opioid analgesic use often continued after major joint replacement surgery even though patients were no longer experiencing joint pain. The use of epidural local analgesia for perioperative pain management was not found to be protective against persistent opioid use in a large cohort of opioid-naïve patients undergoing abdominal surgery. In a retrospective study involving over 390,000 outpatients more than 66 years of age who underwent minor ambulatory surgery procedures, patients receiving a prescription opioid analgesic within 7 days of discharge were 44% more likely to continue using opioids 1 year after surgery...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333259/predictors-of-outcome-in-phaeochromocytomas-and-paragangliomas
#6
REVIEW
Marlo Nicolas, Patricia Dahia
Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumours characterised by high rates of heritability and genetic heterogeneity. Despite advances in the genetic diagnosis and improved understanding of the molecular aberrations underlying these tumours, predictive markers of malignancy remain scarce, limiting the outlook of patients with metastatic PPGL. The identification of robust predictive markers remains the most pressing challenge in PPGL management, so that the potential of targeted therapy to impact patient care can be fully realised...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333258/an-rna-decay-factor-wears-a-new-coat-upf3b-modulates-translation-termination
#7
REVIEW
Zhaofeng Gao, Miles Wilkinson
Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) is a highly conserved and selective RNA turnover pathway that has been subject to intense scrutiny. NMD identifies and degrades subsets of normal RNAs, as well as abnormal mRNAs containing premature termination codons. A core factor in this pathway-UPF3B-is an adaptor protein that serves as an NMD amplifier and an NMD branch-specific factor. UPF3B is encoded by an X-linked gene that when mutated causes intellectual disability and is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia and autism...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333257/recent-advances-on-gradient-hydrogels-in-biomimetic-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#8
REVIEW
Ivana Gadjanski
Articular cartilage (AC) is a seemingly simple tissue that has only one type of constituting cell and no blood vessels and nerves. In the early days of tissue engineering, cartilage appeared to be an easy and promising target for reconstruction and this was especially motivating because of widespread AC pathologies such as osteoarthritis and frequent sports-induced injuries. However, AC has proven to be anything but simple. Recreating the varying properties of its zonal structure is a challenge that has not yet been fully answered...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333256/pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-patients-with-beta-thalassemia-an-update
#9
REVIEW
Eitan Fibach, Eliezer A Rachmilewitz
Thalassemia (thal) is an autosomal recessive, hereditary, chronic hemolytic anemia due to a partial or complete deficiency in the synthesis of α-globin chains (α-thal) or β-globin chains (β-thal) that compose the major adult hemoglobin (α 2β 2). It is caused by one or more mutations in the corresponding genes. The unpaired globin chains are unstable; they precipitate intracellularly, resulting in hemolysis, premature destruction of red blood cell [RBC] precursors in the bone marrow, and a short life-span of mature RBCs in the circulation...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333255/in-vivo-genome-editing-in-animals-using-aav-crispr-system-applications-to-translational-research-of-human-disease
#10
REVIEW
Cia-Hin Lau, Yousin Suh
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has shown promising therapeutic efficacy with a good safety profile in a wide range of animal models and human clinical trials. With the advent of clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-based genome-editing technologies, AAV provides one of the most suitable viral vectors to package, deliver, and express CRISPR components for targeted gene editing. Recent discoveries of smaller Cas9 orthologues have enabled the packaging of Cas9 nuclease and its chimeric guide RNA into a single AAV delivery vehicle for robust in vivo genome editing...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333254/better-understanding-of-childhood-asthma-towards-primary-prevention-are-we-there-yet-%C3%A2-consideration-of-pertinent-literature
#11
REVIEW
Michal Gur, Fahed Hakim, Lea Bentur
Asthma is a chronic disease, characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. The prevalence of asthma has risen dramatically over the past decade, affecting around 300,000,000 people. The etiology is multifactorial, with genetic, epigenetic, developmental and environmental factors playing a role. A complex interaction between the intrauterine environment, the developing immune system, the infant's microbiome and infectious organisms may lead to the development of allergic sensitization and asthma...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333253/the-stress-concept-in-gastroenterology-from-selye-to-today
#12
REVIEW
Sigrid Elsenbruch, Paul Enck
More than eighty years after Hans Selye (1907-1982) first developed a concept describing how different types of environmental stressors affect physiological functions and promote disease development (called the "general adaptation syndrome") in 1936, we herein review advances in theoretical, mechanistic, and clinical knowledge in stress research, especially in the area of gastroenterology, and summarize progress and future perspectives arising from an interdisciplinary psychoneurobiological framework in which genetics, epigenetics, and other advanced ( omics) technologies in the last decade continue to refine knowledge about how stress affects the brain-gut axis in health and gastrointestinal disease...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333252/recent-advances-in-pharmacological-management-of-urinary-incontinence
#13
REVIEW
Bronagh McDonnell, Lori Ann Birder
Lower urinary tract symptoms-in particular, storage disorders (for example, urinary incontinence) as well as bladder underactivity-are major health-related problems that increase with age. Yet lower urinary tract symptoms remain under-diagnosed and poorly managed, and incontinence has been cited as the major reason for institutionalization in elderly populations and is one of the most common conditions in primary care practice. Although lifestyle and behavior therapy has been used as a useful treatment regimen for urge incontinence, medications (often used as adjunct) can provide additional benefit...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333251/can-circulating-tumor-dna-be-used-for-direct-and-early-stage-cancer-detection
#14
Eleftherios P Diamandis, Clare Fiala
In the August 16th issue of Science Translational Medicine, Phallen et al propose a method for early cancer diagnosis by using circulating tumor DNA (1). One major advance of this paper includes optimized sequencing of cell-free/circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) without knowledge of tumor mutations. Evaluation of 200 patients with colorectal, breast, lung and ovarian cancer revealed mutations in ctDNA in approx. 60-70% of all patients, including stage 1 and stage 2 disease. If this data can be reproduced in asymptomatic individuals, they will likely have a major impact on early cancer detection and patient outcomes...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333250/retract-p-0-005-and-propose-using-jasp-instead
#15
Jose D Perezgonzalez, M Dolores Frías-Navarro
Seeking to address the lack of research reproducibility in science, including psychology and the life sciences, a pragmatic solution has been raised recently:  to use a stricter p < 0.005 standard for statistical significance when claiming evidence of new discoveries. Notwithstanding its potential impact, the proposal has motivated a large mass of authors to dispute it from different philosophical and methodological angles. This article reflects on the original argument and the consequent counterarguments, and concludes with a simpler and better-suited alternative that the authors of the proposal knew about and, perhaps, should have made from their Jeffresian perspective: to use a Bayes factors analysis in parallel (e...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333249/health-technology-assessment-capacity-development-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-experiences-from-the-international-units-of-hitap-and-nice
#16
Sripen Tantivess, Kalipso Chalkidou, Nattha Tritasavit, Yot Teerawattananon
Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is policy research that aims to inform priority setting and resource allocation. HTA is increasingly recognized as a useful policy tool in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where there is a substantial need for evidence to guide Universal Health Coverage policies, such as benefit coverage, quality improvement interventions and quality standards, all of which aim at improving the efficiency and equity of the healthcare system. The Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program (HITAP), Thailand, and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), UK, are national HTA organizations providing technical support to governments in LMICs to build up their priority setting capacity...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333248/out-of-pocket-health-expenditure-and-fairness-in-utilization-of-health-care-facilities-in-cambodia-in-2005-and-2010
#17
Koustuv Dalal, Olatunde Aremu, Gainel Ussatayeva, Animesh Biswas
Background: Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for health care are highly pervasive in several low-and-middle income countries. The Cambodian health system has envisaged massive repositioning of various health care financing to ensure equitable access to health care. This analysis examines catastrophic, economic, as well as fairness, impacts of OOP health care payments on households in Cambodia over time. Methods: Data from two waves of a nationally representative household survey conducted in Cambodia (CDHS Surveys 2005 and 2010) were utilized...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333247/differential-methylation-analysis-of-reduced-representation-bisulfite-sequencing-experiments-using-edger
#18
Yunshun Chen, Bhupinder Pal, Jane E Visvader, Gordon K Smyth
Studies in epigenetics have shown that DNA methylation is a key factor in regulating gene expression. Aberrant DNA methylation is often associated with DNA instability, which could lead to development of diseases such as cancer. DNA methylation typically occurs in CpG context. When located in a gene promoter, DNA methylation often acts to repress transcription and gene expression. The most commonly used technology of studying DNA methylation is bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq), which can be used to measure genomewide methylation levels on the single-nucleotide scale...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333246/easy-and-efficient-ensemble-gene-set-testing-with-egsea
#19
Monther Alhamdoosh, Charity W Law, Luyi Tian, Julie M Sheridan, Milica Ng, Matthew E Ritchie
Gene set enrichment analysis is a popular approach for prioritising the biological processes perturbed in genomic datasets. The Bioconductor project hosts over 80 software packages capable of gene set analysis. Most of these packages search for enriched signatures amongst differentially regulated genes to reveal higher level biological themes that may be missed when focusing only on evidence from individual genes. With so many different methods on offer, choosing the best algorithm and visualization approach can be challenging...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333245/the-impact-of-fresh-gas-flow-on-wash-in-wash-out-time-and-gas-consumption-for-sevoflurane-and-desflurane-comparing-two-anaesthesia-machines-a-test-lung-study
#20
Fredrik Leijonhufvud, Fredrik Jöneby, Jan G Jakobsson
Low-flow anaesthesia is considered beneficial for the patient and the environment, and it is cost reducing due to reduced anaesthetic gas consumption. An initial high-flow to saturate the circle system ( wash-in) is desirable from a clinical point of view. We measured the wash-in and wash-out times (time to saturate and to eliminate the anaesthetic agent, AA), for sevoflurane and desflurane, in a test-lung with fixed 3 MAC vaporizer setting at different fresh gas flow (FGF) and calculated the consumption of AA...
2017: F1000Research
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