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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105329/advances-in-urethral-stricture-management
#1
REVIEW
Maxx A Gallegos, Richard A Santucci
Urethral stricture/stenosis is a narrowing of the urethral lumen. These conditions greatly impact the health and quality of life of patients. Management of urethral strictures/stenosis is complex and requires careful evaluation. The treatment options for urethral stricture vary in their success rates. Urethral dilation and internal urethrotomy are the most commonly performed procedures but carry the lowest chance for long-term success (0-9%). Urethroplasty has a much higher chance of success (85-90%) and is considered the gold-standard treatment...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105328/recent-advances-in-understanding-neutrophils
#2
REVIEW
Justin F Deniset, Paul Kubes
Neutrophils have long been regarded as key effectors of the innate immune response during acute inflammation. Recent evidence has revealed a greater functional diversity for these cells than previously appreciated, expanding roles for neutrophils in adaptive immunity and chronic pathologies. In this review, we summarize some of the evolving paradigms in the neutrophil field and highlight key advances that have contributed to our understanding of neutrophil behavior and function in vivo. We examine the concept of neutrophil subsets and polarization, we discuss novel immunomodulatory roles for neutrophils in shaping the immune response, and, finally, we identify technical advances that will further enhance our ability to track the function and fate of neutrophils...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105327/agents-to-reduce-cytokine-storm
#3
REVIEW
Herwig Gerlach
The increasing insight into pathomechanisms of dysregulated host response in several inflammatory diseases led to the implementation of the term "cytokine storm" in the literature more than 20 years ago. Direct toxic effects as well as indirect immunomodulatory mechanisms during cytokine storm have been described and were the basis for the rationale to use several substances and devices in life-threatening infections and hyperinflammatory states. Clinical trials have been performed, most of them in the form of minor, investigator-initiated protocols; major clinical trials focused mostly on sepsis and septic shock...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105326/recent-advances-in-understanding-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Maria Laura Bertolaccini, Giovanni Sanna
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), also known as Hughes Syndrome, is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity in the presence of persistently positive antiphospholipid antibodies. A patient with APS must meet at least one of two clinical criteria (vascular thrombosis or complications of pregnancy) and at least one of two laboratory criteria including the persistent presence of lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), and/or anti-b2 glycoprotein I (anti-b2GPI) antibodies of IgG or IgM isotype at medium to high titres in patient's plasma...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105325/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-liposarcoma
#5
REVIEW
Nadar A Nassif, William Tseng, Camille Borges, Peter Chen, Burton Eisenberg
Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma. With its various subtypes, the natural history of this disease can vary significantly from a locally recurrent tumor to a highly malignant one carrying a poor prognosis. Progress in the understanding of the specific molecular abnormalities in liposarcoma provides greater opportunity for new treatment modalities. Although surgical resection and radiation therapy remain the keystones for the management of primary liposarcoma, the inclusion of novel agents that target known abnormalities in advanced liposarcoma enhances the potential for improved outcomes...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105324/recent-advances-in-understanding-and-managing-chordomas
#6
REVIEW
Carl Youssef, Salah Aoun, Jessica R Moreno, Carlos A Bagley
Chordomas are rare primary bone tumors arising from embryonic remnants of the notochord. They are slow-growing, locally aggressive, and destructive and typically involve the axial skeleton. Genetic studies have identified several mutations implicated in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Treatment poses a challenge given their insidious progression, degree of local invasion at presentation, and high recurrence rate. They tend to respond poorly to conventional chemotherapy and radiation. This makes radical resection the mainstay of their treatment...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105323/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-an-innate-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Cecilia Johansson
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of upper respiratory tract infection in children and adults. However, infection with this virus sometimes leads to severe lower respiratory disease and is the major cause of infant hospitalisations in the developed world. Several risk factors such as baby prematurity and congenital heart disease are known to predispose towards severe disease but previously healthy, full-term infants can also develop bronchiolitis and viral pneumonia during RSV infection. The causes of severe disease are not fully understood but may include dysregulation of the immune response to the virus, resulting in excessive recruitment and activation of innate and adaptive immune cells that can cause damage...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105322/recent-advances-in-understanding-photosynthesis
#8
REVIEW
Ulf-Ingo Flügge, Peter Westhoff, Dario Leister
Photosynthesis is central to all life on earth, providing not only oxygen but also organic compounds that are synthesized from atmospheric CO 2 and water using light energy as the driving force. The still-increasing world population poses a serious challenge to further enhance biomass production of crop plants. Crop yield is determined by various parameters, inter alia by the light energy conversion efficiency of the photosynthetic machinery. Photosynthesis can be looked at from different perspectives: (i) light reactions and carbon assimilation, (ii) leaves and canopy structure, and (ii) source-sink relationships...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105321/recent-advances-in-understanding-lynch-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Sherief Shawki, Matthew F Kalady
Colorectal cancer affects about 4.4% of the population and is a leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Approximately 10% to 20% of cases occur within a familial pattern, and Lynch syndrome is the most common hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome. Lynch syndrome is a hereditary predisposition to forming colorectal and extracolonic cancers, caused by a germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair genes. Identifying at-risk patients and making a correct diagnosis are the keys to successful screening and interventions which will decrease formation of and death from cancers...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105320/recent-advances-in-the-understanding-and-management-of-atrial-fibrillation-a-focus-on-stroke-prevention
#10
REVIEW
Farhan Shahid, Eduard Shantsila, Gregory Y H Lip
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of stroke compared with the general population. It is anticipated that by 2030 an estimated 14-17 million patients will be diagnosed with this most prevalent arrhythmia within the European Union. AF-related stroke confers a higher mortality and morbidity risk, and thus early detection and assessment for the initiation of effective stroke prevention with oral anticoagulation (OAC) is crucial. Recent guidelines point to the use of non-vitamin K antagonist OACs (NOACs) where appropriate in stroke prevention of patients with non-valvular AF...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105319/new-discoveries-in-the-molecular-landscape-of-bladder-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Roger Li, Woonyoung Choi, J E Ferguson Rd, Michael J Metcalfe, Ashish M Kamat
We are currently on the cusp of exponential growth in the understanding of the molecular landscape of bladder cancer. Emerging data regarding the mutational burden and targetable genomic and protein alterations in bladder cancer have allowed us to tap into treatments directed toward specific molecular characteristics of bladder cancer. In parallel, these developments will enable us to better select patients for existing treatments of bladder cancer in a step toward personalized therapy. The present article reviews select discoveries that have advanced our understanding of bladder cancer and gives a glimpse of the exciting opportunities on the not-so-distant horizon...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105318/validation-of-commercially-available-sphingosine-kinase-2-antibodies-for-use-in-immunoblotting-immunoprecipitation-and-immunofluorescence
#12
Heidi A Neubauer, Stuart M Pitson
Sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2) is a ubiquitously expressed lipid kinase that has important, albeit complex and poorly understood, roles in regulating cell survival and cell death. In addition to being able to promote cell cycle arrest and apoptosis under certain conditions, it has recently been shown that SK2 can promote neoplastic transformation and tumorigenesis in vivo. Therefore, well validated and reliable tools are required to study and better understand the true functions of SK2. Here, we compare two commercially available SK2 antibodies: a rabbit polyclonal antibody from Proteintech that recognizes amino acids 266-618 of human SK2a, and a rabbit polyclonal antibody from ECM Biosciences that recognizes amino acids 36-52 of human SK2a...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105317/cop-eration-for-global-food-security
#13
Erick de la Barrera
Mexico is hosting the 13th Conference of the Parts (COP-13) on the Convention on Biological Diversity. Participants will have another opportunity to "integrate biodiversity for wellbeing." Considering that food production is a major driver for the loss of biological diversity, despite the fact that ample genetic reservoirs are crucial for the persistence of agriculture in a changing world, food can be a conduit for bringing biodiversity into people's minds and government agendas. If this generation is going to "live in harmony with nature," as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets indicate, such an integration needs to be developed between the agricultural and environmental sectors throughout the world, especially as an increasingly urban civilization severs its cultural connections to food origin...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105316/canvar-a-resource-for-sharing-germline-variation-in-cancer-patients
#14
Daniel Chubb, Peter Broderick, Sara E Dobbins, Richard S Houlston
The advent of high-throughput sequencing has accelerated our ability to discover genes predisposing to disease and is transforming clinical genomic sequencing. In both contexts knowledge of the spectrum and frequency of genetic variation in the general population and in disease cohorts is vital to the interpretation of sequencing data. While population level data is becoming increasingly available from publicly accessible sources, as exemplified by The Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC), the availability of large-scale disease-specific frequency information is limited...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105315/updating-darwin-information-and-entropy-drive-the-evolution-of-life
#15
Irun R Cohen
The evolution of species, according to Darwin, is driven by struggle - by competition between variant autonomous individuals for survival of the fittest and reproductive advantage; the outcome of this struggle for survival is natural selection. The Neo-Darwinians reframed natural selection in terms of DNA: inherited genotypes directly encode expressed phenotypes; a fit phenotype means a fit genotype - thus the evolution of species is the evolution of selfish, reproducing individual genotypes.              Four general characteristics of advanced forms of life are not easily explained by this Neo-Darwinian paradigm: 1) Dependence on cooperation rather than on struggle, manifested by the microbiome, ecosystems and altruism; 2) The pursuit of diversity rather than optimal fitness, manifested by sexual reproduction; 3) Life's investment in programmed death, rather then in open-ended survival; and 4) The acceleration of complexity, despite its intrinsic fragility...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105314/recapitulating-phylogenies-using-k-mers-from-trees-to-networks
#16
Guillaume Bernard, Mark A Ragan, Cheong Xin Chan
Ernst Haeckel based his landmark Tree of Life on the supposed ontogenic recapitulation of phylogeny, i.e. that successive embryonic stages during the development of an organism re-trace the morphological forms of its ancestors over the course of evolution. Much of this idea has since been discredited. Today, phylogenies are often based on molecular sequences. A typical phylogenetic inference aims to capture and represent, in the form of a tree, the evolutionary history of a family of molecular sequences. The standard approach starts with a multiple sequence alignment, in which the sequences are arranged relative to each other in a way that maximises a measure of similarity position-by-position along their entire length...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105313/recent-advances-in-understanding-neuropathic-pain-glia-sex-differences-and-epigenetics
#17
REVIEW
Halina Machelska, Melih Ö Celik
Neuropathic pain results from diseases or trauma affecting the nervous system. This pain can be devastating and is poorly controlled. The pathophysiology is complex, and it is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms in order to identify the relevant targets for therapeutic intervention. In this article, we focus on the recent research investigating neuro-immune communication and epigenetic processes, which gain particular attention in the context of neuropathic pain. Specifically, we analyze the role of glial cells, including microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, in the modulation of the central nervous system inflammation triggered by neuropathy...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105312/yeatsam-analysis-of-the-walnut-and-chickpea-transcriptome-reveals-key-genes-undetected-by-current-annotation-tools
#18
Sandeep Chakraborty, Pedro J Martínez-García, Abhaya M Dandekar
Background: The transcriptome, a treasure trove of gene space information, remains severely under-used by current genome annotation methods.  Methods: Here, we present an annotation method in the YeATS suite (YeATSAM), based on information encoded by the transcriptome, that demonstrates artifacts of the assembler, which must be addressed to achieve proper annotation.  Results and Discussion: YeATSAM was applied to the transcriptome obtained from twenty walnut tissues and compared to MAKER-P annotation of the recently published walnut genome sequence (WGS)...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105311/survival-prognosis-and-variable-selection-a-case-study-for-metastatic-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer-patients
#19
Søren Wengel Mogensen, Anne H Petersen, Ann-Sophie Buchardt, Niels Richard Hansen
Survival prognosis is challenging, and accurate prediction of individual survival times is often very difficult. Better statistical methodology and more data can help improve the prognostic models, but it is important that methods and data usages are evaluated properly. The Prostate Cancer DREAM Challenge offered a framework for training and blinded validation of prognostic models using a large and rich dataset on patients diagnosed with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer. Using the Prostate Cancer DREAM Challenge data we investigated and compared an array of methods combining imputation techniques of missing values for prognostic variables with tree-based and lasso-based variable selection and model fitting methods...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105310/the-trialstracker-automated-ongoing-monitoring-of-failure-to-share-clinical-trial-results-by-all-major-companies-and-research-institutions
#20
Anna Powell-Smith, Ben Goldacre
Background: Failure to publish trial results is a prevalent ethical breach with a negative impact on patient care. Audit is an important tool for quality improvement. We set out to produce an online resource that automatically identifies the sponsors with the best and worst record for failing to share trial results. Methods: A tool was produced that identifies all completed trials from clinicaltrials.gov, searches for results in the clinicaltrials.gov registry and on PubMed, and presents summary statistics for each sponsor online...
2016: F1000Research
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