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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620467/recent-advances-in-understanding-lung-function-development
#1
REVIEW
Erik Melén, Stefano Guerra
Recent years have witnessed critical contributions to our understanding of the determinants and long-term implications of lung function development. In this article, we review studies that have contributed to advances in understanding lung function development and its critical importance for lung health into adult life. In particular, we have focused on early life determinants that include genetic factors, perinatal events, environmental exposures, lifestyle, infancy lower respiratory tract infections, and persistent asthma phenotypes...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620466/harnessing-the-immune-response-to-target-tumors
#2
REVIEW
Luisa Manning, John Nemunaitis
Development of "immune-based targeted therapy" in oncology has limited experience with signal pathway modulation. However, as we have become better versed in understanding immune function related to anticancer response, "hints" of specific targets associated with sensitivity and resistance have been identified with targeted immune therapy. This brief review summarizes the relationship of several targeted immune therapeutics and activity associated clinical responsiveness.
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620465/nanoparticle-based-drug-delivery-systems-what-can-they-really-do-in-vivo
#3
REVIEW
Yi-Feng Wang, Lu Liu, Xue Xue, Xing-Jie Liang
In the past few decades, there has been explosive growth in the construction of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems (NDDSs), namely nanomedicines, owing to their unique properties compared with traditional drug formulations. However, because of a variety of challenges, few nanomedicines are on sale in the market or undergoing clinical trial at present. Thus, it is essential to look back and re-evaluate what these NDDSs can really do in vivo, why nanomedicines are regarded as potential candidates for next-generation drugs, and what the future of nanomedicine is...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620464/recent-insights-on-principles-of-synaptic-protein-degradation
#4
REVIEW
Laurie D Cohen, Noam E Ziv
Maintaining synaptic integrity and function depends on the continuous removal and degradation of aged or damaged proteins. Synaptic protein degradation has received considerable attention in the context of synaptic plasticity and growing interest in relation to neurodegenerative and other disorders. Conversely, less attention has been given to constitutive, ongoing synaptic protein degradation and the roles canonical degradation pathways play in these processes. Here we briefly review recent progress on this topic and new experimental approaches which have expedited such progress and highlight several emerging principles...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620463/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-wilms-tumor
#5
REVIEW
Roberto I Lopes, Armando Lorenzo
The objective of this article is to present an overview of recent trends in the management of Wilms' tumor. With improved survival rates in the past few decades, critical long-term adverse therapy effects (such as renal insufficiency, secondary malignancies, and heart failure) and prevention measures (i.e. nephron-sparing surgery and minimizing the use of radiotherapy) have gained worldwide attention. Specific disease biomarkers that could help stratify high-risk from low-risk patients, and therefore fine-tune management, are in great demand...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620462/immunoprofiling-of-human-uterine-mast-cells-identifies-three-phenotypes-and-expression-of-er%C3%AE-and-glucocorticoid-receptor
#6
Bianca De Leo, Arantza Esnal-Zufiaurre, Frances Collins, Hilary O D Critchley, Philippa T K Saunders
Background: Human mast cells (MCs) are long-lived tissue-resident immune cells characterised by granules containing the proteases chymase and/or tryptase. Their phenotype is modulated by their tissue microenvironment. The human uterus has an outer muscular layer (the myometrium) surrounding the endometrium, both of which play an important role in supporting a pregnancy. The endometrium is a sex steroid target tissue consisting of epithelial cells (luminal, glandular) surrounded by a multicellular stroma, with the latter containing an extensive vascular compartment as well as fluctuating populations of immune cells that play an important role in regulating tissue function...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620461/the-enemies-within-regions-of-the-genome-that-are-inherently-difficult-to-replicate
#7
REVIEW
Rahul Bhowmick, Ian D Hickson
An unusual feature of many eukaryotic genomes is the presence of regions that appear intrinsically difficult to copy during the process of DNA replication. Curiously, the location of these difficult-to-replicate regions is often conserved between species, implying a valuable role in some aspect of genome organization or maintenance. The most prominent class of these regions in mammalian cells is defined as chromosome fragile sites, which acquired their name because of a propensity to form visible gaps/breaks on otherwise-condensed chromosomes in mitosis...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620460/a-putative-antiviral-role-of-plant-cytidine-deaminases
#8
Susana Martín, José M Cuevas, Ana Grande-Pérez, Santiago F Elena
BACKGROUND: A mechanism of innate antiviral immunity operating against viruses infecting mammalian cells has been described during the last decade.  Host cytidine deaminases ( e.g., APOBEC3 proteins) edit viral genomes, giving rise to hypermutated nonfunctional viruses; consequently, viral fitness is reduced through lethal mutagenesis.  By contrast, sub-lethal hypermutagenesis may contribute to virus evolvability by increasing population diversity.  To prevent genome editing, some viruses have evolved proteins that mediate APOBEC3 degradation...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620459/on-the-origin-of-nonequivalent-states-how-we-can-talk-about-preprints
#9
Cameron Neylon, Damian Pattinson, Geoffrey Bilder, Jennifer Lin
Increasingly, preprints are at the center of conversations across the research ecosystem. But disagreements remain about the role they play. Do they "count" for research assessment? Is it ok to post preprints in more than one place? In this paper, we argue that these discussions often conflate two separate issues, the history of the manuscript and the status granted it by different communities. In this paper, we propose a new model that distinguishes the characteristics of the object, its "state", from the subjective "standing" granted to it by different communities...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620458/reproducibility2020-progress-and-priorities
#10
REVIEW
Leonard P Freedman, Gautham Venugopalan, Rosann Wisman
The preclinical research process is a cycle of idea generation, experimentation, and reporting of results. The biomedical research community relies on the reproducibility of published discoveries to create new lines of research and to translate research findings into therapeutic applications. Since 2012, when scientists from Amgen reported that they were able to reproduce only 6 of 53 "landmark" preclinical studies, the biomedical research community began discussing the scale of the reproducibility problem and developing initiatives to address critical challenges...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620457/early-fruiting-in-synsepalum-dulcificum-schumach-thonn-daniell-juveniles-induced-by-water-and-inorganic-nutrient-management
#11
Dèdéou Apocalypse Tchokponhoué, Sognigbé N'Danikou, Iago Hale, Allen Van Deynze, Enoch Gbènato Achigan-Dako
Background. The miracle plant, Synsepalum dulcificum (Schumach. & Thonn.) Daniell is a native African orphan crop species that has recently received increased attention due to its promise as a sweetener and source of antioxidants in both the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, a major obstacle to the species' widespread utilization is its relatively slow growth rate and prolonged juvenile period. Method. In this study, we tested twelve treatments made up of various watering regimes and exogenous nutrient application (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, at varying dosages) on the relative survival, growth, and reproductive development of 15-months-old S...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620456/effects-of-physical-activity-on-the-link-between-pgc-1a-and-fndc5-in-muscle-circulating-%C3%AE-risin-and-ucp1-of-white-adipocytes-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#12
Petros C Dinas, Ian M Lahart, James A Timmons, Per-Arne Svensson, Yiannis Koutedakis, Andreas D Flouris, George S Metsios
Background: Exercise may activate a brown adipose-like phenotype in white adipose tissue. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the effects of physical activity on the link between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1a) and fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) in muscle, circulating Irisin and uncoupling protein one (UCP1) of white adipocytes in humans. Methods: Two databases (PubMed 1966 to 08/2016 and EMBASE 1974 to 08/2016) were searched using an appropriate algorithm...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620455/haplor-an-r-package-for-querying-web-based-annotation-tools
#13
Ilya Y Zhbannikov, Konstantin Arbeev, Anatoliy I Yashin
There exists a set of web-based tools for integration and exploring information linked to annotated genetic variants. We developed haploR, an R-package for querying such web-based genome annotation tools (currently implementing on HaploReg and RegulomeDB) and gathering information in a format suitable for downstream bioinformatic analyses. This will facilitate post-genome wide association studies streamline analysis for rapid discovery and interpretation of genetic associations.
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620454/elixir-pilot-action-marine-metagenomics-towards-a-domain-specific-set-of-sustainable-services
#14
Espen Mikal Robertsen, Hubert Denise, Alex Mitchell, Robert D Finn, Lars Ailo Bongo, Nils Peder Willassen
Metagenomics, the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples, has the potential to provide insight into the structure and function of heterogeneous microbial communities.  There has been an increased use of metagenomics to discover and understand the diverse biosynthetic capacities of marine microbes, thereby allowing them to be exploited for industrial, food, and health care products. This ELIXIR pilot action was motivated by the need to establish dedicated data resources and harmonized metagenomics pipelines for the marine domain, in order to enhance the exploration and exploitation of marine genetic resources...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620453/parallel-pathways-in-the-biosynthesis-of-aminoglycoside-antibiotics
#15
REVIEW
Yi Yu, Qi Zhang, Zixin Deng
Despite their inherent toxicity and the global spread of bacterial resistance, aminoglycosides (AGs), an old class of microbial drugs, remain a valuable component of the antibiotic arsenal. Recent studies have continued to reveal the fascinating biochemistry of AG biosynthesis and the rich potential in their pathway engineering. In particular, parallel pathways have been shown to be common and widespread in AG biosynthesis, highlighting nature's ingenuity in accessing diverse natural products from a limited set of genes...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620452/metabolic-reprogramming-during-the-trypanosoma-brucei-life-cycle
#16
REVIEW
Terry K Smith, Frédéric Bringaud, Derek P Nolan, Luisa M Figueiredo
Cellular metabolic activity is a highly complex, dynamic, regulated process that is influenced by numerous factors, including extracellular environmental signals, nutrient availability and the physiological and developmental status of the cell. The causative agent of sleeping sickness, Trypanosoma brucei, is an exclusively extracellular protozoan parasite that encounters very different extracellular environments during its life cycle within the mammalian host and tsetse fly insect vector. In order to meet these challenges, there are significant alterations in the major energetic and metabolic pathways of these highly adaptable parasites...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588765/evidence-of-disease-control-a-realistic-concept-beyond-neda-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Ana C Londoño, Carlos A Mora
Although no evidence of disease activity (NEDA) permits evaluation of response to treatment in the systematic follow-up of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), its ability to accomplish detection of surreptitious activity of disease is limited, thus being unable to prevent patients from falling into a non-reversible progressive phase of disease. A protocol of evaluation based on the use of validated biomarkers that is conducted at an early stage of disease would permit the capture of abnormal neuroimmunological phenomena and lead towards intervention with modifying therapy before tissue damage has been reached...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580136/acute-mechanical-circulatory-support-for-cardiogenic-shock-the-door-to-support-time
#18
REVIEW
Michele L Esposito, Navin K Kapur
Cardiogenic shock (CS) remains a major cause of in-hospital mortality in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. CS begins as a hemodynamic problem with impaired cardiac output leading to reduced systemic perfusion, increased residual volume within the left and right ventricles, and increased cardiac filling pressures. A critical step towards the development of future algorithms is a clear understanding of the treatment objectives for CS. In this review, we introduce the "door to support" time as an emerging target of therapy to improve outcomes associated with CS, define four key treatment objectives in the management of CS, discuss the importance of early hemodynamic assessment and appropriate selection of acute mechanical circulatory support (AMCS) devices for CS, and introduce a classification scheme that identifies subtypes of CS based on cardiac filling pressures...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580135/snp-snp-interactions-as-risk-factors-for-aggressive-prostate-cancer
#19
Venkatesh Vaidyanathan, Vijay Naidu, Nishi Karunasinghe, Anower Jabed, Radha Pallati, Gareth Marlow, Lynnette R Ferguson
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most significant male health concerns worldwide. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are becoming increasingly strong candidate biomarkers for identifying susceptibility to PCa. We identified a number of SNPs reported in genome-wide association analyses (GWAS) as risk factors for aggressive PCa in various European populations, and then defined SNP-SNP interactions, using PLINK software, with nucleic acid samples from a New Zealand cohort. We used this approach to find a gene x environment marker for aggressive PCa, as although statistically gene x environment interactions can be adjusted for, it is highly impossible in practicality, and thus must be incorporated in the search for a reliable biomarker for PCa...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580134/what-is-open-peer-review-a-systematic-review
#20
Tony Ross-Hellauer
BACKGROUND:  "Open peer review" (OPR), despite being a major pillar of Open Science, has neither a standardized definition nor an agreed schema of its features and implementations. The literature reflects this, with a myriad of overlapping and often contradictory definitions. While the term is used by some to refer to peer review where the identities of both author and reviewer are disclosed to each other, for others it signifies systems where reviewer reports are published alongside articles...
2017: F1000Research
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